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Yarn Manufacturing


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Yarn Manufacturing

  1. 1. TEXTILE Yarn Manufacturing
  2. 2. What is Textile? <ul><li>Textile refers to any material made of interlacing fibers; hence textile raw materials are those fibers capable of being converted into yarns and fabrics </li></ul>FIBER YARN FABRIC
  3. 3. FIBERS <ul><ul><li>Cellulosic fiber : Cotton, Bast fibers, Leaf fibers, Coir, Kapok </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Protein fiber : Silk, Wool, Mohair, Cashmere, Camel hair </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Synthetic fiber : Nylon, Nomex, Kevlar, Polyester, Acrylic </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Mineral and Organic fiber : Glass, Metallic fiber and Carbon fiber </li></ul></ul>
  4. 4. FIBERS <ul><li>Length : must be several hundred times the width, to gives the necessary flexibility which enables them to be spun into yarns. </li></ul><ul><li>Tenacity or strength : to withstand the stresses during spinning and weaving. </li></ul><ul><li>Elongation : specified as percentage of starting point and it is importance since textile product without elasticity would hardly be usable. </li></ul><ul><li>Uniformity : fibers should have the same length, width and flexibility to produce even yarns </li></ul>
  5. 5. YARN <ul><li>Yarn, by ASTM Standard D123, Vol 07.01 , is a generic term for a continuous strand of textile fibers, filaments or material in a form suitable for knitting, weaving or otherwise intertwining to form textile fabric. </li></ul><ul><li>Yarns can be produces in different sizes and texture, and also vary in other characteristics. Performance and end use of the fabrics are affected by these yarn characteristics. </li></ul>
  6. 6. TYPES OF YARN <ul><li>Staple or filament </li></ul><ul><li>Single or plied or cord </li></ul><ul><li>Simple or complex </li></ul>
  7. 7. DIRECTION OF YARN <ul><li>Yarns are twisted to hold the fiber together. </li></ul>S Direction Z Direction
  8. 8. YARN SIZE / NUMBER <ul><li>1) Direct System </li></ul>Weight in grams of 9000 meters of yarn Denier Tex Decitex Weight in grams of 1000 meters of yarn Weight in grams of 10000 meters of yarn 2) Indirect System Yarn count (s) Length in hank of 1 pound of yarn (weighs) 1 hank = 840 yards
  9. 9. YARN SIZE / NUMBER <ul><li>EXAMPLES: </li></ul><ul><li>9,000 meters of yarn weighs 40 grams, it is 40 denier yarns. The higher the number of denier, tex or decitex, the coarser the yarn. </li></ul><ul><li>10 hanks of cotton yarn that weight one pound, this is 10s (count) yarn. The higher the number of yarn count, the finer the yarn. </li></ul>
  11. 11. BLOWROOM <ul><li>first step of cotton yarn production </li></ul><ul><li>for opening, cleaning and dust removal, blending, and prepared for carding process. </li></ul>CARDING DRAWING ROVING RING FRAME COMBING BLOWROOM
  12. 12. CARDING <ul><li>FUNCTIONS: </li></ul><ul><li>Opening to the individual fibers. </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of impurities </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of dusk </li></ul><ul><li>Disentangling of neps </li></ul><ul><li>Elimination of short fibers </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber blending </li></ul><ul><li>Fiber orientation </li></ul><ul><li>Sliver formation </li></ul>CARDING DRAWING ROVING RING FRAME COMBING BLOWROOM
  13. 13. <ul><li>Main Parts: </li></ul><ul><li>Taker in - to open flocks out of the feed batt, to lead them to the dirt-eliminating parts under the roller and to deliver them to the main cylinder </li></ul><ul><li>Main cylinder - separate the fibers, pull them into somewhat parallel form. </li></ul><ul><li>Doffer - to take the individual fibers from the main cylinder and condense them to web form </li></ul>CARDING CARDING DRAWING ROVING RING FRAME COMBING BLOWROOM
  14. 14. DRAWING <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To improve evenness of the sliver </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To arrange fiber in parallel </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Blending </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Dust removal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Drawframe has a series of rollers (drafting arrangement) rotating at different rates of speed. </li></ul></ul>CARDING DRAWING ROVING RING FRAME COMBING BLOWROOM
  15. 15. COMBING <ul><li>to upgrade the raw material by removing the short fibers. Combed yarn is stronger, more uniform, has greater shine, smoother and purer </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate short fibers </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate remaining impurities </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Eliminate neps </li></ul></ul>CARDING DRAWING ROVING RING FRAME COMBING BLOWROOM
  16. 16. ROVING <ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><li>The attenuation of the sliver. </li></ul><ul><li>Impart protective twist in order to increase the strength of slivers. </li></ul><ul><li>Winding of the roving into a package that can be transported, stored and used on the ring spinning. </li></ul>CARDING DRAWING ROVING RING FRAME COMBING BLOWROOM
  17. 17. SPINNING <ul><li>final step on producing yarn </li></ul><ul><li>Functions: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Attenuate the roving until required fineness is achieved </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To impact strength to the fiber strand by twisting it </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>To wind up the resulting yarn in a suitable for storage, transportation and further processing </li></ul></ul>CARDING DRAWING ROVING RING FRAME COMBING BLOWROOM
  18. 18. SPINNING Front zone draft Middle zone draft Back zone draft