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Renewable energy accounts for 9.5 percent of Estonia’s total installed electricity capacity. Estonia has beneficial
conditions for the exploitation of renewable energy sources, particularly for wind and biomass.The country sup-
ports renewable energies through a feed-in premium. Wind, high-efficient combined heat and power biomass,
biogas, hydro, solar and geothermal plants are eligible to receive the premium, which is granted for 12 years.
There are no output caps, other than for wind power plants.When a threshold of 600 GW-h of annually produced
electricity is reached, the premium for wind power plants is discontinued. Wind plant operators can only receive
the premium if they do not receive any other subsidy from the state for the same plant. Only high efficiency
combined heat and power biomass plants are eligible for the premium. In theWorld Bank’s Ease of Ding Business
indicator, Estonia is well placed in 22nd
position (IFC & World Bank, 2014).
Estonia
General Country
Information
Population: 1,339,396
Surface Area: 45,230 km²
Capital City: Tallinn
GDP (2012): $ 21.9 billion
GDP Per Capita (2012): $ 16,316
WB Ease of Doing Business: 22
Source: WWEA (2013); EurObserv’Er (2013); ESHA (2013); Renewable Facts (2013); INFORSE-Europe (2011); World Bank (2014);
EC (2013), EIA (2013); Hoogwijk and Graus (2008); Hoogwijk (2004); JRC (2011); and UNDP calculations.
R E N E W A B L E E N E R G Y S N A P S H O T :
Key information about renewable energy in Estonia
Empowered lives.
Resilient nations.
9.5%
RE Share
2,908 MW
Total Installed Capacity
Biomass Solar PV Wind Small Hydro
0 < 1 269 7
2,900 40,500 3,400 40
276 MW
Installed RE Capacity
Electricity Generating
Capacity 2012
Installed Renewable Electricity
Capacity 2012 in MW
Technical Potential for Installed
Renewable Electricity Capacity in MW
According to EU Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy, Estonia developed a National Renewable Energy
Action Plan. The plan targets a national binding share of 25 percent renewable energy in gross final energy con-
sumption by 2020 (Republic of Estonia, 2010). Renewable energy producers are not given priority in grid access
and plant operators bear the grid connection costs. However, for selected technologies other incentives exist in
the form of direct investment support from the state. Combined heat and power plants with project costs of
more than €50 million can receive up to €3.5 million in grants from European Union Structural Funds for invest-
ment and grid connection. Farmers can be eligible to receive up to 60 percent, to a maximum of €512,000, from
the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development for investment costs in biomass plants or energy culture
growth. Wind energy producers are eligible to receive up to €20 million in a round-based allocation of govern-
ment funds from the green investment scheme for their investment costs (ResLegal, 2013).
Legislation and policy
R E N E W A B L E E N E R G Y S N A P S H O T :
Source: Electricity Market Act (2013)
Eligible technologies
Premium in
€/MW-h
Wind Biomass Hydro Solar Geothermal
53.7
Feed-in premium in Estonia
Institutions
Organization Responsibility Website
Ministry of Economic
Affairs and Communication
- Elaborates and implements the state’s economic pol-
icy and economic development plans for energy
www.mkm.ee/en
Foreign Financing
Department
- Manages, prepares and assesses the use of EU grants
for the environment sector
www.envir.ee/67255
Estonian Competition
Authority
- Approves prices for electricity
- Approves methodologies for connecting with elec-
tricity
- Issues and revokes activity licences for the produc-
tion and sale of electricity
www.konkurentsiamet.ee/?lang=en
Elering - Manages and operates the grid
- Responsible for paying premium which will ulti-
mately be transferred from the network operators to
the end customer
www.elering.ee/
Investment
and Trade Agency
- State Investment Agency responsible for attracting
and consulting with foreign investors
www.investinestonia.com/
Estonia
Opportunities to finance renewable energy projects in Estonia
Financing organization Details Website
Environmental Investment
Centre
Supports investments for wind energy or combined
heat and power projects with capital from CO2 quota
sales.
www.kik.ee/en
Rural Development
Foundation
Offers loans and guarantees to projects investing in
rural economic development.
www.mes.ee/en
EU Structural Funds The European Regional Development Fund, the Euro-
pean Social Fund, and the Cohesion Fund are struc-
tural funds which support also projects enhancing
environmental protection.
www.struktuurifondid.ee/
European Investment
Fund (EIF)
Gives loans only (no grants) to small and medium en-
terprises that:
- have fewer than 250 employees
- have a turnover of less than €50m and/or a balance
sheet total of less than €43m
www.access2finance.eu/en/Estonia/what_
is_available.htm
European Bank
for Reconstruction
and Development (EBRD)
Provides renewable energy developers with equity,
loans and loan guarantees for projects with good
commercial prospects of up to 15 years’duration.
www.ebrd.com/pages/workingwithus/pro
jects.shtml
Enterprise Estonia Provides financial assistance (guarantees and loans)
and advice for start-ups using capital from EU struc-
tural funds.
www.eas.ee/et
Kredex State-owned credit institute issuing loans and grants. www.kredex.ee/
Recent projects
Company Project Status
Intercom Energy
(Finland)
Commissioned wind farm Viru-Nigula, with 24 MW
total power capacity.
Commissioned
Metso
(Finland)
Constructs a combined heat and power plant with
15MW heat capacity and 6.4 MW electricity capacity
in Oü Helme.
Under construction
Estonia
References
EurObserv’Er, 2013:The state of Renewable Energies in
Europe, Edition 2012. Available at:
www.energies-renouvelables.org/observ-er/stat_
baro/barobilan/barobilan12.pdf
European Commission (EC), 2013: EU Energy in Figures -
Statistical Pocket Book 2013. Available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/energy/publications/doc/2013
_pocketbook.pdf
European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA), 2013:
HYDI Database. Available at:
http://streammap.esha.be/
Hoogwijk, M., 2004: On the global and regional
potential of renewable energy sources. Utrecht:
Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Scheikunde. Dissertation.
Available at:
http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl /dissertations/2004-
0309-123617/full.pdf
Hoogwiijk, M. andW. Graus, 2008: Global Potential of
Renewable Energy Sources: A Literature Assessment.
Available at: www.ecofys.com/files/files/report_
global_potential_of_renewable_energy_sources_a
_literature_assessment.pdf
INFORSE-Europe, 2011: Sustainable EnergyVision for
Estonia – A path to make Estonia energy independent
and sustainable by 2050. Available at:
www.inforse.org/europe/pdfs/Estonia-note.pdf
International Finance Corporation (IFC) andWorld Bank,
2014: Doing Business – Measuring Business
Regulations. Available at:
www.doingbusiness.org
/data/exploreeconomies/estonia/
Joint Research Centre of the European Commission
(JRC), 2011:Technical Assessment of the Renewable
Energy Action Plans. Available at:
http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/downloads/jrc_reference
_report_2011_reap.pdf
Renewable energy policy database and support
(ResLegal), 2013: An initiative of the European
Commission – Estonia. Available at: www.res-legal.eu
Renewable Facts, 2013: Estonia. Available at:
www.renewablefacts.com/country/estonia
Republic of Estonia, 2010: National Renewable Energy
Action Plan. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/energy
/renewables/action_plan_en.htm
Republic of Estonia, 2013: Electricity Market Act.
Available at:
www.legaltext.ee/et/andmebaas/tekst.asp?loc=text&d
ok=X60045K9&keel=en&pg=1&ptyyp=RT&tyyp=X&qu
ery=elektrituruseadus 
U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2013:
Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the
Annual Energy Outlook 2013. Available at:
www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/electricity_generation.cfm
World Bank, 2014: Data Catalog. Available at:
http://datacatalog.worldbank.org/
WorldWind Energy Association (WWEA), 2013: 2012
Annual Report. Available at: www.wwindea.org/
webimages/WorldWindEnergyReport2012_final.pdf

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Estonia

  • 1. Renewable energy accounts for 9.5 percent of Estonia’s total installed electricity capacity. Estonia has beneficial conditions for the exploitation of renewable energy sources, particularly for wind and biomass.The country sup- ports renewable energies through a feed-in premium. Wind, high-efficient combined heat and power biomass, biogas, hydro, solar and geothermal plants are eligible to receive the premium, which is granted for 12 years. There are no output caps, other than for wind power plants.When a threshold of 600 GW-h of annually produced electricity is reached, the premium for wind power plants is discontinued. Wind plant operators can only receive the premium if they do not receive any other subsidy from the state for the same plant. Only high efficiency combined heat and power biomass plants are eligible for the premium. In theWorld Bank’s Ease of Ding Business indicator, Estonia is well placed in 22nd position (IFC & World Bank, 2014). Estonia General Country Information Population: 1,339,396 Surface Area: 45,230 km² Capital City: Tallinn GDP (2012): $ 21.9 billion GDP Per Capita (2012): $ 16,316 WB Ease of Doing Business: 22 Source: WWEA (2013); EurObserv’Er (2013); ESHA (2013); Renewable Facts (2013); INFORSE-Europe (2011); World Bank (2014); EC (2013), EIA (2013); Hoogwijk and Graus (2008); Hoogwijk (2004); JRC (2011); and UNDP calculations. R E N E W A B L E E N E R G Y S N A P S H O T : Key information about renewable energy in Estonia Empowered lives. Resilient nations. 9.5% RE Share 2,908 MW Total Installed Capacity Biomass Solar PV Wind Small Hydro 0 < 1 269 7 2,900 40,500 3,400 40 276 MW Installed RE Capacity Electricity Generating Capacity 2012 Installed Renewable Electricity Capacity 2012 in MW Technical Potential for Installed Renewable Electricity Capacity in MW
  • 2. According to EU Directive 2009/28/EC on Renewable Energy, Estonia developed a National Renewable Energy Action Plan. The plan targets a national binding share of 25 percent renewable energy in gross final energy con- sumption by 2020 (Republic of Estonia, 2010). Renewable energy producers are not given priority in grid access and plant operators bear the grid connection costs. However, for selected technologies other incentives exist in the form of direct investment support from the state. Combined heat and power plants with project costs of more than €50 million can receive up to €3.5 million in grants from European Union Structural Funds for invest- ment and grid connection. Farmers can be eligible to receive up to 60 percent, to a maximum of €512,000, from the European Agricultural Fund for Rural Development for investment costs in biomass plants or energy culture growth. Wind energy producers are eligible to receive up to €20 million in a round-based allocation of govern- ment funds from the green investment scheme for their investment costs (ResLegal, 2013). Legislation and policy R E N E W A B L E E N E R G Y S N A P S H O T : Source: Electricity Market Act (2013) Eligible technologies Premium in €/MW-h Wind Biomass Hydro Solar Geothermal 53.7 Feed-in premium in Estonia Institutions Organization Responsibility Website Ministry of Economic Affairs and Communication - Elaborates and implements the state’s economic pol- icy and economic development plans for energy www.mkm.ee/en Foreign Financing Department - Manages, prepares and assesses the use of EU grants for the environment sector www.envir.ee/67255 Estonian Competition Authority - Approves prices for electricity - Approves methodologies for connecting with elec- tricity - Issues and revokes activity licences for the produc- tion and sale of electricity www.konkurentsiamet.ee/?lang=en Elering - Manages and operates the grid - Responsible for paying premium which will ulti- mately be transferred from the network operators to the end customer www.elering.ee/ Investment and Trade Agency - State Investment Agency responsible for attracting and consulting with foreign investors www.investinestonia.com/
  • 3. Estonia Opportunities to finance renewable energy projects in Estonia Financing organization Details Website Environmental Investment Centre Supports investments for wind energy or combined heat and power projects with capital from CO2 quota sales. www.kik.ee/en Rural Development Foundation Offers loans and guarantees to projects investing in rural economic development. www.mes.ee/en EU Structural Funds The European Regional Development Fund, the Euro- pean Social Fund, and the Cohesion Fund are struc- tural funds which support also projects enhancing environmental protection. www.struktuurifondid.ee/ European Investment Fund (EIF) Gives loans only (no grants) to small and medium en- terprises that: - have fewer than 250 employees - have a turnover of less than €50m and/or a balance sheet total of less than €43m www.access2finance.eu/en/Estonia/what_ is_available.htm European Bank for Reconstruction and Development (EBRD) Provides renewable energy developers with equity, loans and loan guarantees for projects with good commercial prospects of up to 15 years’duration. www.ebrd.com/pages/workingwithus/pro jects.shtml Enterprise Estonia Provides financial assistance (guarantees and loans) and advice for start-ups using capital from EU struc- tural funds. www.eas.ee/et Kredex State-owned credit institute issuing loans and grants. www.kredex.ee/ Recent projects Company Project Status Intercom Energy (Finland) Commissioned wind farm Viru-Nigula, with 24 MW total power capacity. Commissioned Metso (Finland) Constructs a combined heat and power plant with 15MW heat capacity and 6.4 MW electricity capacity in Oü Helme. Under construction
  • 4. Estonia References EurObserv’Er, 2013:The state of Renewable Energies in Europe, Edition 2012. Available at: www.energies-renouvelables.org/observ-er/stat_ baro/barobilan/barobilan12.pdf European Commission (EC), 2013: EU Energy in Figures - Statistical Pocket Book 2013. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/energy/publications/doc/2013 _pocketbook.pdf European Small Hydropower Association (ESHA), 2013: HYDI Database. Available at: http://streammap.esha.be/ Hoogwijk, M., 2004: On the global and regional potential of renewable energy sources. Utrecht: Universiteit Utrecht, Faculteit Scheikunde. Dissertation. Available at: http://igitur-archive.library.uu.nl /dissertations/2004- 0309-123617/full.pdf Hoogwiijk, M. andW. Graus, 2008: Global Potential of Renewable Energy Sources: A Literature Assessment. Available at: www.ecofys.com/files/files/report_ global_potential_of_renewable_energy_sources_a _literature_assessment.pdf INFORSE-Europe, 2011: Sustainable EnergyVision for Estonia – A path to make Estonia energy independent and sustainable by 2050. Available at: www.inforse.org/europe/pdfs/Estonia-note.pdf International Finance Corporation (IFC) andWorld Bank, 2014: Doing Business – Measuring Business Regulations. Available at: www.doingbusiness.org /data/exploreeconomies/estonia/ Joint Research Centre of the European Commission (JRC), 2011:Technical Assessment of the Renewable Energy Action Plans. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/dgs/jrc/downloads/jrc_reference _report_2011_reap.pdf Renewable energy policy database and support (ResLegal), 2013: An initiative of the European Commission – Estonia. Available at: www.res-legal.eu Renewable Facts, 2013: Estonia. Available at: www.renewablefacts.com/country/estonia Republic of Estonia, 2010: National Renewable Energy Action Plan. Available at: http://ec.europa.eu/energy /renewables/action_plan_en.htm Republic of Estonia, 2013: Electricity Market Act. Available at: www.legaltext.ee/et/andmebaas/tekst.asp?loc=text&d ok=X60045K9&keel=en&pg=1&ptyyp=RT&tyyp=X&qu ery=elektrituruseadus  U.S. Energy Information Administration (EIA), 2013: Levelized Cost of New Generation Resources in the Annual Energy Outlook 2013. Available at: www.eia.gov/forecasts/aeo/electricity_generation.cfm World Bank, 2014: Data Catalog. Available at: http://datacatalog.worldbank.org/ WorldWind Energy Association (WWEA), 2013: 2012 Annual Report. Available at: www.wwindea.org/ webimages/WorldWindEnergyReport2012_final.pdf