SlideShare a Scribd company logo
EMPLOYEE AUTONOMY AND THE
WITHIN-FIRM GENDER WAGE GAP:
THE CASE OF TRUST-BASED WORK TIME
2019 GFP Annual Conference - Sydney, Australia
Steffen Viete
21 June, 2019
BACKGROUND
2
 Technological change requires complementary investments in organizational
practices to affect firm performance (e.g. Bresnahan et al., 2002, Brynjolfsson et al., 2018)
 Information technology (IT) is becoming mobile and detached from location 
dissolving the temporal and spatial boundaries of work (e.g. Kossek and Michel, 2010)
 This facilitates new organizational practices which allow employees to decide
where and when to engage in work-related tasks
 There is evidence that firms enjoy higher returns from using mobile IT when
they provide workplace flexibility through formal work policies (Viete & Erdsiek, 2018)
BACKGROUND
WORKPLACE FLEXIBILITY IS WIDELY EXPECTED TO FOSTER
GENDER EQUALITY IN THE LABOR MARKET
3
Academia (e.g. Goldin, 2014 AER)
 Disproportionate reward for
working long and particular hours in
many occupations
 Women‘s social roles still associated
with higher non-work obligations
 Change in the structure of work
"must involve a reduction in the
dependence of remuneration on
particular segments of time"
Public Debate
THIS PAPER
4
Research question:
 What is the effect of the successful provision of maximum autonomy over the
structure of the workday on the gender wage gap (GWG) within the firm?
Effect is ambiguous from a theoretical perspective:
 Negative, if dependence of remuneration on working particular segments of
time is reduced (Goldin, 2014)
 Positive, if it results in higher compensating wage differentials for women
(Rosen, 1986)
TRUST-BASED WORK TIME (TBW)
5
 Variants of TBW first appeared in Germany during the 1990s
 Defining features:
• Abandonment of formal record of working hours
• Employee is merely evaluated by work output
• Delegation of autonomy to decide start- and endpoint, continuity and
duration of the workday
• Reduces the value placed on working specific hours and on the continuity of
work
 Working arrangement with the highest degree of formal employee
autonomy in Germany (e.g. Wingen, 2004)
TRUST-BASED WORK TIME (TBW)
EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE
6
 Beckmann et al. (2017, JEBO): TBW increases effort via intrinsic motivation
 Godart et al. (2017, ILR): TBW adoption associated with higher innovation
Source: IAB Establishment Panel, own calculations.
7
DATA
LINKED EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE DATA - LIAB
 IAB Establishment Panel
• Yearly representative business survey
• Ca. 19,000 establishments in Germany
• Since 2004 biannual question whether or not TBW is implemented
 Employee Data (Employment History – BeH)
• German Employment Statistics Register based on individual employees‘
social insurance records
• Contains basic characteristics, e.g. gender, age, qualifications
• Gross daily earnings including overtime premiums and allowances
8
DATA
OUTCOME: OBSERVED WITHIN-FIRM GENDER WAGE GAP
Average log differences of gross earnings 𝑤𝑤 between individuals 𝑖𝑖 of different
gender within each firm 𝑗𝑗 :
Average observed intra-firm GWG in LIAB
Data 2004-2012
Observed intra-firm GWG in LIAB Data -
Distribution in 2008
9
METHODOLOGY
SAMPLE SELECTION
 Research Design: ‘Treatment’ Methodology (e.g. Görg et al., 2016; Huber et al., 2016)
• Effect of introducing TBW between wave 2006 and 2008
• Retain all firms which did not use TBW in pre-treatment periods (2004-2006)
• Comparison of the within-firm GWG between adopter and non-adopter
Treatment:
Adoption of TBW
Control:
No adoption of TBW
pre-treatment post-treatment
2004 2006 2008 2010
adoption
10
METHODOLOGY
SELECTION ISSUES
1. Non-random adoption of TBW by firms
 Firms selectively rather than randomly introduce TBW
→ e.g. well-performing firms can afford to offer the amenity of TBW as well as
promote gender equality
 Only compare ‘twin’ firms, which are observationally equivalent (Conditional
Difference-in-Differences, e.g. Heckman et al., 1998)
2. Non-random selection of individuals into firms w/o TBW
 Women have higher preferences for workplace flexibility (Mas and Pallais, 2017)
→ more able women might select into firms with TBW in place
 Compute outcome from individuals who were employed prior to the adoption of
TBW (e.g. Huber et al., 2016)
RESULTS
EFFECT ON THE WITHIN-FIRM GWG
11
 Negative effect on the raw intra-firm GWG over three years after the adoption
(Panel A)
 Result holds with slightly smaller magnitude among employees with pre-
adoption tenure (Panel B)
Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE) with 90% confidence bands. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
RESULTS
EFFECT ON WAGE LEVELS OF INCUMBENT EMPLOYEES
12
 Reduction in GWG driven by absolute wage gains of women
Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE) with 90% confidence bands. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
RESULTS
EFFECT ON THE SHARE OF MALE EMPLOYEES
13
 No significant effect on the gender composition of employees
Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE) with 90% confidence bands. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
POTENTIAL CHANNELS
14
1. Adjustments in the labor input (working time) within the same job
• Greater ability to structure the workday → facilitates adjustment of
(contractual) working hours
 Estimate effect on the share of women in part-time contracts
2. Changes in the types of tasks and jobs performed
• Higher independence and autonomy under TBW might enable individuals
to perform different tasks
 Estimate effect on share of women in positions with different job
requirements (based on KldB 2010)
POTENTIAL CHANNELS
SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF THE CURRENT JOB
15
 Distinguishes four requirement levels
 Intended to reflect the degree of complexity of an occupation
Requirement level Example within same occupation
1: Unskilled or semi-skilled activities Health and nursing care helper  81301
2: Specialist activities Nurse  81302
3: Complex specialist activities Specialist nurse  81313
4: Highly complex activities General practitioner  81404
Source: Paulus et al. (2013).
POTENTIAL CHANNELS
ADJUSTMENT OF WORKING HOURS OR TASKS PERFORMED?
16
 No effect on the share of women in part-time contracts
 Net increase (decrease) in the share of women in jobs with high (medium) skill
requirements
Year
% incumbent women in:
part-time
un-/semi-
skilled
tasks
skilled
tasks
complex
tasks
highly
complex tasks
2006 0.022 -0.004 0.058 -0.050 -0.004
2008 0.013 -0.001 -0.018*** 0.004 0.014***
2009 0.003 0.002 -0.020*** 0.003 0.015***
2010 0.016 0.006 -0.034*** 0.007 0.021***
adoption
Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE). * p<0.10, ** p<0.05, *** p<0.01. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
CONCLUSION
17
Main findings:
 Current technological change favors decentralized work policies
 Flexibility in the form of trust-based work is not gender neutral and can lead to
absolute wage gains for women
 Organizational change that seems to enable women to perform different tasks
Limitations / future research:
 Effect heterogeneity across individuals due to the nature of tasks and demands
in terms of self-reliance very likely
Policy and managerial implications:
 Debate on how policy should promote / regulate alternative working practices
to support work-life-balance and equal opportunities
 Working time autonomy appears to be a relevant measure
THANK YOU
18
Steffen Viete
Research Department “Digital Economy”
viete@zew.de
Tel: +49 (0)621-1235-359
ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research
L 7,1
68161 Mannheim, Germany
Internet: http://www.zew.de
REFERENCES
19
Beckmann, M., T. Cornelissen, and M. Kräkel (2017). “Self-managed Working Time and Employee Effort: Theory and Evidence”. Journal of
Economic Behavior & Organization, 133: 285–302.
BMFSFJ (2013). Unternehmensmonitor Familienfreundlichkeit 2013. Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (BMFSFJ).
Bresnahan, T. F., E. Brynjolfsson, and L. M. Hitt (2002). “Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor:
Firm-Level Evidence”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(1): 339–376.
Brynjolfsson, E., Rock, D., & Syverson, C. 2018. The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technologies,
National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 25148.
Cain Miller, C., "How to Close a Gender Gap: Let Employees Control Their Schedules", The New York Times, February 7, 2017.
Card, D., A. R. Cardoso, and P. Kline (2016). “Bargaining, Sorting, and the Gender Wage Gap: Quantifying the Impact of Firms on the Relative
Pay of Women”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(2): 633–686.
Godart, O. N., H. Görg, and A. Hanley (2017). “Trust-based Work Time and Innovation: Evidence from Firm-Level Data”. Industrial and Labor
Relations Review, 70(4): 894–918.
Goldin, C. (2014). “A Grand Gender Convergence: Its last Chapter”. American Economic Review, 104(4): 1091–1119.
Goldin, C. and L. F. Katz (2016). “A Most Egalitarian Profession: Pharmacy and the Evolution of a Family-friendly Occupation”. Journal of
Labor Economics, 34(3): 705–746.
Heckman, J. J., H. Ichimura, J. Smith, and P. Todd (1998). “Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data”. Econometrica, 66(5):
1017–1098.
REFERENCES
20
Huber, M., M. Lechner, and C. Wunsch (2016). “The Effect of Firms’ Phased Retirement Policies on the Labor Market Outcomes of Their
Employees”. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 69(5): 1216–1248.
Kossek, E. E. and J. S. Michel (2010). “Flexible Work Schedules”. In: Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Building and
Developing the Organization. Ed. by S. Zedeck. Vol. 1. NE, Wash.: American Psychological Association, pp. 535–572.
Mas, A. and A. Pallais (2017). “Valuing Alternative Work Arrangements”. American Economic Review, 107(12): 3722–3759.
OECD (2019), Gender wage gap (indicator). doi: 10.1787/7cee77aa-en (Accessed on 11 June 2019)
Paulus,W., Matthes, B., et al. (2013). The German classification of occupations 2010: Structure,
coding and conversion table. FDZ-Methodenreport, 08/2013.
Rosen, S. (1986), `The theory of equalizing differences', Handbook of labor economics 1, 641-692.
Viete, S. and Erdsiek, D. (2018). Trust-based work time and the productivity effects of mobile information technologies in the workplace.
ZEW Discussion Paper, 18–013.
Wingen, S. (2004). Vertrauensarbeitszeit: Neue Entwicklung Gesellschaftlicher Arbeitszeitstrukturen. Bremerhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW,
Verlag für neue Wissenschaft.
21
BACKUP
BACKGROUND
THE GENDER EARNINGS GAP IS A PERSISTENT STYLIZED FACT
22
 Most economic studies focus on individual
characteristics or take a market-based
perspective to explaining the gender wage
gap (GWG)
 In contrast, legislation in many countries
focuses on the firm as a central agent in
establishing gender equality (Card et al.,
2016):
• US: Equal Pay Act of 1963
• UK: Equality Act 2010 Regulations 2017
• GER: Transparency of Remuneration Act 2017
 What are relevant firm policies to address
gender pay differentials?1,5
13,8
34,6
0 10 20 30 40
ROU
CRI
ITA
TUR
NOR
NZL
HUN
FRA
MEX
ESP
OECD
NLD
AUS
CHE
DEU
GBR
USA
CHL
JPN
EST
KOR
Gender Wage Gap (GWG) for selected
countries
Source: OECD (2019)
23
METHODOLOGY
SELECTION ISSUE NR. 1 – BALANCING OF COVARIATES
Common Support: Ensure overlap of distribution of characteristics by excluding
tails of the propensity score distribution
unmatched matched
Variable Treated Control Treated Control
log(num. employees) 4.88 4.18*** 4.88 4.93
% high skilled empl. 0.76 0.74 0.76 0.76
% male empl. 0.56 0.64*** 0.56 0.59
flextime 0.60 0.56 0.60 0.61
parental leave 0.21 0.14** 0.21 0.18
reorganization 0.40 0.26** 0.40 0.40
log(working hours) 3.66 3.67* 3.66 3.66
log(wage rate)(a) 4.27 4.15*** 4.27 4.23
% female managers (a) 0.12 0.14 0.12 0.11
average age 41.49 42.33** 41.49 41.73
Notes: Mean characteristics of firms by treatment status for the trimmed sample. t-test for equality in means between the groups. ***
Mean difference significant at 1%, ** significant at 5%, * significant at 10%. Matching procedure includes additional covariates. Match on 2
nearest neighbors with replacement. (a) log(wage rate), % female managers and age structure excluded form the matching process.
Balancing of observable characteristics

More Related Content

What's hot

Levelling UP_ an impossible task?
Levelling UP_ an impossible task?Levelling UP_ an impossible task?
Levelling UP_ an impossible task?
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
The Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th Century
The Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th CenturyThe Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th Century
The Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th Century
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020
ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020
ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
Christina Timiliotis
Christina TimiliotisChristina Timiliotis
Christina Timiliotis
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
LSBS event presentation slides
LSBS event presentation slides LSBS event presentation slides
LSBS event presentation slides
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
Productivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluation
Productivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluationProductivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluation
Productivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluation
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Dan Mawson
Dan MawsonDan Mawson
Driving Innovation,driving growth
Driving Innovation,driving growth Driving Innovation,driving growth
Driving Innovation,driving growth
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
ERC Research Showcase : SME Business Futures
ERC Research Showcase : SME Business FuturesERC Research Showcase : SME Business Futures
ERC Research Showcase : SME Business Futures
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
Ml and productivity
Ml and productivityMl and productivity
Ml and productivity
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
Innovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzle
Innovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzleInnovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzle
Innovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzle
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
Inclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economy
Inclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economyInclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economy
Inclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economy
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
Mapping key dimensions of industrial relations
Mapping key dimensions of industrial relationsMapping key dimensions of industrial relations
Mapping key dimensions of industrial relations
Eurofound
 
Employment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemic
Employment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemicEmployment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemic
Employment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemic
Labour Market Information Council | Conseil de l’information sur le marché du travail
 
Occupational Mobility during COVID-19
Occupational Mobility during COVID-19Occupational Mobility during COVID-19
High-Impact Firms: Gazelles Revisited
High-Impact Firms:  Gazelles RevisitedHigh-Impact Firms:  Gazelles Revisited
High-Impact Firms: Gazelles Revisited
Hampton Roads: America's First Region
 
Session 1 A Ryan Decker
Session 1 A   Ryan DeckerSession 1 A   Ryan Decker
Session 1 A Ryan Decker
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
LSBS Event. July 5th 2018
LSBS Event. July 5th 2018LSBS Event. July 5th 2018
LSBS Event. July 5th 2018
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...
The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...
The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...
enterpriseresearchcentre
 
Driving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge Assets
Driving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge AssetsDriving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge Assets
Driving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge Assets
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 

What's hot (20)

Levelling UP_ an impossible task?
Levelling UP_ an impossible task?Levelling UP_ an impossible task?
Levelling UP_ an impossible task?
 
The Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th Century
The Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th CenturyThe Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th Century
The Effects of Management on Productivity: Evidence from Mid-20th Century
 
ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020
ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020
ERC Research Shocase presentation January 2020
 
Christina Timiliotis
Christina TimiliotisChristina Timiliotis
Christina Timiliotis
 
LSBS event presentation slides
LSBS event presentation slides LSBS event presentation slides
LSBS event presentation slides
 
Productivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluation
Productivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluationProductivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluation
Productivity, firm-level intervention and high-quality evaluation
 
Dan Mawson
Dan MawsonDan Mawson
Dan Mawson
 
Driving Innovation,driving growth
Driving Innovation,driving growth Driving Innovation,driving growth
Driving Innovation,driving growth
 
ERC Research Showcase : SME Business Futures
ERC Research Showcase : SME Business FuturesERC Research Showcase : SME Business Futures
ERC Research Showcase : SME Business Futures
 
Ml and productivity
Ml and productivityMl and productivity
Ml and productivity
 
Innovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzle
Innovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzleInnovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzle
Innovation Diffusion: The solution to the Productivity puzzle
 
Inclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economy
Inclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economyInclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economy
Inclusive innovation Ecosystems in the digital economy
 
Mapping key dimensions of industrial relations
Mapping key dimensions of industrial relationsMapping key dimensions of industrial relations
Mapping key dimensions of industrial relations
 
Employment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemic
Employment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemicEmployment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemic
Employment trends by sector, firm size and income during the pandemic
 
Occupational Mobility during COVID-19
Occupational Mobility during COVID-19Occupational Mobility during COVID-19
Occupational Mobility during COVID-19
 
High-Impact Firms: Gazelles Revisited
High-Impact Firms:  Gazelles RevisitedHigh-Impact Firms:  Gazelles Revisited
High-Impact Firms: Gazelles Revisited
 
Session 1 A Ryan Decker
Session 1 A   Ryan DeckerSession 1 A   Ryan Decker
Session 1 A Ryan Decker
 
LSBS Event. July 5th 2018
LSBS Event. July 5th 2018LSBS Event. July 5th 2018
LSBS Event. July 5th 2018
 
The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...
The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...
The Reality of Innovation Collaboration in SMEs (UK Foundries & Metal-Forming...
 
Driving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge Assets
Driving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge AssetsDriving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge Assets
Driving Productivity Growth: The Importance of Firm-Specific Knowledge Assets
 

Similar to EMPLOYEE AUTONOMY AND THE WITHIN-FIRM GENDER WAGE GAP: THE CASE OF TRUST-BASED WORK TIME

Flexible Working and Work Life Balance
Flexible Working and Work Life BalanceFlexible Working and Work Life Balance
Flexible Working and Work Life Balance
Nusaike Mufthie
 
11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
Alexander Decker
 
Factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
Factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysisFactors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
Factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
Alexander Decker
 
1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx
1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx
1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx
vickeryr87
 
JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...
JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...
JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...
Work and Family Researchers Network
 
Work Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service Representatives
Work Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service RepresentativesWork Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service Representatives
Work Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service Representatives
ijtsrd
 
Introduction to Workability for Employers
Introduction to Workability for EmployersIntroduction to Workability for Employers
Introduction to Workability for Employers
MeteorWorkability
 
Group 7 work life balace
Group 7 work life balaceGroup 7 work life balace
Group 7 work life balace
keyursavalia
 
Workplace policies to drive change
Workplace policies to drive changeWorkplace policies to drive change
Workplace policies to drive change
Katheen Christensen
 
The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...
The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...
The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...
Alexander Decker
 
Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...
Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...
Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...
Palkansaajien tutkimuslaitos
 
Read The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docx
Read The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docxRead The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docx
Read The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docx
danas19
 
Work life-balance
Work life-balanceWork life-balance
Work life-balance
Dokka Srinivasu
 
DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2
DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2
DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2
Giorgos Kaminiotis
 
New ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docx
New ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docxNew ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docx
New ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docx
henrymartin15260
 
Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...
Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...
Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...
Alexander Decker
 
Flexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 Revised
Flexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 RevisedFlexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 Revised
Flexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 Revised
Work and Family Researchers Network
 
Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...
Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...
Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...
Palkansaajien tutkimuslaitos
 
MBA Dissertation
MBA DissertationMBA Dissertation
MBA Dissertation
Dilip Perera
 
Research proposal
Research proposalResearch proposal
Research proposal
Summaya Sharif
 

Similar to EMPLOYEE AUTONOMY AND THE WITHIN-FIRM GENDER WAGE GAP: THE CASE OF TRUST-BASED WORK TIME (20)

Flexible Working and Work Life Balance
Flexible Working and Work Life BalanceFlexible Working and Work Life Balance
Flexible Working and Work Life Balance
 
11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
11.factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
 
Factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
Factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysisFactors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
Factors affecting employee retention a comparative analysis
 
1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx
1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx
1Thesis Statement The minimum wage, the least possible pa.docx
 
JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...
JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...
JCasey Creating a Flexible and Inclusive Work Culture to Drive Employee Engag...
 
Work Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service Representatives
Work Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service RepresentativesWork Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service Representatives
Work Relations and Job Satisfaction of Customer Service Representatives
 
Introduction to Workability for Employers
Introduction to Workability for EmployersIntroduction to Workability for Employers
Introduction to Workability for Employers
 
Group 7 work life balace
Group 7 work life balaceGroup 7 work life balace
Group 7 work life balace
 
Workplace policies to drive change
Workplace policies to drive changeWorkplace policies to drive change
Workplace policies to drive change
 
The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...
The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...
The efficacy of retirement plans and flexible scheduling in improving the qua...
 
Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...
Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...
Innovative Work Practices and Sickness Absence: What Does a Nationally Repres...
 
Read The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docx
Read The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docxRead The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docx
Read The King Company Background and Human Resource Develo.docx
 
Work life-balance
Work life-balanceWork life-balance
Work life-balance
 
DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2
DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2
DISS.TEMP.-G.KAMINIOTIS 2
 
New ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docx
New ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docxNew ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docx
New ways of working does flexibility in time and location o.docx
 
Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...
Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...
Skill variety, feedback and employee performance a case of moi teaching and r...
 
Flexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 Revised
Flexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 RevisedFlexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 Revised
Flexible Work Arrangements Slideshare 2 26 09 Revised
 
Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...
Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...
Job security and employee well-being: Evidence from matched survey and regist...
 
MBA Dissertation
MBA DissertationMBA Dissertation
MBA Dissertation
 
Research proposal
Research proposalResearch proposal
Research proposal
 

More from Structuralpolicyanalysis

“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...
“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...
“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...
AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...
AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Wrap-up and way forward
Wrap-up and way forwardWrap-up and way forward
Wrap-up and way forward
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Closing remarks
Closing remarksClosing remarks
Closing remarks
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...
Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...
Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Changing Patterns of Market Power and Contestability
Changing Patterns of Market Power and ContestabilityChanging Patterns of Market Power and Contestability
Changing Patterns of Market Power and Contestability
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Employer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusions
Employer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusionsEmployer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusions
Employer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusions
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Rent sharing across Production network
Rent sharing across Production networkRent sharing across Production network
Rent sharing across Production network
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...
NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...
NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?
What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?
What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Dynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit Conditions
Dynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit ConditionsDynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit Conditions
Dynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit Conditions
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Review of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrust
Review of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrustReview of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrust
Review of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrust
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Telling macro stories about productivity from micro data
Telling macro stories about productivity from micro dataTelling macro stories about productivity from micro data
Telling macro stories about productivity from micro data
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
From Innovation to Productivity
From Innovation to ProductivityFrom Innovation to Productivity
From Innovation to Productivity
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Productivity Dynamics over the Medium Term
Productivity Dynamics over the Medium TermProductivity Dynamics over the Medium Term
Productivity Dynamics over the Medium Term
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...
The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...
The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Keeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamism
Keeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamismKeeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamism
Keeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamism
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Chiara Criscuolo
Chiara CriscuoloChiara Criscuolo
Chiara Criscuolo
Structuralpolicyanalysis
 
Misato Sato
Misato SatoMisato Sato
Ralph Martin
Ralph MartinRalph Martin

More from Structuralpolicyanalysis (20)

“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...
“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...
“Keeping pace with technological change: The role of capabilities and dynamis...
 
AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...
AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...
AI and Technological Anxiety: Paranoia , or are the robots out to get us Comm...
 
Wrap-up and way forward
Wrap-up and way forwardWrap-up and way forward
Wrap-up and way forward
 
Closing remarks
Closing remarksClosing remarks
Closing remarks
 
Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...
Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...
Changes in Productivity and Industry dynamics in the Digital transition: The ...
 
Changing Patterns of Market Power and Contestability
Changing Patterns of Market Power and ContestabilityChanging Patterns of Market Power and Contestability
Changing Patterns of Market Power and Contestability
 
Employer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusions
Employer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusionsEmployer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusions
Employer Employee linked data in Italy availability and usage by institusions
 
Rent sharing across Production network
Rent sharing across Production networkRent sharing across Production network
Rent sharing across Production network
 
NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...
NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...
NATIONAL WAGE EQUALIZATION AND REGIONAL MISALLOCATION: EVIDENCE FROM ITALIAN ...
 
What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?
What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?
What can Machine Learning Do and What Does It Mean for the Economy?
 
Dynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit Conditions
Dynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit ConditionsDynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit Conditions
Dynamism Diminished: The Role of Housing Markets and Credit Conditions
 
Review of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrust
Review of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrustReview of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrust
Review of the evidence on market power, contestability and antitrust
 
Telling macro stories about productivity from micro data
Telling macro stories about productivity from micro dataTelling macro stories about productivity from micro data
Telling macro stories about productivity from micro data
 
From Innovation to Productivity
From Innovation to ProductivityFrom Innovation to Productivity
From Innovation to Productivity
 
Productivity Dynamics over the Medium Term
Productivity Dynamics over the Medium TermProductivity Dynamics over the Medium Term
Productivity Dynamics over the Medium Term
 
The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...
The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...
The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technolo...
 
Keeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamism
Keeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamismKeeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamism
Keeping pace with technological change: the role of capabilities and dynamism
 
Chiara Criscuolo
Chiara CriscuoloChiara Criscuolo
Chiara Criscuolo
 
Misato Sato
Misato SatoMisato Sato
Misato Sato
 
Ralph Martin
Ralph MartinRalph Martin
Ralph Martin
 

Recently uploaded

Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Ak47
 
Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)
Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)
Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
AK47 AK47
 
Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...
Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...
Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...
seenaoberoi
 
Lucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full Day
Lucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full DayLucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full Day
Lucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full Day
annarivihqrika
 
How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?
How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?
How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
Sustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.ppt
Sustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.pptSustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.ppt
Sustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.ppt
JayanthAdithya1
 
University of Southern California degree offer diploma Transcript
University of Southern California degree offer diploma TranscriptUniversity of Southern California degree offer diploma Transcript
University of Southern California degree offer diploma Transcript
oywfdy
 
OAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptxOAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptx
hiddenlevers
 
05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV POM Forecasting Methods.pptx
05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV  POM Forecasting Methods.pptx05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV  POM Forecasting Methods.pptx
05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV POM Forecasting Methods.pptx
drsouravpanda27
 
When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.
When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.
When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...
fatima shekh$A17
 
how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.
how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.
how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency - BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.
how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency -  BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency -  BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.
how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency - BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
eshikajshani
 
Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
maigasapphire
 
hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.
hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.
hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.
how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.
how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.
Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.
Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 
how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.
how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.
how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.
CRYPTO SPACE 🪙
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
Girls Call Laxmi Nagar 9711199171 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 i...
 
Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)
Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)
Can I sell my hamster kombat tokens Now! (latest update - 2024)
 
VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
VIP Girls Call Noida 9873940964 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 in ...
 
Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...
Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...
Surat Girls Call Surat 0X0000000X Payment On Delevery Cash Hot Premium Genuin...
 
Lucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full Day
Lucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full DayLucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full Day
Lucknow Girls Call Adil Nagar 08630512678 Available full Day
 
How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?
How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?
How do I cash out hamster kombat tokens?
 
Sustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.ppt
Sustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.pptSustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.ppt
Sustainable-Development-Goals-presentation-by-Office-of-National-Statistics.ppt
 
University of Southern California degree offer diploma Transcript
University of Southern California degree offer diploma TranscriptUniversity of Southern California degree offer diploma Transcript
University of Southern California degree offer diploma Transcript
 
OAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptxOAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptx
OAT_RI_Ep21 WeighingTheRisks_June24_CommodityInflation.pptx
 
05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV POM Forecasting Methods.pptx
05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV  POM Forecasting Methods.pptx05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV  POM Forecasting Methods.pptx
05 BBA 20 23 Sem IV POM Forecasting Methods.pptx
 
When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.
When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.
When will I be able to sell my Hamster Kombat coins.
 
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...
High Profile Girls Call Delhi 🎈🔥9711199171 🔥💋🎈 Provide Best And Top Girl Serv...
 
how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.
how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.
how to sell hamster kombat on bybit crypto exchange.
 
how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency - BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.
how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency -  BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency -  BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.
how can I convert hamster kombat to other cryptocurrency - BITCOIN, USDT, BNB.
 
Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
Lucknow Girls Call Kesar Bagh 08630512678 Provide Best And Top Girl Service A...
 
Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
Girls Call Marine lines 9910780858 Provide Best And Top Girl Service And No1 ...
 
hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.
hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.
hamster kombat - The best way to gain Massively as beginner's.
 
how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.
how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.
how to sell hamster kombat at high rate - $1 per token.
 
Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.
Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.
Has anyone made money from hamster kombat - the REAL truth.
 
how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.
how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.
how to sell hamster kombat tokens for USD.
 

EMPLOYEE AUTONOMY AND THE WITHIN-FIRM GENDER WAGE GAP: THE CASE OF TRUST-BASED WORK TIME

  • 1. EMPLOYEE AUTONOMY AND THE WITHIN-FIRM GENDER WAGE GAP: THE CASE OF TRUST-BASED WORK TIME 2019 GFP Annual Conference - Sydney, Australia Steffen Viete 21 June, 2019
  • 2. BACKGROUND 2  Technological change requires complementary investments in organizational practices to affect firm performance (e.g. Bresnahan et al., 2002, Brynjolfsson et al., 2018)  Information technology (IT) is becoming mobile and detached from location  dissolving the temporal and spatial boundaries of work (e.g. Kossek and Michel, 2010)  This facilitates new organizational practices which allow employees to decide where and when to engage in work-related tasks  There is evidence that firms enjoy higher returns from using mobile IT when they provide workplace flexibility through formal work policies (Viete & Erdsiek, 2018)
  • 3. BACKGROUND WORKPLACE FLEXIBILITY IS WIDELY EXPECTED TO FOSTER GENDER EQUALITY IN THE LABOR MARKET 3 Academia (e.g. Goldin, 2014 AER)  Disproportionate reward for working long and particular hours in many occupations  Women‘s social roles still associated with higher non-work obligations  Change in the structure of work "must involve a reduction in the dependence of remuneration on particular segments of time" Public Debate
  • 4. THIS PAPER 4 Research question:  What is the effect of the successful provision of maximum autonomy over the structure of the workday on the gender wage gap (GWG) within the firm? Effect is ambiguous from a theoretical perspective:  Negative, if dependence of remuneration on working particular segments of time is reduced (Goldin, 2014)  Positive, if it results in higher compensating wage differentials for women (Rosen, 1986)
  • 5. TRUST-BASED WORK TIME (TBW) 5  Variants of TBW first appeared in Germany during the 1990s  Defining features: • Abandonment of formal record of working hours • Employee is merely evaluated by work output • Delegation of autonomy to decide start- and endpoint, continuity and duration of the workday • Reduces the value placed on working specific hours and on the continuity of work  Working arrangement with the highest degree of formal employee autonomy in Germany (e.g. Wingen, 2004)
  • 6. TRUST-BASED WORK TIME (TBW) EMPIRICAL EVIDENCE 6  Beckmann et al. (2017, JEBO): TBW increases effort via intrinsic motivation  Godart et al. (2017, ILR): TBW adoption associated with higher innovation Source: IAB Establishment Panel, own calculations.
  • 7. 7 DATA LINKED EMPLOYER-EMPLOYEE DATA - LIAB  IAB Establishment Panel • Yearly representative business survey • Ca. 19,000 establishments in Germany • Since 2004 biannual question whether or not TBW is implemented  Employee Data (Employment History – BeH) • German Employment Statistics Register based on individual employees‘ social insurance records • Contains basic characteristics, e.g. gender, age, qualifications • Gross daily earnings including overtime premiums and allowances
  • 8. 8 DATA OUTCOME: OBSERVED WITHIN-FIRM GENDER WAGE GAP Average log differences of gross earnings 𝑤𝑤 between individuals 𝑖𝑖 of different gender within each firm 𝑗𝑗 : Average observed intra-firm GWG in LIAB Data 2004-2012 Observed intra-firm GWG in LIAB Data - Distribution in 2008
  • 9. 9 METHODOLOGY SAMPLE SELECTION  Research Design: ‘Treatment’ Methodology (e.g. Görg et al., 2016; Huber et al., 2016) • Effect of introducing TBW between wave 2006 and 2008 • Retain all firms which did not use TBW in pre-treatment periods (2004-2006) • Comparison of the within-firm GWG between adopter and non-adopter Treatment: Adoption of TBW Control: No adoption of TBW pre-treatment post-treatment 2004 2006 2008 2010 adoption
  • 10. 10 METHODOLOGY SELECTION ISSUES 1. Non-random adoption of TBW by firms  Firms selectively rather than randomly introduce TBW → e.g. well-performing firms can afford to offer the amenity of TBW as well as promote gender equality  Only compare ‘twin’ firms, which are observationally equivalent (Conditional Difference-in-Differences, e.g. Heckman et al., 1998) 2. Non-random selection of individuals into firms w/o TBW  Women have higher preferences for workplace flexibility (Mas and Pallais, 2017) → more able women might select into firms with TBW in place  Compute outcome from individuals who were employed prior to the adoption of TBW (e.g. Huber et al., 2016)
  • 11. RESULTS EFFECT ON THE WITHIN-FIRM GWG 11  Negative effect on the raw intra-firm GWG over three years after the adoption (Panel A)  Result holds with slightly smaller magnitude among employees with pre- adoption tenure (Panel B) Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE) with 90% confidence bands. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
  • 12. RESULTS EFFECT ON WAGE LEVELS OF INCUMBENT EMPLOYEES 12  Reduction in GWG driven by absolute wage gains of women Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE) with 90% confidence bands. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
  • 13. RESULTS EFFECT ON THE SHARE OF MALE EMPLOYEES 13  No significant effect on the gender composition of employees Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE) with 90% confidence bands. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
  • 14. POTENTIAL CHANNELS 14 1. Adjustments in the labor input (working time) within the same job • Greater ability to structure the workday → facilitates adjustment of (contractual) working hours  Estimate effect on the share of women in part-time contracts 2. Changes in the types of tasks and jobs performed • Higher independence and autonomy under TBW might enable individuals to perform different tasks  Estimate effect on share of women in positions with different job requirements (based on KldB 2010)
  • 15. POTENTIAL CHANNELS SKILL REQUIREMENTS OF THE CURRENT JOB 15  Distinguishes four requirement levels  Intended to reflect the degree of complexity of an occupation Requirement level Example within same occupation 1: Unskilled or semi-skilled activities Health and nursing care helper  81301 2: Specialist activities Nurse  81302 3: Complex specialist activities Specialist nurse  81313 4: Highly complex activities General practitioner  81404 Source: Paulus et al. (2013).
  • 16. POTENTIAL CHANNELS ADJUSTMENT OF WORKING HOURS OR TASKS PERFORMED? 16  No effect on the share of women in part-time contracts  Net increase (decrease) in the share of women in jobs with high (medium) skill requirements Year % incumbent women in: part-time un-/semi- skilled tasks skilled tasks complex tasks highly complex tasks 2006 0.022 -0.004 0.058 -0.050 -0.004 2008 0.013 -0.001 -0.018*** 0.004 0.014*** 2009 0.003 0.002 -0.020*** 0.003 0.015*** 2010 0.016 0.006 -0.034*** 0.007 0.021*** adoption Note: Average Treatment Effects (ATE). * p<0.10, ** p<0.05, *** p<0.01. N = 1290 with 131 treated and 1159 non-treated firms.
  • 17. CONCLUSION 17 Main findings:  Current technological change favors decentralized work policies  Flexibility in the form of trust-based work is not gender neutral and can lead to absolute wage gains for women  Organizational change that seems to enable women to perform different tasks Limitations / future research:  Effect heterogeneity across individuals due to the nature of tasks and demands in terms of self-reliance very likely Policy and managerial implications:  Debate on how policy should promote / regulate alternative working practices to support work-life-balance and equal opportunities  Working time autonomy appears to be a relevant measure
  • 18. THANK YOU 18 Steffen Viete Research Department “Digital Economy” viete@zew.de Tel: +49 (0)621-1235-359 ZEW – Leibniz Centre for European Economic Research L 7,1 68161 Mannheim, Germany Internet: http://www.zew.de
  • 19. REFERENCES 19 Beckmann, M., T. Cornelissen, and M. Kräkel (2017). “Self-managed Working Time and Employee Effort: Theory and Evidence”. Journal of Economic Behavior & Organization, 133: 285–302. BMFSFJ (2013). Unternehmensmonitor Familienfreundlichkeit 2013. Bundesministerium für Familie, Senioren, Frauen und Jugend (BMFSFJ). Bresnahan, T. F., E. Brynjolfsson, and L. M. Hitt (2002). “Information Technology, Workplace Organization, and the Demand for Skilled Labor: Firm-Level Evidence”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 117(1): 339–376. Brynjolfsson, E., Rock, D., & Syverson, C. 2018. The Productivity J-Curve: How Intangibles Complement General Purpose Technologies, National Bureau of Economic Research Working Paper No. 25148. Cain Miller, C., "How to Close a Gender Gap: Let Employees Control Their Schedules", The New York Times, February 7, 2017. Card, D., A. R. Cardoso, and P. Kline (2016). “Bargaining, Sorting, and the Gender Wage Gap: Quantifying the Impact of Firms on the Relative Pay of Women”. Quarterly Journal of Economics, 131(2): 633–686. Godart, O. N., H. Görg, and A. Hanley (2017). “Trust-based Work Time and Innovation: Evidence from Firm-Level Data”. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 70(4): 894–918. Goldin, C. (2014). “A Grand Gender Convergence: Its last Chapter”. American Economic Review, 104(4): 1091–1119. Goldin, C. and L. F. Katz (2016). “A Most Egalitarian Profession: Pharmacy and the Evolution of a Family-friendly Occupation”. Journal of Labor Economics, 34(3): 705–746. Heckman, J. J., H. Ichimura, J. Smith, and P. Todd (1998). “Characterizing Selection Bias Using Experimental Data”. Econometrica, 66(5): 1017–1098.
  • 20. REFERENCES 20 Huber, M., M. Lechner, and C. Wunsch (2016). “The Effect of Firms’ Phased Retirement Policies on the Labor Market Outcomes of Their Employees”. Industrial and Labor Relations Review, 69(5): 1216–1248. Kossek, E. E. and J. S. Michel (2010). “Flexible Work Schedules”. In: Handbook of Industrial and Organizational Psychology: Building and Developing the Organization. Ed. by S. Zedeck. Vol. 1. NE, Wash.: American Psychological Association, pp. 535–572. Mas, A. and A. Pallais (2017). “Valuing Alternative Work Arrangements”. American Economic Review, 107(12): 3722–3759. OECD (2019), Gender wage gap (indicator). doi: 10.1787/7cee77aa-en (Accessed on 11 June 2019) Paulus,W., Matthes, B., et al. (2013). The German classification of occupations 2010: Structure, coding and conversion table. FDZ-Methodenreport, 08/2013. Rosen, S. (1986), `The theory of equalizing differences', Handbook of labor economics 1, 641-692. Viete, S. and Erdsiek, D. (2018). Trust-based work time and the productivity effects of mobile information technologies in the workplace. ZEW Discussion Paper, 18–013. Wingen, S. (2004). Vertrauensarbeitszeit: Neue Entwicklung Gesellschaftlicher Arbeitszeitstrukturen. Bremerhaven: Wirtschaftsverlag NW, Verlag für neue Wissenschaft.
  • 22. BACKGROUND THE GENDER EARNINGS GAP IS A PERSISTENT STYLIZED FACT 22  Most economic studies focus on individual characteristics or take a market-based perspective to explaining the gender wage gap (GWG)  In contrast, legislation in many countries focuses on the firm as a central agent in establishing gender equality (Card et al., 2016): • US: Equal Pay Act of 1963 • UK: Equality Act 2010 Regulations 2017 • GER: Transparency of Remuneration Act 2017  What are relevant firm policies to address gender pay differentials?1,5 13,8 34,6 0 10 20 30 40 ROU CRI ITA TUR NOR NZL HUN FRA MEX ESP OECD NLD AUS CHE DEU GBR USA CHL JPN EST KOR Gender Wage Gap (GWG) for selected countries Source: OECD (2019)
  • 23. 23 METHODOLOGY SELECTION ISSUE NR. 1 – BALANCING OF COVARIATES Common Support: Ensure overlap of distribution of characteristics by excluding tails of the propensity score distribution unmatched matched Variable Treated Control Treated Control log(num. employees) 4.88 4.18*** 4.88 4.93 % high skilled empl. 0.76 0.74 0.76 0.76 % male empl. 0.56 0.64*** 0.56 0.59 flextime 0.60 0.56 0.60 0.61 parental leave 0.21 0.14** 0.21 0.18 reorganization 0.40 0.26** 0.40 0.40 log(working hours) 3.66 3.67* 3.66 3.66 log(wage rate)(a) 4.27 4.15*** 4.27 4.23 % female managers (a) 0.12 0.14 0.12 0.11 average age 41.49 42.33** 41.49 41.73 Notes: Mean characteristics of firms by treatment status for the trimmed sample. t-test for equality in means between the groups. *** Mean difference significant at 1%, ** significant at 5%, * significant at 10%. Matching procedure includes additional covariates. Match on 2 nearest neighbors with replacement. (a) log(wage rate), % female managers and age structure excluded form the matching process. Balancing of observable characteristics