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EFFECTS OF VAPING ELECTRONIC
CIGARETTES ON ARTERIAL HEALTH
Lydia N. Trainor, PhD
CardieX Research Proposal
“Battery powered
atomizing/vaporizing
devices that deliver nicotine
contained in the e-liquid in
aerosolized and vaporized
forms for inhalation.”
Khosravi et al. (2018)
History:
2003 – Invented in China
2006 – American market
2016 – FDA Regulation
Cullen et al. (2018)
CURRENT KNOWLEDGE IS LIMITED
• Acute & subacute exposure of e-cig vapor in humans
•Previous tobacco cigarette smokers
• Chronic exposure in animal models
• Olfert et al. (2018)
•Examined the effects of 8 months of chronic exposure to e-
cigarette vapor on cardiovascular health of young mice
•E-cigarette vapor (n = 15), Cigarette smoke (n = 15), or Filtered
air (n = 15)
• Measurements were taken 3 time points – pre, 4.5 months, 8
months
Previous
Research
Animal
Model
Chronic exposure to e-cig vapor sig. ↑ arterial
stiffness & PWV in young mice.
(Olfert et al., 2018)
PRELIMINARY RESEARCH
Total N=19 Age (yrs.) Body Fat (%) Pods Vaped Months Vaped
NON (n=11) 22.1±3.2 15.8±8.4
STVAPE (n=5) 19.3±1.5 17.5±5.8 28.3±10.4 7.7±3.2
LTVAPE (n=3) 18.6±0.5 21.5±11.8 220.0±83.7 27.2±7.6
Table 1. Subject Demographics
*Preliminary data collection was terminated early due to the covid-19 pandemic.
Purpose: examine the impact of self-elicited nicotine containing e-cigarettes on AIx, AIx75, and
VO2peak in NON, STVAPE , and LTVAPE
• NON = never-smokers
• STVAPE = e-cigarette exclusive vapers, vaping for < 1 year
• LTVAPE = e-cigarette exclusive vapers, vaping for > 1 year
Relationship between AIx75 and VO2peak:
r = -.482, p < .05, CI = -0.768 - -0.035
PRELIMINARY DATA
Figure 1. Line graph depicting mean (± standard error) VO2peak and
weekly METS across groups.
WHAT WE LEARNED
• Vaping for ≤ 3 years did not cause measurable changes in arterial stiffness
• Long term outcomes are still unknown, future research should focus on the impacts
of vaping for > 3 years
• Negative, moderate significant relationship between aerobic fitness and arterial
stiffness
• The degree to which the subjects’ fitness levels impacted AIx is unknown
• NON achieved highest VO2peak and LT achieved lowest VO2peak
• Further research is necessary to understand chronic effects of vaping on vascular
health
PRIMARY AIMS
1. Examine if differences exist in vascular health of long-term (>36
months) e-cigarette users (LTVAPE) compared to never-smokers
(NON).
2. Analyze if changes in vascular health are independent of aerobic
fitness status in LTVAPE and NON.
Vascular health will be measured using pulse wave velocity,
subendocardial viability ratio, brachial blood pressure, central blood
pressure, augmentation index (AIx; AIx75), and augmentation pressure.
OVERALL POTENTIAL IMPACT
• Current a public health concern in young adults
• Increase scientific knowledge about unknown long-term
vascular impacts
• Pave a path for future research
• Support the development of evidenced based policies,
regulations, and educational efforts
REFERENCES
• Antoniewicz, L., Brynedal, A., Hedman, L., Lundback, M., & Bosson, J.A. (2019). Acute effects of electronic cigarette inhalation on the vasculature and the
conducting airways. Cardiovasc Toxicol, 19, 441–450.
• Ashor, A. W., Lara, J., Siervo, M., Celis-Morales, C., & Mathers, J. C. (2014). Effects of exercise modalities on arterial stiffness and wave reflection: A systematic
review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Plos One, 9(10), 1-15. doi:10.1371 /journal.pone.0110034
• Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, November 2). About electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/about-e-cigarettes.html
• Chaumont, M., de Becker, B., Zaher, W., Culie, A., Deprez, G., Melot, C., . . . van de Borne (2018). Differential effects of e-cigarette on microvascular
endothelial function, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress: A randomized crossover trial. Nature Scientific Reports, 8(10378), 1-9.
doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa460
• Cullen, K. A., Ambrose, B. K., Gentzke, A. S., Apelberg, B. J., Jamal, A., & King, B. A. (2018). Use of electronic cigarettes and any tobacco product among middle
and high school students – United States, 2011 – 2018. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(45), 1276-1277.
• Kerr, D.M.I., Brooksbank, K.J.M., Taylor, R.G., Pinel, K., Rios, F.J., Touyz, R.M. & Delles, C. (2019). Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on vascular
and respiratory function in healthy volunteers: a cross-over study. J Hypertens, 37, 154–166.
• Khosravi, M., Lin, R. L., & Lee, L.-Y. (2018). Inhalation of electronic cigarette aerosol induces reflex bronchoconstriction by activation of vagal
bronchopulmonary C-fibers. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 315, L467-L475.
• McConnell, T. R. (1998). Practical considerations in testing the VO2max in runners. Sports Medicine, 5, 57-68. doi:0.2165/00007256-198805010-00005
• Nabavizadeh, P., Liu, J., Havel, C.M., Ibrahim, S., Derakhshandeh, R., Jacob III, P. & Springer, M.L. (2018). Vascular endothelial function is impaired by aerosol
from a single IQOS HeatStick to the same extent as by cigarette smoke. Tob Control, 27, s13–s19.
• Olfert, I. M., DeVallance, E., Hoskinson, H., Branyan, K. W., Clayton, S., Pitzer, C. R., . . . Chantler, P. D. (2018). Chronic exposure to electronic cigarettes results
in impaired cardiovascular function in mice. Journal of Applied Physiology, 124, 573-582. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00713.2017
• Rao, P., Liu, J. & Springer, M.L. (2020). JUUL and combusted cigarettes comparably impair endothelial function. Tob Regul Sci, 6, 30–37.
• Tsai, M., Byun, M. K., Shin, J., & Crotty Alexander, L. E. (2020). Effects of e-cigarettes and vaping devices on cardiac and pulmonary physiology. The Journal of
Physiology, 598.22, 5039-5062.
• U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2024, March 20). Vaping, marijuana use in 2019 rose in college-age adults. National Institutes of Health.
https://nida.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/2020/09/vaping-marijuana-use-in-2019-rose-in-college-age-adults
• Vlachopoulos, C., Ioakeimidis, N., Abdelrasoul, M., Terentes-Printzios, D., Georgakopoulos, C., Pietri, P., Stefanadis, C., & Tousoulis, D. (2016). Electronic
cigarette smoking increases aortic stiffness and blood pressure in young smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol, 67, 2802–2803.

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Effects of vaping e-cigarettes on arterial health

  • 1. EFFECTS OF VAPING ELECTRONIC CIGARETTES ON ARTERIAL HEALTH Lydia N. Trainor, PhD CardieX Research Proposal
  • 2. “Battery powered atomizing/vaporizing devices that deliver nicotine contained in the e-liquid in aerosolized and vaporized forms for inhalation.” Khosravi et al. (2018) History: 2003 – Invented in China 2006 – American market 2016 – FDA Regulation Cullen et al. (2018)
  • 3. CURRENT KNOWLEDGE IS LIMITED • Acute & subacute exposure of e-cig vapor in humans •Previous tobacco cigarette smokers • Chronic exposure in animal models • Olfert et al. (2018) •Examined the effects of 8 months of chronic exposure to e- cigarette vapor on cardiovascular health of young mice •E-cigarette vapor (n = 15), Cigarette smoke (n = 15), or Filtered air (n = 15) • Measurements were taken 3 time points – pre, 4.5 months, 8 months
  • 4. Previous Research Animal Model Chronic exposure to e-cig vapor sig. ↑ arterial stiffness & PWV in young mice. (Olfert et al., 2018)
  • 5. PRELIMINARY RESEARCH Total N=19 Age (yrs.) Body Fat (%) Pods Vaped Months Vaped NON (n=11) 22.1±3.2 15.8±8.4 STVAPE (n=5) 19.3±1.5 17.5±5.8 28.3±10.4 7.7±3.2 LTVAPE (n=3) 18.6±0.5 21.5±11.8 220.0±83.7 27.2±7.6 Table 1. Subject Demographics *Preliminary data collection was terminated early due to the covid-19 pandemic. Purpose: examine the impact of self-elicited nicotine containing e-cigarettes on AIx, AIx75, and VO2peak in NON, STVAPE , and LTVAPE • NON = never-smokers • STVAPE = e-cigarette exclusive vapers, vaping for < 1 year • LTVAPE = e-cigarette exclusive vapers, vaping for > 1 year
  • 6. Relationship between AIx75 and VO2peak: r = -.482, p < .05, CI = -0.768 - -0.035 PRELIMINARY DATA Figure 1. Line graph depicting mean (± standard error) VO2peak and weekly METS across groups.
  • 7. WHAT WE LEARNED • Vaping for ≤ 3 years did not cause measurable changes in arterial stiffness • Long term outcomes are still unknown, future research should focus on the impacts of vaping for > 3 years • Negative, moderate significant relationship between aerobic fitness and arterial stiffness • The degree to which the subjects’ fitness levels impacted AIx is unknown • NON achieved highest VO2peak and LT achieved lowest VO2peak • Further research is necessary to understand chronic effects of vaping on vascular health
  • 8. PRIMARY AIMS 1. Examine if differences exist in vascular health of long-term (>36 months) e-cigarette users (LTVAPE) compared to never-smokers (NON). 2. Analyze if changes in vascular health are independent of aerobic fitness status in LTVAPE and NON. Vascular health will be measured using pulse wave velocity, subendocardial viability ratio, brachial blood pressure, central blood pressure, augmentation index (AIx; AIx75), and augmentation pressure.
  • 9. OVERALL POTENTIAL IMPACT • Current a public health concern in young adults • Increase scientific knowledge about unknown long-term vascular impacts • Pave a path for future research • Support the development of evidenced based policies, regulations, and educational efforts
  • 10. REFERENCES • Antoniewicz, L., Brynedal, A., Hedman, L., Lundback, M., & Bosson, J.A. (2019). Acute effects of electronic cigarette inhalation on the vasculature and the conducting airways. Cardiovasc Toxicol, 19, 441–450. • Ashor, A. W., Lara, J., Siervo, M., Celis-Morales, C., & Mathers, J. C. (2014). Effects of exercise modalities on arterial stiffness and wave reflection: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized controlled trials. Plos One, 9(10), 1-15. doi:10.1371 /journal.pone.0110034 • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2023, November 2). About electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes). Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/tobacco/basic_information/e-cigarettes/about-e-cigarettes.html • Chaumont, M., de Becker, B., Zaher, W., Culie, A., Deprez, G., Melot, C., . . . van de Borne (2018). Differential effects of e-cigarette on microvascular endothelial function, arterial stiffness and oxidative stress: A randomized crossover trial. Nature Scientific Reports, 8(10378), 1-9. doi:10.1093/eurheartj/ehaa460 • Cullen, K. A., Ambrose, B. K., Gentzke, A. S., Apelberg, B. J., Jamal, A., & King, B. A. (2018). Use of electronic cigarettes and any tobacco product among middle and high school students – United States, 2011 – 2018. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, 67(45), 1276-1277. • Kerr, D.M.I., Brooksbank, K.J.M., Taylor, R.G., Pinel, K., Rios, F.J., Touyz, R.M. & Delles, C. (2019). Acute effects of electronic and tobacco cigarettes on vascular and respiratory function in healthy volunteers: a cross-over study. J Hypertens, 37, 154–166. • Khosravi, M., Lin, R. L., & Lee, L.-Y. (2018). Inhalation of electronic cigarette aerosol induces reflex bronchoconstriction by activation of vagal bronchopulmonary C-fibers. American Journal of Physiology-Lung Cellular and Molecular Physiology, 315, L467-L475. • McConnell, T. R. (1998). Practical considerations in testing the VO2max in runners. Sports Medicine, 5, 57-68. doi:0.2165/00007256-198805010-00005 • Nabavizadeh, P., Liu, J., Havel, C.M., Ibrahim, S., Derakhshandeh, R., Jacob III, P. & Springer, M.L. (2018). Vascular endothelial function is impaired by aerosol from a single IQOS HeatStick to the same extent as by cigarette smoke. Tob Control, 27, s13–s19. • Olfert, I. M., DeVallance, E., Hoskinson, H., Branyan, K. W., Clayton, S., Pitzer, C. R., . . . Chantler, P. D. (2018). Chronic exposure to electronic cigarettes results in impaired cardiovascular function in mice. Journal of Applied Physiology, 124, 573-582. doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00713.2017 • Rao, P., Liu, J. & Springer, M.L. (2020). JUUL and combusted cigarettes comparably impair endothelial function. Tob Regul Sci, 6, 30–37. • Tsai, M., Byun, M. K., Shin, J., & Crotty Alexander, L. E. (2020). Effects of e-cigarettes and vaping devices on cardiac and pulmonary physiology. The Journal of Physiology, 598.22, 5039-5062. • U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2024, March 20). Vaping, marijuana use in 2019 rose in college-age adults. National Institutes of Health. https://nida.nih.gov/news-events/news-releases/2020/09/vaping-marijuana-use-in-2019-rose-in-college-age-adults • Vlachopoulos, C., Ioakeimidis, N., Abdelrasoul, M., Terentes-Printzios, D., Georgakopoulos, C., Pietri, P., Stefanadis, C., & Tousoulis, D. (2016). Electronic cigarette smoking increases aortic stiffness and blood pressure in young smokers. J Am Coll Cardiol, 67, 2802–2803.