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2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
1
Dye classificationDye classification
Dyeing processesDyeing processes
Daniel 2004Daniel 2004
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
2
You can not assume that to dye any piece of fabric
to a given colour, all you need to do is use a dye of
that particular colour.
No dye will dye all textile fabrics satisfactorily.
This means, simply, that you must choose a dye
that will suit the material (or a material that will suit
the dye).
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
3
Classification of DyesClassification of Dyes
• No single class of dye can dye all fibres.
• A specific class of dye can only be applied
to a given type of textile fibre.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
4
Dye for Cellulosic
Fibres:
• Direct Dyes
• Azoic Dyes
• Reactive Dyes
• Sulphur dyes
• Vat Dyes
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
5
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General
description
Main
application
Direct Simple application;
cheap; complete colour
range; moderate colour
fastness but can be
improved by after-
treatment with copper
salts & cationic
fixing agents.
Mainly used for
cellulosic fibres;
can also be
applied on rayon,
silk & wool.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
6
DIRECT DYES
• Direct dyes for Cotton, Viscose, Silk & Nylon
• Easy to dye - require only cooking salt & very
hot to boiling water.
• Dyes have a good light fastness but only
moderate wash fastness .
• It is possible to improve on wash fastness by
after-treatment of dyed article with dye-fixing
agent.
• These dyes are principally used for “not so
expansive” products or product with fewer
washes such as T-shirts, curtains & theatre
productions.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
7
DIRECT DYES
Yellow Pink Brown Turquoise
Orange Red Violet Black
Fushia Grey Green
Forrest
Green
Scarlet Blue Wine China Blue
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
8
Classification of dyes
Dye Class General description
Main
applicatio
n
Azoic
(Naphthol)
Complicated application; limited
colour range (red, orange, navy
among the best); bright shade at
moderate cost; generally good
wet fastness but moderate to
poor dry cleaning & rubbing
fastness; also called naphthol
dye due to the use of naphthol,
or ice colour because of the
usage of ice during application.
Mainly
applied on
cellulosic
fibres,
especially on
brilliant red
shade.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
9
Azo Dye Synthesis
CouplingCoupling
• Blue component can be
coupled with yellow or
green component to form
two different dyestuffs.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
10
AZOIC DYES
• The word 'Azoic' is the distinguishing name
given to insoluble azo dyes that are not applied
directly as dyes, but are actually produced
within the fibre itself.
• This is done with impregnating the fibre with
one component of the dye, followed by
treatment in another component, thus forming
the dye within the fibre.
NH2
NO2CH3
HO C
O
NH
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
11
AZOIC DYES
• The formation of this insoluble dye within
the fabric makes it very fast to washing.
• The deposition of the dye on the surface
of the fibre produces poor rub fastness,
but once the loose dye is removed by
boiling the fabric in soap, the dyeing
becomes one of the fastest available.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
12
AZOIC DYES
• Normally it is dyed in coldcold for all natural fibers
• Naphtol dyes are not sold in the form of a
"finished dye" but in form of their components
(Insoluble azo base & fast colour coupling
compound) which combine on the fibre to
produce a water insoluble azo dye of
exceptional fastness properties.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
13The following chart of basic range shows only a very limited number of colours
that can be obtained by using combinations of Naphtol & Diazo.
G D or AS BO BT GR
ORANGE GC
CHROME
YELLOW
ORANGE RED ORANGE
PALE
BROWN
APRICOT
RED RC
CADMIUM
YELLOW
BRILLIANT RED DEEP RED
RED B
YELLOW
OCHRE
CRIMSON
CRIMSON
LAKE
BORDEAUX GP
REDDISH
YELLOW
CLARET BORDEAUX
VIOLET B
CHROME
YELLOW
VIOLET DARK VIOLET
BLUE BB OR 3B
GOLDEN
YELLOW
BLUE NAVY BLUE
DARK
BROWN
GREEN
GREEN BB RED RUST BLUE GREEN DARK GREEN
GREEN GT LEAF GREEN BLUE GREEN
BLACK B BLACK BLACK BLACK
DIAZO SALT NAPHTOL
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
14
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General description
Main
application
Vat Difficult to apply (requires reduction
treatment to make soluble in water &
oxidation to resume insoluble state
after dyeing); most expensive;
incomplete colour range (strong in
blue & green but weak in brilliant
red); good all round fastness except
indigo & sulphurised vat species;
tending to decrease in popularity due
to increasing use of reactive dyes.
Commonly
used for high
quality cotton
goods, e.g.
towel; specially
used in the
dyeing of
denim fabric.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
15
VAT DYES
• INDIGO, probably the oldest dye
known to man, is one of the most
important members of this group.
• Natural indigo extracted from the
plant 'Indigofera tinctorie' was
used by the Egyptians in 200 BC.
• The first synthetic indigo was
introduced to the textile trade in
1897 & had the effect of
completely replacing the natural
product.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
16
VAT DYES
• Although the vat dyes may be divided into 3
chemical groups, they are similar in that they are
insoluble in water & become water soluble
when reduced in the presence of an alkali.
• After dyeing, the fabric is oxidized & the dye
again becomes water insoluble.
• Because of the time consuming & costly
procedure in reducing vat dye into a water-
soluble complex, dye manufacturers have
produced a stabilized water-soluble vat dye.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
17
VAT DYES
• This dye can be applied to
cotton & viscose rayon by
the methods used by
applying direct cotton
dyes.
• After the dyeing, a simple
treatment restores the vat
dye to its normal insoluble
state.
• Solubilized vat dyes have
an affinity for cellulose &
animal fibres.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
18
VAT DYES - USE:
• Vat dyes are used in cotton dyeing where high
wash & boil fastness required.
• Because of the high alkali concentration in the dye
bath, pure vat dyes cannot be used on animal
fibres, (wool, natural silk, & various hairs).
• Bright red is absent in vat dye range.
• Solubilized vat dyes, not requiring the presence of
alkali, can be used for dyeing on animal fibres.
• Because they are dyed at low temperatures, they
are used in Indonesian batik dyeing for green
shades.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
19
VAT DYES
• When the ultimate in wash & boil fastness
is required.
• Also used to dye over fibre reactive dyes for
multi-layered dyeing.
YELLOW GREEN
ORANGE OLIVE B
RED BROWN
BLUE NAVY
VIOLET BLACK
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
20
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General description
Main
application
Sulphur Difficult to apply (application
similar to vat dyes); cheap
particularly for dark shade;
incomplete black, navy, khaki
& colour range (strong in
brown but no bright shade);
poor washing & rubbing
fastness & sensitive to
chlorine; may cause fabric
rendering of cellulose upon
storage (aging).
Mostly used for
heavy cellulosic
goods in dark
shades.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
21
SULPHUR DYES
• The first Sulphur dye was discovered in France
in 1873, & further work done by Raymond Videl
enabled the manufacture of 'Videl black".
• Its outstanding fastness to light, washing &
boiling far surpassed any cotton black known at
that time.
• The general disadvantage of the Sulphur dyes
that they produce dull shades & lack a red.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
22
SULPHUR DYES
• The main advantage lays in their
cheapness, ease of application & good
wash-fastness.
• In their normal state, Sulphur dyes are
insoluble in water but are readily soluble in
the solution of Sodium Sulphide.
• In this form they have high affinity to the
all cellulose fibres.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
23
SULPHUR DYES - USE:
• The use of Sulphur dyes is restricted to
dull brown, Khaki & Navy shades,
where a good wash but not boil-fastness
is required.
• Most Khaki & Navy overalls are dyed
with Sulphur dyes.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
24
SULPHUR DYES - USE:
• An outstanding member of this family is
Sulphur blackSulphur black..
• It dyes all cellulose fibres, but particularly linen &
jute, to a lustrous & deep black with excellent
wash & light fastness.
• Sulphur dyes are dyed from a dye bath
containing Sodium Sulphide & common or
Glaubers Salt, & are oxidized by airing or with
some oxidizing agents (Sodium Bichromate or
Hydrogen Peroxide) in a fresh bath.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
25
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General description Main application
Reactive Easy application;
moderate price; complete
colour range; good
fastness due to direct
reaction with fibres.
Commonly used for all
cellulosic goods
especially in knitted
fabric batchwise
dyeing; selective dyes
can also be applied on
wool, silk & rayon;
increasingly used in
printing due to good
fastness.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
26
REACTIVE DYES
• This is an entirely class of dye introduced
to the market in 1956.
• They react chemically with the fibre being
dyed & if correctly applied, cannot be
removed by washing or boiling.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
27
REACTIVE DYES
• The main feature of the
dyestuff is its low affinity
to cellulose; therefore
large amounts of salt are
required to force its
deposition on he fabric.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
28
REACTIVE DYES
• After this has been
achieved, addition of alkali
causes the deposited dyes
to react with the fibre.
• Only a successfully
concluded reaction
guarantees a fast dyeing.
• Basically there are two
types of reactive dyes: the
cold dyeing & hot dyeing
types.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
29
REACTIVE DYES - USE:
• Reactive dyes are used
where bright dyeing with
high light & wash fastness
is required.
• Cold dyeing is used
extensively in batik work.
• Although some reactive
dyestuffs have been
specially modified to dye
wool, their main usage is
in dyeing cotton linen &
viscose rayon.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
30
REACTIVE DYES
• Cold water fibre
reactive dyes, suitable
for dyeing on cotton,
silk, jute, rayon &
hessian.
• Cannot be used on
synthetics or fabric
that has been coated
with resin or drip-dry
finish.
Yellow 2GL
Golden Yellow 2RL
Orange 2R
Scarlet
Red BG (primary)
Red 4B (bluish red)
Red 8B (magenta)
Rubinole 5B
Brilliant Blue 2R
Brilliant Blue BL
Violet 2R
Turquoise 2G
Navy GRL
Brown 2R
Brilliant Green BL
Black B (blue base)
Black 2B (green base)
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
31
Dye for Protein Fibres:
• Acid Dyes
• Metal-
complex Dyes
• Chrome Dyes
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
32
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General
description
Main
application
Acid Easy application;
complete colour
range with very
good bright shades;
fastness properties
may vary among
individual dyes.
Commonly used
for wool, silk &
nylon.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
33
ACID DYES
• These dyes comprise a large number of dyes used
for the dyeing of wool, silk & nylon.
• They vary considerably in their basic chemical
structure, but have one common feature - they dye
from an acid dye bath.
• All acid dyes can be grouped in 3 sub groups:
a. Level dyeing acid dyes
b. Acid milling dyes
c. Pre-metalized dyes
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
34
ACID DYES
a. Level dyeing acid dyes:
• These dyes produce bright dyeing.
• The main feature is their good leveling
properties.
• They are dyed from a dye bath containing
strong acids (Sulphuric or Formic acid).
• These dyes exhibit low wash & light
fastness.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
35
ACID DYES
b. Acid milling dyes:
• Selected because of their high & light fastness & are
extensively used for dyeing woolen fabrics that are
subsequently milled.
• These dyes require great care in application because
uneven dyeings are difficult or impossible to rectify.
• The dye bath requires the presence of weak acid
(acetic acid) or acid releasing salts (ammonium
sulphate or ammonium acetate) from which acid is
liberated during dyeing.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
36
ACID DYES
c. Pre-metalized dyes
• These dyes represent an extension of
mordant dyes.
• The metal component being already
incorporated in the dye during manufacturing
process.
• Very good light fastness even in pale shades
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
37
ACID DYES - USE:
• The family of acid dyes is very large & diverse,
varying widely in their methods of dyeing,
application & end use of the dyed fabric.
• A choice of dyes should be made considering
sometimes-incompatible factors: - level dyeing,
fastness, brightness & ease of application.
• Care must be taken to use the appropriate method
as prescribed for a given dye.
• A number of acid dyes are also used to dye nylon.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
38
ACID DYES for Wool, Nylon & Silk
• Selection of milling & pre-metallised
dyes. Dyeing at boil with addition of
Acetic Acid. Bright strong colours.
Mixes of primary colours (*) produce
large range of tertiary colours. Dyes
have very high light & wash fastness.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
39
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General description
Main
application
Metal-
complex
Relatively difficult to apply;
expensive; complete colour
range but duller shade than
acid dyes; good fastness due
to high molecular size &
metal complex structure.
Mainly used
for wool &
Nylon.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
40
Classification of dyes
Dye Class
General
description
Main
application
Chrome
Mordant
Complicated
application; expensive;
complete
colour range but very
dull shade; good all
round fastness.
Mainly used for
wool products
especially for the
end use of carpet.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
41
Dye for Other Fibres:
• Disperse
Dyes for
Polyester,
Acetate
• Cationic Dyes
for Acrylic
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
42
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General description
Main
application
Disperse Require skill in application (either
by carrier or under high
temperature); moderate price;
complete colour range; limited
solubility in water (normally
dispersed in water for
application); good fastness
after reduction clearing treatment;
sublimation property.
Mostly used
for polyester
& acetate; can
also be applied
on nylon &
Acrylic.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
43
DISPERSE DYES
• The introduction of a new regenerated cellulose acetate
fibre in 1920 led to the necessity to develop an entirely new
range of dyes.
• It was found that acetate (or Celanese) fibre had hardly any
affinity for water-soluble dyes.
• A new dyeing principle was introduced: dyeing with water
dispersed coloured organic substances.
• These finely coloured particles are applied in aqueous
dispersion to the acetate material & actually dissolved in the
fibres.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
44
DISPERSE DYES - USE:
• Basically developed for dyeing of acetate
fibres, Disperse dyes are also used for
dyeing of polyamide (Nylon) & acrylic
(Orlon & Acrylan) fibres.
• With the addition of 'carriers' or swelling
agents these dyes are also used in dyeing
of Polyester (Terylene, Dacron, etc.)
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
45
Classification of dyes
Dye
Class
General description
Main
application
Basic
(Cationic)
Careful application required
to prevent unlevel dyeing &
adverse effect in hand-feel;
complete colour range with
very good brilliant shades.
Mainly used for
acrylic.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
46
CATIONIC & BASIC DYES
• MAUVENE, the first to be discovered by Perkin,
was a basic dye & most of the dyes which
followed, including magenta, malachite green
& crystal violet, were of the same type.
• “Basic dyes” dye wool & silk from a dye bath
containing acid but dye cotton fibres only in the
presence of a mordantmordant usually a metallic salt
that increases affinity of the fabric for the dye.
• Basic dyes include the most brilliantmost brilliant of all the
synthetic dyes known, but unfortunately they
have very poor light & wash fastness.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
47
CATIONIC & BASIC DYES - USE:
Basic dyes will dye wool & silk from an acid bath &
are used where brightness is of prime
consideration.
With the introduction of cotton dyes possessing
higher fastness properties their use for dyeing
cotton has diminished.
Basic dyes are used extensively for dyeing cut
flowers, dried flowers, also dyeing jute sisal, coir
& wood (toys).
With the introduction of acrylic fibre a new range of
'modified' basic dyes – “cationic dyes” were
perfected for dyeing of this material.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
48
Cationic dyes
• Cationic dyes for dyeing acrylic (Acrilan, Courtelle, Orlon)
paper, wood & dried flowers.
Also used for dyeing silk & silk flowers in very brilliant
colours.
YELLOW BLUE
ORANGE TURQUOISE
RED VIOLET
PINK GREEN
RHODAMINE BLACK
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
49
Chronology of Dye Companies
ICI Zeneca BASF
Mobay Miles Bayer
Hoechst
DyStar
Sandoz
Sodyeco
Sandoz Clariant
Ciba + Geigy Ciba-Geigy Ciba
Crompton and Knowles Yorkshire
Sumitomo
DyStar
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
50
Colour Formulation
• The choice of a specific colour for a particular material is
the responsibility of the textile designer or colourist who
perceives the colour to be in conformity with the fashion
requirement.
• It is the job of the textile dyer to match the designer ’s
colour with the proper dyes or pigments as well as to meet
the colour fastness requirements for the specific end-use of
the material.
• In brief,the designer ’s role is part of the world of artistry &
creativity, while the dyer ’s role is in the world of science &
technology.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
51
Colour Formulation
• Matching of colour shades by
the dyer requires the skilful
blending & formulation of
different dyes & pigments, as
well as an understanding of
the nature of fibres & the
numerous chemicals needed
to carry the dyeing process.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
52
Colour
Formulation
• Colour match recipes are first developed on a small
laboratory basis.
• Once the dyer has formulated a colour match &
achieved a satisfactory sampling (often known as the
lab-dip), this becomes the standard which all future
dye lots or batches must follow.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
53
Colour ForColour Formulationmulation
• In actual production, however, each dye lot is
more or less different in shade from all other
lots.
• This lot-to-lot shade variation is caused by
several factors such as differences in dyes /
auxiliaries concentration, fabric lots & different
dyeing machine settings, etc.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
54
Colour FastnessColour Fastness
• A good dye must withstand the subsequent treatment (e.g.
laundering, dry cleaning, etc.) or environmental wearing
(e.g.rubbing,light exposure, etc.).
• The degree to which a dyed material can withstand such
treatments & wearing is called colour fastness.
• No dye or pigment is fast in all colour fastness.
• Only a careful selection & formulation of dyes &
auxiliaries can result in a desirable dyeing, & conform with
the colour fastness requirements.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
55
Visual Assessment methods
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
56
Principle of using Grey Scale
• The result of a colorfastness test is rated
by visually comparing the difference in
color or the contrast between the un-
treated & treated specimens with the
differences represented by the Scale.
• The colorfastness grade is equal to the
gray scale step which is judged to have
the same color or contrast difference.
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
57
How to use Grey Scale
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
58
Common colour fastness:
• Laundering (washing),
• light exposure,
• dry cleaning,
• perspiration &
• rubbing (crocking).
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
59
Dye classes’ colour fastness
properties
2004
Introduction to Coloration & Finishing
60
Application of
Pigments
Popular especially in printing.
Advantages :
• easy to apply with good shade matching from
lot to lot;
• full colour range; &
• can be applied on all textile fibres & their
blends.

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Dye class

  • 1. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 1 Dye classificationDye classification Dyeing processesDyeing processes Daniel 2004Daniel 2004
  • 2. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 2 You can not assume that to dye any piece of fabric to a given colour, all you need to do is use a dye of that particular colour. No dye will dye all textile fabrics satisfactorily. This means, simply, that you must choose a dye that will suit the material (or a material that will suit the dye).
  • 3. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 3 Classification of DyesClassification of Dyes • No single class of dye can dye all fibres. • A specific class of dye can only be applied to a given type of textile fibre.
  • 4. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 4 Dye for Cellulosic Fibres: • Direct Dyes • Azoic Dyes • Reactive Dyes • Sulphur dyes • Vat Dyes
  • 5. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 5 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Direct Simple application; cheap; complete colour range; moderate colour fastness but can be improved by after- treatment with copper salts & cationic fixing agents. Mainly used for cellulosic fibres; can also be applied on rayon, silk & wool.
  • 6. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 6 DIRECT DYES • Direct dyes for Cotton, Viscose, Silk & Nylon • Easy to dye - require only cooking salt & very hot to boiling water. • Dyes have a good light fastness but only moderate wash fastness . • It is possible to improve on wash fastness by after-treatment of dyed article with dye-fixing agent. • These dyes are principally used for “not so expansive” products or product with fewer washes such as T-shirts, curtains & theatre productions.
  • 7. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 7 DIRECT DYES Yellow Pink Brown Turquoise Orange Red Violet Black Fushia Grey Green Forrest Green Scarlet Blue Wine China Blue
  • 8. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 8 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main applicatio n Azoic (Naphthol) Complicated application; limited colour range (red, orange, navy among the best); bright shade at moderate cost; generally good wet fastness but moderate to poor dry cleaning & rubbing fastness; also called naphthol dye due to the use of naphthol, or ice colour because of the usage of ice during application. Mainly applied on cellulosic fibres, especially on brilliant red shade.
  • 9. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 9 Azo Dye Synthesis CouplingCoupling • Blue component can be coupled with yellow or green component to form two different dyestuffs.
  • 10. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 10 AZOIC DYES • The word 'Azoic' is the distinguishing name given to insoluble azo dyes that are not applied directly as dyes, but are actually produced within the fibre itself. • This is done with impregnating the fibre with one component of the dye, followed by treatment in another component, thus forming the dye within the fibre. NH2 NO2CH3 HO C O NH
  • 11. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 11 AZOIC DYES • The formation of this insoluble dye within the fabric makes it very fast to washing. • The deposition of the dye on the surface of the fibre produces poor rub fastness, but once the loose dye is removed by boiling the fabric in soap, the dyeing becomes one of the fastest available.
  • 12. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 12 AZOIC DYES • Normally it is dyed in coldcold for all natural fibers • Naphtol dyes are not sold in the form of a "finished dye" but in form of their components (Insoluble azo base & fast colour coupling compound) which combine on the fibre to produce a water insoluble azo dye of exceptional fastness properties.
  • 13. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 13The following chart of basic range shows only a very limited number of colours that can be obtained by using combinations of Naphtol & Diazo. G D or AS BO BT GR ORANGE GC CHROME YELLOW ORANGE RED ORANGE PALE BROWN APRICOT RED RC CADMIUM YELLOW BRILLIANT RED DEEP RED RED B YELLOW OCHRE CRIMSON CRIMSON LAKE BORDEAUX GP REDDISH YELLOW CLARET BORDEAUX VIOLET B CHROME YELLOW VIOLET DARK VIOLET BLUE BB OR 3B GOLDEN YELLOW BLUE NAVY BLUE DARK BROWN GREEN GREEN BB RED RUST BLUE GREEN DARK GREEN GREEN GT LEAF GREEN BLUE GREEN BLACK B BLACK BLACK BLACK DIAZO SALT NAPHTOL
  • 14. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 14 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Vat Difficult to apply (requires reduction treatment to make soluble in water & oxidation to resume insoluble state after dyeing); most expensive; incomplete colour range (strong in blue & green but weak in brilliant red); good all round fastness except indigo & sulphurised vat species; tending to decrease in popularity due to increasing use of reactive dyes. Commonly used for high quality cotton goods, e.g. towel; specially used in the dyeing of denim fabric.
  • 15. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 15 VAT DYES • INDIGO, probably the oldest dye known to man, is one of the most important members of this group. • Natural indigo extracted from the plant 'Indigofera tinctorie' was used by the Egyptians in 200 BC. • The first synthetic indigo was introduced to the textile trade in 1897 & had the effect of completely replacing the natural product.
  • 16. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 16 VAT DYES • Although the vat dyes may be divided into 3 chemical groups, they are similar in that they are insoluble in water & become water soluble when reduced in the presence of an alkali. • After dyeing, the fabric is oxidized & the dye again becomes water insoluble. • Because of the time consuming & costly procedure in reducing vat dye into a water- soluble complex, dye manufacturers have produced a stabilized water-soluble vat dye.
  • 17. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 17 VAT DYES • This dye can be applied to cotton & viscose rayon by the methods used by applying direct cotton dyes. • After the dyeing, a simple treatment restores the vat dye to its normal insoluble state. • Solubilized vat dyes have an affinity for cellulose & animal fibres.
  • 18. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 18 VAT DYES - USE: • Vat dyes are used in cotton dyeing where high wash & boil fastness required. • Because of the high alkali concentration in the dye bath, pure vat dyes cannot be used on animal fibres, (wool, natural silk, & various hairs). • Bright red is absent in vat dye range. • Solubilized vat dyes, not requiring the presence of alkali, can be used for dyeing on animal fibres. • Because they are dyed at low temperatures, they are used in Indonesian batik dyeing for green shades.
  • 19. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 19 VAT DYES • When the ultimate in wash & boil fastness is required. • Also used to dye over fibre reactive dyes for multi-layered dyeing. YELLOW GREEN ORANGE OLIVE B RED BROWN BLUE NAVY VIOLET BLACK
  • 20. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 20 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Sulphur Difficult to apply (application similar to vat dyes); cheap particularly for dark shade; incomplete black, navy, khaki & colour range (strong in brown but no bright shade); poor washing & rubbing fastness & sensitive to chlorine; may cause fabric rendering of cellulose upon storage (aging). Mostly used for heavy cellulosic goods in dark shades.
  • 21. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 21 SULPHUR DYES • The first Sulphur dye was discovered in France in 1873, & further work done by Raymond Videl enabled the manufacture of 'Videl black". • Its outstanding fastness to light, washing & boiling far surpassed any cotton black known at that time. • The general disadvantage of the Sulphur dyes that they produce dull shades & lack a red.
  • 22. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 22 SULPHUR DYES • The main advantage lays in their cheapness, ease of application & good wash-fastness. • In their normal state, Sulphur dyes are insoluble in water but are readily soluble in the solution of Sodium Sulphide. • In this form they have high affinity to the all cellulose fibres.
  • 23. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 23 SULPHUR DYES - USE: • The use of Sulphur dyes is restricted to dull brown, Khaki & Navy shades, where a good wash but not boil-fastness is required. • Most Khaki & Navy overalls are dyed with Sulphur dyes.
  • 24. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 24 SULPHUR DYES - USE: • An outstanding member of this family is Sulphur blackSulphur black.. • It dyes all cellulose fibres, but particularly linen & jute, to a lustrous & deep black with excellent wash & light fastness. • Sulphur dyes are dyed from a dye bath containing Sodium Sulphide & common or Glaubers Salt, & are oxidized by airing or with some oxidizing agents (Sodium Bichromate or Hydrogen Peroxide) in a fresh bath.
  • 25. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 25 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Reactive Easy application; moderate price; complete colour range; good fastness due to direct reaction with fibres. Commonly used for all cellulosic goods especially in knitted fabric batchwise dyeing; selective dyes can also be applied on wool, silk & rayon; increasingly used in printing due to good fastness.
  • 26. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 26 REACTIVE DYES • This is an entirely class of dye introduced to the market in 1956. • They react chemically with the fibre being dyed & if correctly applied, cannot be removed by washing or boiling.
  • 27. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 27 REACTIVE DYES • The main feature of the dyestuff is its low affinity to cellulose; therefore large amounts of salt are required to force its deposition on he fabric.
  • 28. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 28 REACTIVE DYES • After this has been achieved, addition of alkali causes the deposited dyes to react with the fibre. • Only a successfully concluded reaction guarantees a fast dyeing. • Basically there are two types of reactive dyes: the cold dyeing & hot dyeing types.
  • 29. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 29 REACTIVE DYES - USE: • Reactive dyes are used where bright dyeing with high light & wash fastness is required. • Cold dyeing is used extensively in batik work. • Although some reactive dyestuffs have been specially modified to dye wool, their main usage is in dyeing cotton linen & viscose rayon.
  • 30. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 30 REACTIVE DYES • Cold water fibre reactive dyes, suitable for dyeing on cotton, silk, jute, rayon & hessian. • Cannot be used on synthetics or fabric that has been coated with resin or drip-dry finish. Yellow 2GL Golden Yellow 2RL Orange 2R Scarlet Red BG (primary) Red 4B (bluish red) Red 8B (magenta) Rubinole 5B Brilliant Blue 2R Brilliant Blue BL Violet 2R Turquoise 2G Navy GRL Brown 2R Brilliant Green BL Black B (blue base) Black 2B (green base)
  • 31. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 31 Dye for Protein Fibres: • Acid Dyes • Metal- complex Dyes • Chrome Dyes
  • 32. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 32 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Acid Easy application; complete colour range with very good bright shades; fastness properties may vary among individual dyes. Commonly used for wool, silk & nylon.
  • 33. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 33 ACID DYES • These dyes comprise a large number of dyes used for the dyeing of wool, silk & nylon. • They vary considerably in their basic chemical structure, but have one common feature - they dye from an acid dye bath. • All acid dyes can be grouped in 3 sub groups: a. Level dyeing acid dyes b. Acid milling dyes c. Pre-metalized dyes
  • 34. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 34 ACID DYES a. Level dyeing acid dyes: • These dyes produce bright dyeing. • The main feature is their good leveling properties. • They are dyed from a dye bath containing strong acids (Sulphuric or Formic acid). • These dyes exhibit low wash & light fastness.
  • 35. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 35 ACID DYES b. Acid milling dyes: • Selected because of their high & light fastness & are extensively used for dyeing woolen fabrics that are subsequently milled. • These dyes require great care in application because uneven dyeings are difficult or impossible to rectify. • The dye bath requires the presence of weak acid (acetic acid) or acid releasing salts (ammonium sulphate or ammonium acetate) from which acid is liberated during dyeing.
  • 36. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 36 ACID DYES c. Pre-metalized dyes • These dyes represent an extension of mordant dyes. • The metal component being already incorporated in the dye during manufacturing process. • Very good light fastness even in pale shades
  • 37. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 37 ACID DYES - USE: • The family of acid dyes is very large & diverse, varying widely in their methods of dyeing, application & end use of the dyed fabric. • A choice of dyes should be made considering sometimes-incompatible factors: - level dyeing, fastness, brightness & ease of application. • Care must be taken to use the appropriate method as prescribed for a given dye. • A number of acid dyes are also used to dye nylon.
  • 38. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 38 ACID DYES for Wool, Nylon & Silk • Selection of milling & pre-metallised dyes. Dyeing at boil with addition of Acetic Acid. Bright strong colours. Mixes of primary colours (*) produce large range of tertiary colours. Dyes have very high light & wash fastness.
  • 39. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 39 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Metal- complex Relatively difficult to apply; expensive; complete colour range but duller shade than acid dyes; good fastness due to high molecular size & metal complex structure. Mainly used for wool & Nylon.
  • 40. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 40 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Chrome Mordant Complicated application; expensive; complete colour range but very dull shade; good all round fastness. Mainly used for wool products especially for the end use of carpet.
  • 41. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 41 Dye for Other Fibres: • Disperse Dyes for Polyester, Acetate • Cationic Dyes for Acrylic
  • 42. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 42 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Disperse Require skill in application (either by carrier or under high temperature); moderate price; complete colour range; limited solubility in water (normally dispersed in water for application); good fastness after reduction clearing treatment; sublimation property. Mostly used for polyester & acetate; can also be applied on nylon & Acrylic.
  • 43. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 43 DISPERSE DYES • The introduction of a new regenerated cellulose acetate fibre in 1920 led to the necessity to develop an entirely new range of dyes. • It was found that acetate (or Celanese) fibre had hardly any affinity for water-soluble dyes. • A new dyeing principle was introduced: dyeing with water dispersed coloured organic substances. • These finely coloured particles are applied in aqueous dispersion to the acetate material & actually dissolved in the fibres.
  • 44. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 44 DISPERSE DYES - USE: • Basically developed for dyeing of acetate fibres, Disperse dyes are also used for dyeing of polyamide (Nylon) & acrylic (Orlon & Acrylan) fibres. • With the addition of 'carriers' or swelling agents these dyes are also used in dyeing of Polyester (Terylene, Dacron, etc.)
  • 45. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 45 Classification of dyes Dye Class General description Main application Basic (Cationic) Careful application required to prevent unlevel dyeing & adverse effect in hand-feel; complete colour range with very good brilliant shades. Mainly used for acrylic.
  • 46. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 46 CATIONIC & BASIC DYES • MAUVENE, the first to be discovered by Perkin, was a basic dye & most of the dyes which followed, including magenta, malachite green & crystal violet, were of the same type. • “Basic dyes” dye wool & silk from a dye bath containing acid but dye cotton fibres only in the presence of a mordantmordant usually a metallic salt that increases affinity of the fabric for the dye. • Basic dyes include the most brilliantmost brilliant of all the synthetic dyes known, but unfortunately they have very poor light & wash fastness.
  • 47. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 47 CATIONIC & BASIC DYES - USE: Basic dyes will dye wool & silk from an acid bath & are used where brightness is of prime consideration. With the introduction of cotton dyes possessing higher fastness properties their use for dyeing cotton has diminished. Basic dyes are used extensively for dyeing cut flowers, dried flowers, also dyeing jute sisal, coir & wood (toys). With the introduction of acrylic fibre a new range of 'modified' basic dyes – “cationic dyes” were perfected for dyeing of this material.
  • 48. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 48 Cationic dyes • Cationic dyes for dyeing acrylic (Acrilan, Courtelle, Orlon) paper, wood & dried flowers. Also used for dyeing silk & silk flowers in very brilliant colours. YELLOW BLUE ORANGE TURQUOISE RED VIOLET PINK GREEN RHODAMINE BLACK
  • 49. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 49 Chronology of Dye Companies ICI Zeneca BASF Mobay Miles Bayer Hoechst DyStar Sandoz Sodyeco Sandoz Clariant Ciba + Geigy Ciba-Geigy Ciba Crompton and Knowles Yorkshire Sumitomo DyStar
  • 50. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 50 Colour Formulation • The choice of a specific colour for a particular material is the responsibility of the textile designer or colourist who perceives the colour to be in conformity with the fashion requirement. • It is the job of the textile dyer to match the designer ’s colour with the proper dyes or pigments as well as to meet the colour fastness requirements for the specific end-use of the material. • In brief,the designer ’s role is part of the world of artistry & creativity, while the dyer ’s role is in the world of science & technology.
  • 51. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 51 Colour Formulation • Matching of colour shades by the dyer requires the skilful blending & formulation of different dyes & pigments, as well as an understanding of the nature of fibres & the numerous chemicals needed to carry the dyeing process.
  • 52. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 52 Colour Formulation • Colour match recipes are first developed on a small laboratory basis. • Once the dyer has formulated a colour match & achieved a satisfactory sampling (often known as the lab-dip), this becomes the standard which all future dye lots or batches must follow.
  • 53. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 53 Colour ForColour Formulationmulation • In actual production, however, each dye lot is more or less different in shade from all other lots. • This lot-to-lot shade variation is caused by several factors such as differences in dyes / auxiliaries concentration, fabric lots & different dyeing machine settings, etc.
  • 54. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 54 Colour FastnessColour Fastness • A good dye must withstand the subsequent treatment (e.g. laundering, dry cleaning, etc.) or environmental wearing (e.g.rubbing,light exposure, etc.). • The degree to which a dyed material can withstand such treatments & wearing is called colour fastness. • No dye or pigment is fast in all colour fastness. • Only a careful selection & formulation of dyes & auxiliaries can result in a desirable dyeing, & conform with the colour fastness requirements.
  • 55. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 55 Visual Assessment methods
  • 56. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 56 Principle of using Grey Scale • The result of a colorfastness test is rated by visually comparing the difference in color or the contrast between the un- treated & treated specimens with the differences represented by the Scale. • The colorfastness grade is equal to the gray scale step which is judged to have the same color or contrast difference.
  • 57. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 57 How to use Grey Scale
  • 58. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 58 Common colour fastness: • Laundering (washing), • light exposure, • dry cleaning, • perspiration & • rubbing (crocking).
  • 59. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 59 Dye classes’ colour fastness properties
  • 60. 2004 Introduction to Coloration & Finishing 60 Application of Pigments Popular especially in printing. Advantages : • easy to apply with good shade matching from lot to lot; • full colour range; & • can be applied on all textile fibres & their blends.