HISTORY OF FABRICS
5,000 B.C….Flax- a material that is used to make
linens by spinning and weaving.
3,000 B.C….Cotton was used by the Egyptians.
Cotton is made from a whiteish yellow vegetable
fiber and will produce different qualities based on
3,000 B.C….Wool also dates back to around 3,000
B.C. and it was used by people in the Stone Age.
Wool comes from the fleece of sheep and lamb and
is a much thicker fabric.
NATURAL FABRICS VS. SYNTHETIC FABRICS
Natural fabrics- made of fiber that either comes
from an animal, a vegetable or a mineral.
-Examples: Wool, Silk, Linen, Cotton, Flax,
Synthetic fabrics (manufactured fabrics)- developed
based on their use, such as in ropes.
-Examples: Rayon, Spandex, Acetate, and
Chemical process to form synthetic materials:
1. All synthetic textiles start in a molten liquid form.
2. That liquid is then forced through a spinneret.
3. Liquid synthetic fabric strings are then cooled and dried
4. They can then be woven into textiles.
HISTORY AND GENERAL INFORMATION OF DYES
In aqueous solutions
Dye vs. pigment….dyes = soluble and pigments =
Technique of dying dates back to prehistoric times
Natural vs. synthetic….natural dyes = first created
in 1856 but quickly replaced with synthetic (man
Classified according to how they are used in the
CLASSIFICATION OF DYES
Area and method of application
Chemical classification- Based on the nature of
their respective chromophores.
Nature of the Electronic Excitation(i.e, energy
transfer colorants, absorption colorants and
According to the dyeing methods
Anionic(for Protein fibre)
DIFFERENT TYPES OF DYES
Direct Cotton, cellulosic and
Vat Dyes Cotton, cellulosic and
Sulfur Cotton, Cellulosic fibers
Organic pigments Cotton, cellulosic, blended
Reactive Cellulosic fiber and fabric
Disperse Synthetic fiber
Acid Wool, silk, paper, synthetic
Basic Silk, wool, cotton
water-soluble anionic dyes
applied to fibers such as
silk, wool, nylon and
modified acrylic fibers
Attachment to the fiber is
attributed, at least partly, to
salt formation between
anionic groups in the dyes
and cationic groups in the
Stick to fibers by hydrogen
bonding, Van der Waals
force, and ionic bonding
Structure is made up of Azo
applied to acrylic fibers,
but find some use for
wool and silk
soluble in acid and
insoluble in basic
Bonded by ionic bonds
DIRECT (SUBSTANTIVE) DYES
Bright and deep colors
can be azo compounds,
stilbenes, oxazines, or
groups (mainly sulphonic
acid groups) in an
dye molecules being held
in place mainly through
Van der Waals forces and
Common methyl and ethyl modifiers can be added
Original dye: red color
Add four methyl groups to
get violet color