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DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS IN DENTISTRY
• English Activity
Valencia, Spain.
M51
18-5-17
INDEX OF WORK
• Introduction
• Saliva
• X-Ray
• Biopsy
• Bibliography
INTRODUCTION
• Diagnosis
Is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon.
It’s used in medicine, science and business.
SALIVA
• Saliva is a watery substance secreted by the salivary glands.
• Comprises:
a. water 99,5%.
b. electrolytes.
c. mucus.
d. glycoproteins.
e. enzymes.
f. antimicrobial agents.
g. epithelial cells.
h. White blood cells.
SALIVA
• Saliva can be seen in many cases as a reflection of the physiological
function of the body.
• It’s useful for early diagnosis.
SALIVA
SALIVA
• Cardiovascular disease.
• Atherosclerosis, the leading etiological factor, is
triggered by the presence of inflammation, which
results in deposition of lipids in the arterial walls and
progressive narrowing of the arterial lumen.
• People with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) are
more likely to be unaware of their susceptibility to
develop cardio- vascular disease.
SALIVA
• Cardiovascular disease.
• Salivary CRP levels were found to
correlate with plasma CRP levels
obtained from blood samples of a
population at risk for cardiovascular
complications.
• Detect cardiac troponin (cTn), a
biomarker for the detection of AMI.
SALIVA
• HIV / AIDS
• Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) affects the
immune system.
• It is a sexually-transmitted disease that also
spreads through infected blood transfusions and
from diseased mothers to infants.
SALIVA
• HIV / AIDS
• HIV Test can detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses with an oral swab.
• A swab is left in place for 2–5 min between the lower gingival and
buccal mucosa to collect antibodies in the saliva.
SALIVA
• Oral Cancer.
• Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is
the most common form of oral cancer.
• Research groups have found that salivary
levels of specific proteins are increased in
whole saliva of patients with OSCC (CD44).
SALIVA
• Salivary tests will pave the way for chair-side diagnosis of multiple
oral and systemic diseases at the dental office.
• The advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the
establishment of defined guidelines will make salivary diagnostics a
reality in the near future.
Dental X-rays
• Dental X-rays are a type of image of the teeth and mouth.
• Are used in dentistry as a fundamental diagnostic tool.
• With them we can see pathologies that at first sight we can not
detect.
• In them we see the structures of the oral cavity reflected according to
their density.
INTRODUCTION
CLASSIFICATION
Dental x ray machine
• Interproximal
radiographs
• Periapical radiographs • Occlusal radiographs
• Panoramic radiographs
OBJECTIVES
• Quantity, size and position of teeth.
• Teeth that have not come out or teeth impacted.
• Dental caries.
• Bone damage (such as that produced by periodontitis).
• Dental abscesses.
• Fractured jaw.
• Problems in the way the upper and lower teeth fit Other anomalies of
mandibular teeth and bones.
Parallel technique:
• The radiograph is placed in a position parallel to the longitudinal axis
of the tooth to be examined, in a central beam directed perpendicular
to the radiograph and the longitudinal axis of the tooth
Bisector technique:
• At the point where the radiograph has contact with the tooth, the
plane of the radiograph, and the longitudinal axis of the tooth form
an angle, the radiologist must imagine a plane that divides by half
the angle formed by the film and the longitudinal axis of the tooth,
this plane is called bisector, which creates two equal angles
RISKS
• Exposure to radiation from dental
radiographs is very low.
• A lead apron may be used to cover the
body and reduce radiation exposure.
• Pregnant women should not be given x-
rays unless absolutely necessary.
Laboratory tests of interest in dentistry
• Haematological
• Hemostasis
• Blood biochemistry
• saliva
Blood count
• Erythrocyte series: number of red blood cells, hematocrit,
hemoglobin
• Leukocyte series: Total count, neutrophils, monocytes…
• Platelet series: normal value : 150.000-400.000 mm3
Blood chemistry
• Blood glucose
• Creatinine
• alkaline phosphatase
• Transaminases
Infections diseases:
• VIH
• Hepatitis
• TBC
It is better to prevent a complication through
diagnosis than to resolve it intraoperatively
BIOPSY
• A biopsy is a medical test which consists in a
sample of tissue taken from the body in order to
examine it more closely.
• To determine the presence or extent of a disease.
• The tissue is generally examined under
a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be
analysed chemically.
BIOPSY
• Excisional biopsy: entire lump or suspicious area is removed,
including healthy tissue around
• Incisional biopsy: only a sample of tissue is removed with
preservation of the histological architecture of the tissue’s cells.
WHY IS IT IMPORTANT?
• Biopsies are most commonly performed for
insight into possible cancerous and
inflammatory conditions.
• Lesion with similar clinical or radiological
morphology.
• Provides definitive diagnosis, prognosis and
treatment information.
BIOPSY
• Contraindications:
1. Patients with conditions that can preclude the safe use of
local anaesthetic and those with severe bleeding diseases
and coagulopathies.
1. Invasive procedures on the bone: NO in patients with
bisphosphonates treatment.
2. Risk for metastasis.
BIOPSY
• In most cases biopsies are carried out under local anaesthesia (an
injection into the area to numb it).
• The injection takes a couple of minutes to work and means that the
biopsy will be painless.
BIOPSY
• The biopsy usually leaves a small hole that often requires stitching.
• In the majority of cases the stitches used are dissolvable and take
around two weeks to disappear.
• The whole process (local anaesthetic injection, biopsy and stitching)
usually takes around 15 minutes from start to finish.
BIOPSY
BIBLIOGRAPHY
• http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1079770-overview.
• https://www.baoms.org.uk/patients/procedures/1/oral_mouth_biop
sy.
• https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756071/.
• http://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/x-rays.
DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS IN DENTISTRY

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DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS IN DENTISTRY

  • 1. DIAGNOSTIC TOOLS IN DENTISTRY • English Activity Valencia, Spain. M51 18-5-17
  • 2. INDEX OF WORK • Introduction • Saliva • X-Ray • Biopsy • Bibliography
  • 3. INTRODUCTION • Diagnosis Is the identification of the nature and cause of a certain phenomenon. It’s used in medicine, science and business.
  • 4. SALIVA • Saliva is a watery substance secreted by the salivary glands. • Comprises: a. water 99,5%. b. electrolytes. c. mucus. d. glycoproteins. e. enzymes. f. antimicrobial agents. g. epithelial cells. h. White blood cells.
  • 5. SALIVA • Saliva can be seen in many cases as a reflection of the physiological function of the body. • It’s useful for early diagnosis.
  • 7. SALIVA • Cardiovascular disease. • Atherosclerosis, the leading etiological factor, is triggered by the presence of inflammation, which results in deposition of lipids in the arterial walls and progressive narrowing of the arterial lumen. • People with increased C-reactive protein (CRP) are more likely to be unaware of their susceptibility to develop cardio- vascular disease.
  • 8. SALIVA • Cardiovascular disease. • Salivary CRP levels were found to correlate with plasma CRP levels obtained from blood samples of a population at risk for cardiovascular complications. • Detect cardiac troponin (cTn), a biomarker for the detection of AMI.
  • 9. SALIVA • HIV / AIDS • Human immune deficiency virus (HIV) affects the immune system. • It is a sexually-transmitted disease that also spreads through infected blood transfusions and from diseased mothers to infants.
  • 10. SALIVA • HIV / AIDS • HIV Test can detect both HIV-1 and HIV-2 viruses with an oral swab. • A swab is left in place for 2–5 min between the lower gingival and buccal mucosa to collect antibodies in the saliva.
  • 11. SALIVA • Oral Cancer. • Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common form of oral cancer. • Research groups have found that salivary levels of specific proteins are increased in whole saliva of patients with OSCC (CD44).
  • 12. SALIVA • Salivary tests will pave the way for chair-side diagnosis of multiple oral and systemic diseases at the dental office. • The advent of sensitive and specific salivary diagnostic tools and the establishment of defined guidelines will make salivary diagnostics a reality in the near future.
  • 14. • Dental X-rays are a type of image of the teeth and mouth. • Are used in dentistry as a fundamental diagnostic tool. • With them we can see pathologies that at first sight we can not detect. • In them we see the structures of the oral cavity reflected according to their density. INTRODUCTION
  • 16. • Interproximal radiographs • Periapical radiographs • Occlusal radiographs • Panoramic radiographs
  • 17. OBJECTIVES • Quantity, size and position of teeth. • Teeth that have not come out or teeth impacted. • Dental caries. • Bone damage (such as that produced by periodontitis). • Dental abscesses. • Fractured jaw. • Problems in the way the upper and lower teeth fit Other anomalies of mandibular teeth and bones.
  • 18. Parallel technique: • The radiograph is placed in a position parallel to the longitudinal axis of the tooth to be examined, in a central beam directed perpendicular to the radiograph and the longitudinal axis of the tooth Bisector technique: • At the point where the radiograph has contact with the tooth, the plane of the radiograph, and the longitudinal axis of the tooth form an angle, the radiologist must imagine a plane that divides by half the angle formed by the film and the longitudinal axis of the tooth, this plane is called bisector, which creates two equal angles
  • 19. RISKS • Exposure to radiation from dental radiographs is very low. • A lead apron may be used to cover the body and reduce radiation exposure. • Pregnant women should not be given x- rays unless absolutely necessary.
  • 20. Laboratory tests of interest in dentistry • Haematological • Hemostasis • Blood biochemistry • saliva
  • 21. Blood count • Erythrocyte series: number of red blood cells, hematocrit, hemoglobin • Leukocyte series: Total count, neutrophils, monocytes… • Platelet series: normal value : 150.000-400.000 mm3
  • 22. Blood chemistry • Blood glucose • Creatinine • alkaline phosphatase • Transaminases
  • 23. Infections diseases: • VIH • Hepatitis • TBC It is better to prevent a complication through diagnosis than to resolve it intraoperatively
  • 24. BIOPSY • A biopsy is a medical test which consists in a sample of tissue taken from the body in order to examine it more closely. • To determine the presence or extent of a disease. • The tissue is generally examined under a microscope by a pathologist, and can also be analysed chemically.
  • 25. BIOPSY • Excisional biopsy: entire lump or suspicious area is removed, including healthy tissue around • Incisional biopsy: only a sample of tissue is removed with preservation of the histological architecture of the tissue’s cells.
  • 26. WHY IS IT IMPORTANT? • Biopsies are most commonly performed for insight into possible cancerous and inflammatory conditions. • Lesion with similar clinical or radiological morphology. • Provides definitive diagnosis, prognosis and treatment information.
  • 27. BIOPSY • Contraindications: 1. Patients with conditions that can preclude the safe use of local anaesthetic and those with severe bleeding diseases and coagulopathies. 1. Invasive procedures on the bone: NO in patients with bisphosphonates treatment. 2. Risk for metastasis.
  • 28. BIOPSY • In most cases biopsies are carried out under local anaesthesia (an injection into the area to numb it). • The injection takes a couple of minutes to work and means that the biopsy will be painless.
  • 29. BIOPSY • The biopsy usually leaves a small hole that often requires stitching. • In the majority of cases the stitches used are dissolvable and take around two weeks to disappear. • The whole process (local anaesthetic injection, biopsy and stitching) usually takes around 15 minutes from start to finish.
  • 31. BIBLIOGRAPHY • http://emedicine.medscape.com/article/1079770-overview. • https://www.baoms.org.uk/patients/procedures/1/oral_mouth_biop sy. • https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4756071/. • http://www.ada.org/en/member-center/oral-health-topics/x-rays.