Project Management


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Project Management

  1. 1. Leadership as Action
  4. 4. <ul><li>Why should we study Project Management? </li></ul><ul><li>Consider the following 2 situations </li></ul><ul><li>Situation A </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have a job to perform </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You know your job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have skills for the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>You have half an hour to complete a job </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Situation B </li></ul><ul><ul><li>You have 3 subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They know the job </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They have skills for the same </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If they don’t complete the job; you will be held responsible! </li></ul></ul><ul><li>So, out of these 2 situations which one is intricate? And why? </li></ul>
  5. 5. <ul><li>Why should we study Project Management? </li></ul><ul><li>If you think for a while, you will realize that situation B is more intricate to handle! </li></ul><ul><li>Situation B is a Managerial situation . </li></ul><ul><li>Why? In situation B you don’t do anything, but you get the things done. </li></ul><ul><li>You are remunerated for your responsibilities and if you don’t comply, you are </li></ul><ul><li>ultimately responsible for the same. </li></ul><ul><li>Management requires personal skills , also known as Soft skills . Management is </li></ul><ul><li>Performance orientation, since – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects may be unlimited/massive </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources are limited </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Projects may be arranged as per the priority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Resources can be put into alternative uses </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So manage the available resources so that prioritized work can be satisfied. </li></ul></ul>
  7. 7. P redict P lan P rioritize P roactive P roject P lanning P rogram
  8. 8. project planning program predict <ul><li>Prediction is the basic estimation/ forecasting of the elements that encompass a </li></ul><ul><li>project. Management function begins with forecasting. It is a scientific process of </li></ul><ul><li>looking forward which is fundamentally based on past performance, current analysis </li></ul><ul><li>and future trends. Planning function is based on forecasting. </li></ul><ul><li>Every forecast must be preceded by – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>authentic research </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>analyzing internal office trends </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>risk factors </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>probability of an error </li></ul></ul>1
  9. 9. predict <ul><li>It includes the estimation of the following – </li></ul><ul><li>Start – When at the earliest, a project can be started safely </li></ul><ul><li>Time – The fair amount of period needed to finish the project </li></ul><ul><li>Resources – The approximate amount of resources available/ needed for the project </li></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Developer/Team/QA etc </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cost of production </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Buffer/ Back Up – the alternate supportive plan available, in case of a mishap </li></ul>
  10. 10. project planning management ` Staff Direct Control Coordinate plan Organize 2
  11. 11. Planning is A long look ahead A Broad Look Around A Searching look within
  12. 12. plan <ul><li>First ask – </li></ul><ul><ul><li>What is to be done? (Nature of project/game/application)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Why is it to be done? (Basic objective of that project)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>How to go about it? (technical & Logical aspects)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Where will you do it? (Studio location)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who will do it? (The core team)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>When shall we do it? (Time factor)‏ </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning bridges the gap between where we are and where we want to go. It is </li></ul><ul><li>imperative in an uncertain environment. Moreover, Strategic Planning is important, it </li></ul><ul><li>is basically a competitive planning which considers Strength, </li></ul><ul><li>weakness, opportunity and threats in the team as well. </li></ul>
  13. 13. plan <ul><li>Why should we plan? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps in prediction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It makes the approaches in a right direction </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It anticipates the risk factors and eliminates wastages of resources and Time </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It reduces cost of production </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps to face the unanticipated future challenges/mishaps </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps in Controlling </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It improves efficiency </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It introduces various new systems in the organization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It helps in accessing the performance </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Planning however can Minimize the Risk, but it can’t Eliminate the Risk.  </li></ul>
  14. 14. <ul><li>Organizing is a process of identifying, grouping, defining and delegating the work to </li></ul><ul><li>be performed. In management, the most misunderstood and misinterpreted </li></ul><ul><li>concept is organizing! </li></ul><ul><li>What to study in Organization? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Delegation of Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Span of control </li></ul></ul>Organize p l a n 2.1
  15. 15. <ul><li>Delegation of Authority </li></ul><ul><ul><li>To delegate is to offer, confer and allot a part of authority to subordinates. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority is the right to act or take decision. This right can be partly handed </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>over to the subordinates. Where as Responsibility is being in charge of the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>situation; and the bad news is, it can’t be delegated. Delegation becomes a </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>must because – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>A structure of authority exists </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Superiors need to concentrate on the important and vital issues at times </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Components of Delegation </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Responsibility </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Authority </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Accountability </li></ul></ul>` `
  16. 16. Dev. Manager Dev. Dev. QA Dev. QA QA Manager Dev. Dev. Dev. Dev. Dev. QA QA QA QA QA QA Lead Tech Lead Wide Span Narrow Span Wide Span
  17. 17. <ul><li>Span of Control </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Span of control is also referred to as span of management, span of supervision, </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>span of authority and span of responsibility. It represents the number of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>subordinates reporting directly to the managers. Determination of an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>appropriate span of control is important for 2 reasons – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too wide span mean that the managers are overstraining themselves and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>their subordinates are receiving too little guidance or control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>too narrow span mean that managers are underutilized and the subordinates </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>are over controlled. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Decentralization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The concept of Decentralization differs from that of delegation in the sense that </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>it refers to the extent to which the authority has been passed to the lower levels. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence, decentralization is viewed as an extension of delegation. </li></ul></ul>
  18. 18. Direction p l a n 2.2 <ul><li>Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Direction is concerned primarily with the team who puts the plan into action. </li></ul><ul><li>Directing is related with instructing, guiding and inspiring the human factor. People </li></ul><ul><li>get highly actuated through direction. Planning and organizing are just the </li></ul><ul><li>preparations, but the actual project starts with the direction. </li></ul><ul><li>Direction involves communicating and providing leadership and motivation to the </li></ul><ul><li>team to contribute to the best of the capabilities. </li></ul><ul><li>Elements of Direction </li></ul><ul><li>Issuing clear, complete and practical instructions </li></ul><ul><li>Continuous training activity </li></ul><ul><li>Motivation of team </li></ul><ul><li>Maintaining discipline </li></ul>
  19. 19. Planner Provider Protector Manager Planner A manager has to take a long-term view; indeed; the higher one rises, the further he has to look. Provider Being a superior, a manager has access to information and resources which the team needs. He must provide the same. Protector Never give an impossible deadline to the team. ;-)‏
  20. 20. <ul><li>Vision & Goal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Managers who make things happen are people who have vision. Vision is ability </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>to read between the lines. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Similarly, when you want to create a successful road map, set Goals. Show your </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>team the Big Picture before and while the project, which will actuate them to </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>move forward. </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Why Set Goals? </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals motivate the team </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals give purpose </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals add value to work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals keep the priorities straight </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals channel and maximize the potential </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Goals promote enthusiasm in the team </li></ul></ul>Direction
  21. 21. <ul><ul><li>Vision & Goal </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals force to plan ahead </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Goals shift the emphasis from activity to output </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always measure achievement by output, and not by activity. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Great Leaders </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Who do you think are better leaders? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ones who formulate great teams? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>The ones who create great followers in the team? </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The great leaders create other great leaders and not great followers. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>That’s why; Leadership is Action, and not Position. </li></ul></ul>
  22. 22. <ul><ul><li>Management control is a systematic effort to set performance standard with the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Planning. It is basically a process that guides any activity towards some </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>predetermined goals. For a team to function effectively, certain goals and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>objectives must be set. Control in a way, helps the team to measure the progress </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>towards the completion of such goals. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first step involves, setting up of the standards. To achieve this, all the actions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>in the team will have to be closely monitored. And as the actual performance is </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>known, the deviation could be measured. And hence, the actual action could </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>be taken. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Here is a chart showing how to measure an individual’s work by objectives . </li></ul></ul>control p l a n 2.3
  23. 23. control p l a n 2.3 Organization objectives Planning statement Manager’s objectives K R A Subordinate’s agreed objectives Subordinate’s performance Performance review and appraisal Manager’s recommendation for subordinate’s objective Subordinate’s own set of objectives
  24. 24. Control process p l a n 2.3 2. Measure the actual performance 4. Take corrective action 3. Compare/ Check deviation 1. Set the Standards
  25. 25. <ul><ul><li>Coordination is the orderly synchronization of the group efforts. It should be </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>rightly considered as the essence of the team management because each of </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the managerial function like planning, organizing, directing and controlling is an </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>exercise in coordination. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>It is a process of integrating the activities of different teams in order to pursue the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>common goals more effectively. The extent of coordination needed in between </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>teams depends on the nature of tasks and the interdependence of people </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>working in separate teams. When the tasks in the teams require communication </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>between them, then a high degree of coordination is expected and needed. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Also, a high degree of coordination is needed beneficial for the work that is non- </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>routine and unpredictable. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hence, communicate as much as essential; since No news is a Bad News …! </li></ul></ul>Coordination & Communication p l a n 2.4
  26. 26. <ul><ul><li>Leadership </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Simply, it is the ability to persuade and inspire others to seek the common goal. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>So, in a nutshell here are the traits that a good Leader possesses – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Energy; both mental and physical need for the profile </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Emotional stability that enables a him to act with self confidence. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Knowledge of Human Relations & Human behavior </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Objectivity => to prevent getting emotionally involved </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Enthusiasm within to get the job done </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Communication skill </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Teaching ability and attitude to help , develop and inspire subordinates </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Social skill => to understand strengths and weakness in an individual </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Friendly and approachable person </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Technically competent </li></ul></ul></ul>Coordination & Communication
  27. 27. <ul><ul><li>A Leader should – </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Trust his subordinates – You can’t expect them to go all out for you if they </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>think that you don’t believe them! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Develop a vision – People want to follow someone who knows where he is </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>going. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Keep cool – The best leaders show their mettle fire! </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Be expert – From your boardroom to the desk and mails, everyone had </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>better understood that you know what you are talking about . </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Invite speeches – Your team is not giving you their best if they are afraid </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>to speak out. </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Simplify – You need to see the big picture in order to set a course of </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>action, communicate it. </li></ul></ul></ul>Coordination & Communication
  28. 28. 3 Prioritize <ul><ul><li>To prioritize is to establish status in order of importance or urgency. Still many </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>people waste their time since they don’t realize it’s value. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They don’t realize that the way they spend their time is something they can </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>control. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>They never use a system or strategy to manage the time. 5 mins of thinking over </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>the priority can often save an hour of work. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>One of the most logical way of using time wisely is to reduce the time we </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>waste! </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The first work after coming to the office everyday should be to prioritize the work </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>as per Importance. List it down and try to eliminate the entries in the list. It’s </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>better to finish off the work which could be done just like that or which consumes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>least time. E.g. reading and replying to the mails, daily meets with the </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>team. Prioritizing early in the morning is safer, also since fewer interruptions and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>distractions are found. Try Working in blocks, it saves time in trying to refocus. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Additionally; a momentum is built and more amount of work is finished in lesser </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>amount of time. </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. <ul><ul><li>By being proactive you avoid being over-run by the event, and have plans and </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>procedures in place to cope with it. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always maintain project plan , throughout the project. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Update it immediately as soon as there is a change. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Always keep a buffer to cope with the situation. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Never ever just assume anything. If there is any doubt, go clear it. Assumption </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>is the root of all screw-ups. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Anticipate the worst case scenario. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Remember, happiness is found through the way; not at the end of the journey! </li></ul></ul>4 Proactive
  31. 31. Henry Fayol synthesised 14 principles for organizational design and effective administration. # Specialization/division of labor A principle of work allocation and specialization in order to concentrate activities to enable specialization of skills and understandings, more work focus and efficiency. # Authority with corresponding responsibility If responsibilities are allocated then the post holder needs the requisite authority to carry these out including the right to require others in the area of responsibility to undertake duties. Authority stems from: - That ascribed from the delegation process (the job holder is assigned to act as the agent of the high authority to whom they report - hierarchy)‏ - Allocation and permission to use the necessary resources needed (budgets, assets, staff) to carry out the responsibilities. - Selection - the person has the expertise to carry out the responsibilities and the personal qualities to win the support and confidence of others. A manager should never be given authority without responsibility--and also should never be given responsibility without the associated authority to get the work done.
  32. 32. # Discipline The generalization about discipline is that discipline is essential for the smooth running of a business and without it - standards, consistency of action, adherence to rules and values - no enterprise could prosper. # Unity of command The idea is that an employee should receive instructions from one superior only. This generalization still holds - even where we are involved with team and matrix structures which involve reporting to more than one boss - or being accountable to several clients. The basic concern is that tensions and dilemmas arise where we report to two or more bosses. One boss may want X, the other Y and the subordinate is caught between the devil and the deep blue sea. # Unity of direction The unity of command idea of having one head (chief executive, cabinet consensus) with agreed purposes and objectives and one plan for a group of activities) is clear.
  33. 33. # Subordination of individual interest to the general interest Fayol's line was that one employee's interests or those of one group should not prevail over the organization as a whole. This would spark a lively debate about who decides that the interests of the organization as a whole are. Ethical dilemmas and matters of corporate risk and the behavior of individual &quot;chancers&quot; are involved here. Fayol's work - assumes a shared set of values by people in the organization - a unity where the reasons for organizational activities and decisions are in some way neutral and reasonable. # Remuneration of staff The general principle is that levels of compensation should be &quot;fair&quot; and as far as possible afford satisfaction both to the staff and the firm (in terms of its cost structures and desire for profitability/surplus). # Centralization Centralization is essential to the organization and a natural consequence of organizing. This issue does not go away even where flatter, devolved organizations occur. Decentralization- is frequently centralized-decentralization !!! The modes of control over the actions and results of devolved organizations are still matters requiring considerable attention.
  34. 34. # Scalar chain/line of authority The scalar chain of command of reporting relationships from top executive to the ordinary shop operative or driver, needs to be sensible, clear and understood. # Order Basically an organization &quot;should&quot; provide an orderly place for each individual member - who needs to see how their role fits into the organization and be confident, able to predict the organizations behavior towards them. Thus policies, rules, instructions and actions should be understandable and understood. Orderliness implies steady evolutionary movement rather than wild, anxiety provoking, unpredictable movement. # Equity Equity, fairness and a sense of justice &quot;should&quot; pervade the organization - in principle and practice. # Stability of tenure Time is needed for the employee to adapt to his/her work and perform it effectively. Stability of tenure promotes loyalty to the organization, its purposes and values.
  35. 35. # Initiative At all levels of the organizational structure, zeal, enthusiasm and energy are enabled by people having the scope for personal initiative. # Esprit de corps Here Fayol emphasizes the need for building and maintaining of harmony among the work force, team work and sound interpersonal relationships. -Siddhartha Vinchurkar Thank You.