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Constitution of India
• The Constitution of India is the supreme law
of India.
• The constitution contains laws concerning the
government and its relations with the people.
• A constitution is concerned with 2 main
aspects:-
a)The relation between the different levels of
government and
b)Between the government and the citizens.
Role of Constitution in relationship
between Government and its people:-
GOVERNMENT
EXECUTIVE
JUDICIARY
LEGISLATIVE
CONSTITUTION
THE PEOPLE
Makes Laws
Interprets Laws
Enforces Laws
• Passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26
November 1949, it came into effect on 26
January 1950.
• Contain 395 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules
and 97 amendments, for a total of 117,369
words.
Borrowed features of constitution of India
• 1.From U.K. - Nominal Head – President, Cabinet System of Ministers,
Post of PM, Parliamentary Type of Govt., Bicameral Parliament, Lower
House more powerful, Council of Ministers responsible to Lower House,
Provision of Speaker in Lok Sabha.
• 2.From U.S.A- Written constitution, Appointment of Vice President,
Fundamental Rights, Supreme court, Head of the state known as president,
Provision of states, Judicial review.
• 3.From Australia- Concurrent List, Centre-State relationship, Language of
the Preamble
• 4.From USSR- Fundamental Duties, Five year plan
• 5.From Germany- Emergency provisions
• 6.From Japan- Law on which the Supreme Court functions
• 7.From Canada- Federal System and Residuary powers
• 8.From South Africa- Procedure of constitutional amendment
• 9.From Ireland- Concept of Directive Principles of state policy
• The Constitution of India is federal in nature.
• Each state and each Union territory of India
has its own government.
• Analogues to President and Prime Minister,
each has a Governor (in case of states)
or Lieutenant Governor (in the case of Union
territories) and a Chief Minister.
• Article 370 of the Constitution gives special
status to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
Preamble of Our Constitution
• The ultimate source of all power is ‘ THE
PEOPLE ’
• I. Sovereignty
ii. Democracy
iii. Secularism and
iv. Socialism
are basic principles of our constitution.
• Sovereignty: This is the main feature of the
Indian constitution. India is completely an
independent country now. We are not
subordinate or slave to any country in external
or internal matters.(internally secure&
powerful and externally independent)
• Democracy: Democracy means a government
which is run by representatives who are
elected on the basis of adult franchise.
• Secularism: The state gives equal treatment to all
religions. It does not favor any particular religion.
The constitution gives complete freedom to its
citizens to practice and preach their own religion.
• Socialism: the achievement of socialism, based on
economic and social equity, is the chief goal of
our constitution. It provides equal opportunities in
education, employment, justice to all.
Government of India
ExecutiveJudiciaryLegislative
The Parliament of India =the
President of India + the two
Houses
Lok Sabha (House of the People)
and Rajya Sabha (Council of
States).
The Supreme Court of India
consists of a Chief Justice and 30
associate justices
The President of India, Vice
President, Cabinet, executive
departments and agencies.
The Indian Parliament
• is the supreme legislative body in India.
• The Parliament comprises the President of
India and the two Houses—Lok Sabha (House
of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of
States).
Lok Sabha
• Lok Sabha is also known as the "House of the
People" or the lower house and has members
from 552(7 in Pakisthan occupied
Kashmir+543+2)optional parliamentary
constituencies.
• All of its members are directly elected by
citizens of India on the basis of universal adult
franchise, except two who are appointed by
the President of India.
House of the People16th Lok Sabha ,Lower house of the Parliament of India
• Leadership
Speaker
• Sumitra Mahajan, BJP
Deputy Speaker
• M. Thambidurai, AIADMK
• Leader of the House
• Narendra Modi, BJP
• Leader of Opposition
• Vacant
• StructureSeats 543 elected + 2 appointed+7 552
• Political groups
• Government coalition(335)
• Opposition parties(206)
Rajya Sabha
• The Rajya Sabha is also known as "Council of
States " or the upper house.
• The Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of
252(7 in pak) members in all.
• 233(229+4 in ut) members are to be elected
from States & Union Territories and 12 are to
be nominated by The President of India.
• Type Upper House of the Parliament of India
• Leadership
• Chairman
– Mohammad Hamid Ansari, Ind
since 11 August 2007
• Deputy Chairman
– P. J. Kurien, INC
since 21 August 2012
• Leader of the House
– Arun Jaitley, BJP
since July 2014
• Leader of the Opposition
– Ghulam Nabi Azad, INC
since July 2014
THE PRESIDENT
• There shall be a President of India.
• The executive power of the Union shall be
vested in the President.
• The Supreme command of the Defence Forces
of the Union.
• Elected by the members of an electoral
college.
• Shall hold office for a term of five years.
The electoral college is made up of the
following:
• elected members of the Rajya Sabha (upper
house of the Parliament of India);
• elected members of the Lok Sabha (lower
house of the Parliament of India);
• elected members of each state Legislative
Assembly; and
• elected members of each union territory
possessing an assembly
(i.e., Delhi and Puducherry).
• Article 58 of the Constitution sets the principle
qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the
office of the President. A President must be:
• A citizen of India
• Of 35 years of age or above
• Qualified to become a member of the Lok Sabha
• A person shall not be eligible for election as
President if he holds any office of profit under the
Government of India or the Government of any
State or under any local or other authority subject
to the control of any of the said Governments.
THE VICE PRESIDENT
• The Vice President of India is the second-
highest constitutional office in India, after
the President.
• The Vice President shall act as President in
absent of President due to the death,
resignation, impeachment, or other situations.
• The Vice President of India is
also Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.
• The Vice-President is elected indirectly by
members of an electoral college consisting of
the members of both Houses of Parliament in
accordance with the system of Proportional
Representation by means of the Single
transferable vote and the voting is by secret
ballot.
COUNCIL OF MINISTERS
• Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister
at the head to aid and advise the President
Not Exceed 15% of the total number of
members of the House of the People.
• The President shall administer to them the
oaths of office.
• Union Cabinet Minister: senior minister in-
charge of a ministry.
• Minister of State (Independent Charges): with
no overseeing union cabinet minister for that
portfolio
• Minister of State (MoS): junior minister
reporting to a cabinet minister, usually tasked
with a specific responsibility in that ministry.
References
• http://rajyasabha.nic.in/
• http://loksabha.nic.in/
• http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/const.html/
• http://india.gov.in/my-government/constitution-
india
• http://lawmin.nic.in/olwing/coi/coi-english/coi-
indexenglish.htm
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajya_Sabha
• https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lok_Sabha

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Constitution of india

  • 2. • The Constitution of India is the supreme law of India. • The constitution contains laws concerning the government and its relations with the people. • A constitution is concerned with 2 main aspects:- a)The relation between the different levels of government and b)Between the government and the citizens.
  • 3.
  • 4. Role of Constitution in relationship between Government and its people:- GOVERNMENT EXECUTIVE JUDICIARY LEGISLATIVE CONSTITUTION THE PEOPLE Makes Laws Interprets Laws Enforces Laws
  • 5. • Passed by the Constituent Assembly on 26 November 1949, it came into effect on 26 January 1950. • Contain 395 articles in 22 parts, 12 schedules and 97 amendments, for a total of 117,369 words.
  • 6.
  • 7. Borrowed features of constitution of India • 1.From U.K. - Nominal Head – President, Cabinet System of Ministers, Post of PM, Parliamentary Type of Govt., Bicameral Parliament, Lower House more powerful, Council of Ministers responsible to Lower House, Provision of Speaker in Lok Sabha. • 2.From U.S.A- Written constitution, Appointment of Vice President, Fundamental Rights, Supreme court, Head of the state known as president, Provision of states, Judicial review. • 3.From Australia- Concurrent List, Centre-State relationship, Language of the Preamble • 4.From USSR- Fundamental Duties, Five year plan • 5.From Germany- Emergency provisions • 6.From Japan- Law on which the Supreme Court functions • 7.From Canada- Federal System and Residuary powers • 8.From South Africa- Procedure of constitutional amendment • 9.From Ireland- Concept of Directive Principles of state policy
  • 8. • The Constitution of India is federal in nature. • Each state and each Union territory of India has its own government. • Analogues to President and Prime Minister, each has a Governor (in case of states) or Lieutenant Governor (in the case of Union territories) and a Chief Minister. • Article 370 of the Constitution gives special status to the State of Jammu and Kashmir.
  • 9. Preamble of Our Constitution • The ultimate source of all power is ‘ THE PEOPLE ’ • I. Sovereignty ii. Democracy iii. Secularism and iv. Socialism are basic principles of our constitution.
  • 10. • Sovereignty: This is the main feature of the Indian constitution. India is completely an independent country now. We are not subordinate or slave to any country in external or internal matters.(internally secure& powerful and externally independent) • Democracy: Democracy means a government which is run by representatives who are elected on the basis of adult franchise.
  • 11. • Secularism: The state gives equal treatment to all religions. It does not favor any particular religion. The constitution gives complete freedom to its citizens to practice and preach their own religion. • Socialism: the achievement of socialism, based on economic and social equity, is the chief goal of our constitution. It provides equal opportunities in education, employment, justice to all.
  • 12. Government of India ExecutiveJudiciaryLegislative The Parliament of India =the President of India + the two Houses Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States). The Supreme Court of India consists of a Chief Justice and 30 associate justices The President of India, Vice President, Cabinet, executive departments and agencies.
  • 13. The Indian Parliament • is the supreme legislative body in India. • The Parliament comprises the President of India and the two Houses—Lok Sabha (House of the People) and Rajya Sabha (Council of States).
  • 14. Lok Sabha • Lok Sabha is also known as the "House of the People" or the lower house and has members from 552(7 in Pakisthan occupied Kashmir+543+2)optional parliamentary constituencies. • All of its members are directly elected by citizens of India on the basis of universal adult franchise, except two who are appointed by the President of India.
  • 15. House of the People16th Lok Sabha ,Lower house of the Parliament of India • Leadership Speaker • Sumitra Mahajan, BJP Deputy Speaker • M. Thambidurai, AIADMK • Leader of the House • Narendra Modi, BJP • Leader of Opposition • Vacant • StructureSeats 543 elected + 2 appointed+7 552 • Political groups • Government coalition(335) • Opposition parties(206)
  • 16. Rajya Sabha • The Rajya Sabha is also known as "Council of States " or the upper house. • The Rajya Sabha can have a maximum of 252(7 in pak) members in all. • 233(229+4 in ut) members are to be elected from States & Union Territories and 12 are to be nominated by The President of India.
  • 17. • Type Upper House of the Parliament of India • Leadership • Chairman – Mohammad Hamid Ansari, Ind since 11 August 2007 • Deputy Chairman – P. J. Kurien, INC since 21 August 2012 • Leader of the House – Arun Jaitley, BJP since July 2014 • Leader of the Opposition – Ghulam Nabi Azad, INC since July 2014
  • 18.
  • 19.
  • 20.
  • 21.
  • 22.
  • 23.
  • 24.
  • 25. THE PRESIDENT • There shall be a President of India. • The executive power of the Union shall be vested in the President. • The Supreme command of the Defence Forces of the Union. • Elected by the members of an electoral college. • Shall hold office for a term of five years.
  • 26. The electoral college is made up of the following: • elected members of the Rajya Sabha (upper house of the Parliament of India); • elected members of the Lok Sabha (lower house of the Parliament of India); • elected members of each state Legislative Assembly; and • elected members of each union territory possessing an assembly (i.e., Delhi and Puducherry).
  • 27. • Article 58 of the Constitution sets the principle qualifications one must meet to be eligible to the office of the President. A President must be: • A citizen of India • Of 35 years of age or above • Qualified to become a member of the Lok Sabha • A person shall not be eligible for election as President if he holds any office of profit under the Government of India or the Government of any State or under any local or other authority subject to the control of any of the said Governments.
  • 28. THE VICE PRESIDENT • The Vice President of India is the second- highest constitutional office in India, after the President. • The Vice President shall act as President in absent of President due to the death, resignation, impeachment, or other situations. • The Vice President of India is also Chairperson of the Rajya Sabha.
  • 29. • The Vice-President is elected indirectly by members of an electoral college consisting of the members of both Houses of Parliament in accordance with the system of Proportional Representation by means of the Single transferable vote and the voting is by secret ballot.
  • 30. COUNCIL OF MINISTERS • Council of Ministers with the Prime Minister at the head to aid and advise the President Not Exceed 15% of the total number of members of the House of the People. • The President shall administer to them the oaths of office.
  • 31. • Union Cabinet Minister: senior minister in- charge of a ministry. • Minister of State (Independent Charges): with no overseeing union cabinet minister for that portfolio • Minister of State (MoS): junior minister reporting to a cabinet minister, usually tasked with a specific responsibility in that ministry.
  • 32. References • http://rajyasabha.nic.in/ • http://loksabha.nic.in/ • http://www.constitution.org/cons/india/const.html/ • http://india.gov.in/my-government/constitution- india • http://lawmin.nic.in/olwing/coi/coi-english/coi- indexenglish.htm • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rajya_Sabha • https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Lok_Sabha