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Communities Combatting
Illegal Wildlife Trade
Online Learning Event Series
Event 5 of 7
©PhilipJ.Briggs
Highlights from Session 4
©PhilipJ.Briggs
What do we mean by a Learning
Event?
What it is:
− Shares uses and
contributions of the
methodology
− Explains concepts and
principles that underpin it
− Describes steps involved in
implementing it
− Introduces tools that can be
used
− Promotes interactions
with the participants
What it is not:
− A series of lectures
− A course for credit
− A detailed and comprehensive
training course
CAUTION: You will not be
ready to fully implement the
FLoD methodology on your
own at the end of this learning
event series.
SAWC is developing an in-depth
training course
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
COMMUNITY TOC
A. B. C. D.
3b. CONSTRUCT
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK
5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP
KEY STAKEHOLDER
INTERVIEWS
4b. CONSTRUCT
COMMUNITY TOC
A. B. C. D.
BASELINE TOC
3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER
INTERVIEW
1. SCREENING /
SCOPING
2. INCEPTION
WORKSHOP
6. COMMUNICATE
LESSONS LEARNED
7. MONITOR &
ADAPT
Communities Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade session five
A.
Increase
costs of
participating
in IWT
C.
Decrease
costs of
living with
wildlife
D.
Increase
non-wildlife-
based
livelihoods
B.
Increase
incentives
for
stewardship
DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE
TRADE
A B C D
DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM
ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
.
Reduced activeor tacit community supportfor poaching / trafficking for IWT
Strengthened community action against internal orexternal poachers/
traffickersengaged in IWT
Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community
E
F
Reduced recruitmentofcommunity membersby poachers/ traffickers
engaged in IWT
Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders
PATHWAY C - DECREASE
COSTS OF LIVING WITH
WILDLIFE
e.g. Supportpractical approaches to deterringproblem animals
at thesitelevel
Costs to communities imposed by presence of
wildlife are reduced
Communities can mitigate conflict better
Decreased antagonismtoward wildlife
C-P
C-R
e.g. Supportinsurance,
compensationor offset
schemes thatreducethecost
of living with wildlife
e.g. Supportland useplanning
thatreduces thehuman-wildlife
interface
C-I
e.g. The full costs of living with wildlife are known and
can be quantified
e.g. Resources and tools are available to mitigate HWC
e.g. Communities with decreased antagonism towards
wildlife have a decreased incentive to directly or
indirectly support IWT.
e.g. Communities with greater ability to mitigate HWC
(resources, tools, policies) feel less antagonism towards
wildlife.
e.g. The relative risk of being apprehended, arrested or
prosecuted is not so low that it undermines community
action against IWT.
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
Decreased pressure on species
from illegal wildlife trade
COMMUNITYTOC
A. B. D.C.
BASELINE TOC
A. B. C. D.
Decreased pressure on species
from illegal wildlife trade
PROCESS
Interviewing the implementer /
designer
Implementer /
Designer
FLoD Team
SERIES OF STATEMENTS
Communities Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade session five
Developing the Implementer /
Designer ToC
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
Decreased pressure on species
from illegal wildlife trade
FLoD Team
Validating the Implementer /
Designer ToC
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
Decreased pressure on species
from illegal wildlife trade
Implementer /
Designer
FLoD Team
FLoD Methodology
Step 4: Community ToC
Reminder of the context for
these sessions
• Existing projects
• A focus on high-value illegal wildlife trade
• Based on FLoD Guidance & SAWC
materials, which provide much more detail,
as well as a number of teaching tools.
Session 7 will:
• Investigate how the methodology can be adapted to other contexts
• Explore the possibility for projectdesign
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
COMMUNITY TOC
A. B. C. D.
3b. CONSTRUCT
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK
5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP
KEY STAKEHOLDER
INTERVIEWS
4b. CONSTRUCT
COMMUNITY TOC
A. B. C. D.
BASELINE TOC
3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER
INTERVIEW
1. SCREENING /
SCOPING
2. INCEPTION
WORKSHOP
6. COMMUNICATE
LESSONS LEARNED
7. MONITOR &
ADAPT
Objectives
The objectives of Step 4 are to:
• Test Implementer / Designer ToC with the
community; and
• Construct the Community ToC.
Step 4: Community ToC
Outputs
• At the end of Step 4, your output should be a
Community ToC.
Step 4: Community ToC
Methods & tools
Methods Tools
Key stakeholder
interview
Focus Groups
Workshops
• FLoD introductory presentation (Long or
short)
• FLoD focus group consent form
• FLoD baseline ToC and assumptions
• FLoD implementer/designer ToC
• FLoD Community ToC development tool
Step 4: Community ToC
Resources required
Resource Required
Personnel
• At least two core team members. At least one should be a trained and
experienced facilitator with experience working at the community level
on these types of issues.
• Independent local language interpreter
• Second interpreter (to work alongside the record keeper)
• Local liaison
Materials
• Laptop, power, extension cables, printer, projector, room that can be
made dark or dark cloth to cover windows, flipcharts + markers, props
as suggested.
Time
• Prepare tools and interpretation: one to two days
• Focus groups: one day per focus group (recommend a break day if
more than two focus groups)
• Consolidation before whole-community meeting: one day
• Whole-community meeting: one day
• Travel time
• Construct Community ToC: two days
Step 4: Community ToC
Tasks
1. Update the community ToC development
tool using the newly validated
implementer/designer ToC and assumptions
2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions
within the community, using focus groups;
3. Hold a whole community meeting to
present the consolidated results of focus
group discussions; and
4. Construct a community ToC.
Step 4: Community ToC
Tasks
1. Update the community ToC development
tool using the newly validated
implementer/designer ToC and assumptions
2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions
within the community, using focus groups;
3. Hold a whole community meeting to
present the consolidated results of focus
group discussions; and
4. Construct a community ToC.
Step 4: Community ToC
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
Decreased pressure on species
from illegal wildlife trade
COMMUNITYTOC
A. B. D.C.
BASELINE TOC
A. B. C. D.
Decreased pressure on species
from illegal wildlife trade
PROCESS
Step 4: Community ToC
BASELINE TOC
A. B. C. D.
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
COMMUNITYTOC
A. B. D.C.
Implementer / Designer ToC Testing
Tool
Community ToC Testing Tool
Update the tool to
reflect the
implementer /
designer ToC
Step 4: Community ToC
Tasks
1. Update the community ToC development
tool using the newly validated
implementer/designer ToC and assumptions
2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions
within the community, using focus groups;
3. Hold a whole community meeting to
present the consolidated results of focus
group discussions; and
4. Construct a community ToC.
Step 4: Community ToC
Focus groups
• Composition
• Decided during inception workshop
• In consultation with community
• Dependent on context in which you are working
• Possible groupings: age, gender, livelihood, cultural
group
• Size
• Ideally no more than 15 individuals
• Timing
• Full day per focus group
• Considerations
• Make sure people can participate
• Be aware of local considerations, such as market days
Step 4: Community ToC
Exploration of pathways and their
assumptions by focus group
Step 4: Community ToC
For each focus group
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
Decreased pressure on species
from illegal wildlife trade
Step 4: Community ToC
WOMEN
Tangible:
• Bursaries
• Selling fruits and
vegetables to camps
• Beadwork
• Tourism marketplace
Step 4: Community ToC
MEN
Tangible:
• Money to educate
children
• Employment (scouts,
guides)
• Beadwork
• Honey
• Fruits to tourism
facilities
• Tourism and research
camps
Intangible
• Grazing for livestock
• Security
• Healthy environment
Step 4: Community ToC
YOUTH
Tangible:
• Employment (scouts)
• Tourism
• Scholarships / bursaries
• selling of beadwork
Intangible
• Conserve for future
generations
• Wildlife supports a
healthy environment
• elephants shake the
tree and share the pods
with the other animals
• lions manage the
population of
ungulates, allowing
grass to be used by
livestock
• seed dispersal
Step 4: Community ToC
Iterative validation
Step 4: Community ToC
Pathway ranking by focus group
Step 4: Community ToC
Pathway ranking
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Pathway A Pathway B Pathway C Pathway D
Women
Men
Youth
Step 4: Community ToC
Questions & Comments
©MicahConway
Step 4: Community ToC
Tasks
1. Update the community ToC development
tool using the newly validated
implementer/designer ToC and assumptions
2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions
within the community, using focus groups;
3. Hold a whole community meeting to
present the consolidated results of focus
group discussions; and
4. Construct a community ToC.
Step 4: Community ToC
Step 4: Community ToC
Task 3. Whole community
meeting
• Feedback from the FLoD Team on differences
and similarities between focus groups
• Group discussions, first in focus groups, then
in mixed groups
• Feedback from group discussions
• Whole Community Pathway Ranking
Feedback on similarities &
differences
Step 4: Community ToC
Step 4: Community ToC
Wildlife-Based Livelihoods
Women
Tangible:
• Bursaries
• Selling fruits and
vegetables to camps
• Beadwork
• Tourism marketplace
Men
Tangible:
• Money to educate
children
• Employment (scouts,
guides)
• Beadwork
• Honey
• Fruits to tourism facilities
• Tourism and research
camps
Intangible
• Grazing for livestock
• Security
• Healthy environment
Youth
Tangible:
• Employment (scouts)
• Tourism
• Scholarships / bursaries
• Selling of beadwork
Intangible
• Conserve for future
generations
• Wildlife supports a
healthy environment
• elephants shake the
tree and share the
pods with the other
animals
• lions manage the
population of
ungulates, allowing
grass to be used by
livestock
• seed dispersal
Step 4: Community ToC
If your community does not have rights, it stops
you from wanting to manage wild plants and
animals and use them sustainably
WOMEN MEN YOUTH
Agree:
• Yes, but we would still
want to support wildlife
but perhaps less so
Disagree:
• Even if monetary
benefits are removed,
we would keep the
wildlife with their
livestock
Strongly agree:
• We would shoot the
wildlife the next day if
rights were removed
Step 4: Community ToC
Women
PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits
Men
YouthNo rights = no
interest
Step 4: Community ToC
There are legal markets for wildlife and wildlife
products (e.g. tourism)
WOMEN MEN YOUTH
Disagree:
• There is demand for
some products, but we,
as a community, do not
wish to engage in it
because it will destroy
the habitat.
Strongly disagree:
• Viewing tourism is
possible, but not much
else.
• People can use some
resources (medicinal
plants) for themselves
but not sell to others.
• There is no legal
domestic market for
wildlife - if # of wildlife in
conservancy grows, we
can give to others but
not sell.
Strongly agree:
• Research and tourism
markets
Women
PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits
Men
Youth
Legal markets
exist
Step 4: Community ToC
WOMEN MEN YOUTH
Strongly agree:
• No specific comments
Strongly agree:
• No specific comments
Strongly disagree:
• We know that there are
benefits but there is no
transparency at all
• Balance sheets and
other records are not
publicly shared
• Tourism revenues going
to community coffers not
known or subjected to
audit
Step 4: Community ToC
Those in positions of power within the community (e.g.
conservancy staff and representatives) and their
families do not benefit more than others as a result of
their positions
Women
PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits
Men
Youth
Powerful
individuals do
not get more
benefits
Step 4: Community ToC
WOMEN MEN YOUTH
Women: Strongly agree - no specific comments
Men: Agree
• This generation will do whatever they can until they die but it is up to our
children to choose what to do after that
• We don’t know if their children will conserve but it is possible as the
children are learning from the older generation and with outside support
they might even do a better job of conservation
Step 4: Community ToC
The benefits from wild plants and animals will
continue forever (1 of 2)
WOMEN MEN YOUTH
Youth: Disagree
• Not sure – “the future will decide on its own”
• We would like to but not sure if we can – climatic change pose a
challenge we are not sure about
• Successful conservation would result in more wildlife and therefore
more jobs
• Community does not have resources to protect wildlife, hence we
cannot say the benefits will continue forever
Step 4: Community ToC
The benefits from wild plants and animals will
continue forever (2 of 2)
Women
PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits
Men
Youth
Benefits
sustainable
Step 4: Community ToC
Step 4: Community ToC
Feedback to whole
community meeting
and group
discussions (within
and among focus
groups)
Pathway Ranking by Focus Group
Step 4: Community ToC
Pathway Ranking across Focus
Groups
0
2
4
6
8
10
12
Pathway A Pathway B Pathway C Pathway D
Women
Men
Youth
Step 4: Community ToC
Whole community pathway ranking
Step 4: Community ToC
Questions & Comments
©MicahConway
Step 4: Community ToC
Tasks
1. Update the community ToC development
tool using the newly validated
implementer/designer ToC and assumptions
2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions
within the community, using focus groups;
3. Hold a whole community meeting to
present the consolidated results of focus
group discussions; and
4. Construct a community ToC.
Step 4: Community ToC
BASELINE TOC
A. B. C. D.
IMPLEMENTER /
DESIGNER TOC
A. B. C. D.
COMMUNITYTOC
A. B. D.C.
Implementer / Designer ToC Testing
Tool
Community ToC Testing Tool
Step 4: Community ToC
Outputs Checklist
✅ The Community ToC
Step 4: Community ToC
Communities Combatting
Illegal Wildlife Trade
Final Comments or Questions?
Thank you for joining today
©PhilipJ.Briggs

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Communities Combating Illegal Wildlife Trade session five

  • 1. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Online Learning Event Series Event 5 of 7 ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  • 2. Highlights from Session 4 ©PhilipJ.Briggs
  • 3. What do we mean by a Learning Event? What it is: − Shares uses and contributions of the methodology − Explains concepts and principles that underpin it − Describes steps involved in implementing it − Introduces tools that can be used − Promotes interactions with the participants What it is not: − A series of lectures − A course for credit − A detailed and comprehensive training course CAUTION: You will not be ready to fully implement the FLoD methodology on your own at the end of this learning event series. SAWC is developing an in-depth training course
  • 4. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  • 6. A. Increase costs of participating in IWT C. Decrease costs of living with wildlife D. Increase non-wildlife- based livelihoods B. Increase incentives for stewardship DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE
  • 7. A B C D
  • 8. DECREASED PRESSURE ON SPECIES FROM ILLEGAL WILDLIFE TRADE .
  • 9. Reduced activeor tacit community supportfor poaching / trafficking for IWT Strengthened community action against internal orexternal poachers/ traffickersengaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by community E F Reduced recruitmentofcommunity membersby poachers/ traffickers engaged in IWT Reduced poaching / trafficking for IWT by outsiders PATHWAY C - DECREASE COSTS OF LIVING WITH WILDLIFE e.g. Supportpractical approaches to deterringproblem animals at thesitelevel Costs to communities imposed by presence of wildlife are reduced Communities can mitigate conflict better Decreased antagonismtoward wildlife C-P C-R e.g. Supportinsurance, compensationor offset schemes thatreducethecost of living with wildlife e.g. Supportland useplanning thatreduces thehuman-wildlife interface C-I e.g. The full costs of living with wildlife are known and can be quantified e.g. Resources and tools are available to mitigate HWC e.g. Communities with decreased antagonism towards wildlife have a decreased incentive to directly or indirectly support IWT. e.g. Communities with greater ability to mitigate HWC (resources, tools, policies) feel less antagonism towards wildlife. e.g. The relative risk of being apprehended, arrested or prosecuted is not so low that it undermines community action against IWT.
  • 10. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade PROCESS
  • 11. Interviewing the implementer / designer Implementer / Designer FLoD Team
  • 14. Developing the Implementer / Designer ToC IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade FLoD Team
  • 15. Validating the Implementer / Designer ToC IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade Implementer / Designer FLoD Team
  • 16. FLoD Methodology Step 4: Community ToC
  • 17. Reminder of the context for these sessions • Existing projects • A focus on high-value illegal wildlife trade • Based on FLoD Guidance & SAWC materials, which provide much more detail, as well as a number of teaching tools. Session 7 will: • Investigate how the methodology can be adapted to other contexts • Explore the possibility for projectdesign
  • 18. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. 3b. CONSTRUCT IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC 4a. COMMUNITY FIELDWORK 5. FEEDBACK WORKSHOP KEY STAKEHOLDER INTERVIEWS 4b. CONSTRUCT COMMUNITY TOC A. B. C. D. BASELINE TOC 3a. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER INTERVIEW 1. SCREENING / SCOPING 2. INCEPTION WORKSHOP 6. COMMUNICATE LESSONS LEARNED 7. MONITOR & ADAPT
  • 19. Objectives The objectives of Step 4 are to: • Test Implementer / Designer ToC with the community; and • Construct the Community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  • 20. Outputs • At the end of Step 4, your output should be a Community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  • 21. Methods & tools Methods Tools Key stakeholder interview Focus Groups Workshops • FLoD introductory presentation (Long or short) • FLoD focus group consent form • FLoD baseline ToC and assumptions • FLoD implementer/designer ToC • FLoD Community ToC development tool Step 4: Community ToC
  • 22. Resources required Resource Required Personnel • At least two core team members. At least one should be a trained and experienced facilitator with experience working at the community level on these types of issues. • Independent local language interpreter • Second interpreter (to work alongside the record keeper) • Local liaison Materials • Laptop, power, extension cables, printer, projector, room that can be made dark or dark cloth to cover windows, flipcharts + markers, props as suggested. Time • Prepare tools and interpretation: one to two days • Focus groups: one day per focus group (recommend a break day if more than two focus groups) • Consolidation before whole-community meeting: one day • Whole-community meeting: one day • Travel time • Construct Community ToC: two days Step 4: Community ToC
  • 23. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  • 24. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  • 25. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade PROCESS Step 4: Community ToC
  • 26. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. Implementer / Designer ToC Testing Tool Community ToC Testing Tool Update the tool to reflect the implementer / designer ToC Step 4: Community ToC
  • 27. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  • 28. Focus groups • Composition • Decided during inception workshop • In consultation with community • Dependent on context in which you are working • Possible groupings: age, gender, livelihood, cultural group • Size • Ideally no more than 15 individuals • Timing • Full day per focus group • Considerations • Make sure people can participate • Be aware of local considerations, such as market days Step 4: Community ToC
  • 29. Exploration of pathways and their assumptions by focus group Step 4: Community ToC
  • 30. For each focus group IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. Decreased pressure on species from illegal wildlife trade Step 4: Community ToC
  • 31. WOMEN Tangible: • Bursaries • Selling fruits and vegetables to camps • Beadwork • Tourism marketplace Step 4: Community ToC
  • 32. MEN Tangible: • Money to educate children • Employment (scouts, guides) • Beadwork • Honey • Fruits to tourism facilities • Tourism and research camps Intangible • Grazing for livestock • Security • Healthy environment Step 4: Community ToC
  • 33. YOUTH Tangible: • Employment (scouts) • Tourism • Scholarships / bursaries • selling of beadwork Intangible • Conserve for future generations • Wildlife supports a healthy environment • elephants shake the tree and share the pods with the other animals • lions manage the population of ungulates, allowing grass to be used by livestock • seed dispersal Step 4: Community ToC
  • 35. Pathway ranking by focus group Step 4: Community ToC
  • 36. Pathway ranking 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Pathway A Pathway B Pathway C Pathway D Women Men Youth Step 4: Community ToC
  • 38. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  • 39. Step 4: Community ToC Task 3. Whole community meeting • Feedback from the FLoD Team on differences and similarities between focus groups • Group discussions, first in focus groups, then in mixed groups • Feedback from group discussions • Whole Community Pathway Ranking
  • 40. Feedback on similarities & differences Step 4: Community ToC
  • 42. Wildlife-Based Livelihoods Women Tangible: • Bursaries • Selling fruits and vegetables to camps • Beadwork • Tourism marketplace Men Tangible: • Money to educate children • Employment (scouts, guides) • Beadwork • Honey • Fruits to tourism facilities • Tourism and research camps Intangible • Grazing for livestock • Security • Healthy environment Youth Tangible: • Employment (scouts) • Tourism • Scholarships / bursaries • Selling of beadwork Intangible • Conserve for future generations • Wildlife supports a healthy environment • elephants shake the tree and share the pods with the other animals • lions manage the population of ungulates, allowing grass to be used by livestock • seed dispersal Step 4: Community ToC
  • 43. If your community does not have rights, it stops you from wanting to manage wild plants and animals and use them sustainably WOMEN MEN YOUTH Agree: • Yes, but we would still want to support wildlife but perhaps less so Disagree: • Even if monetary benefits are removed, we would keep the wildlife with their livestock Strongly agree: • We would shoot the wildlife the next day if rights were removed Step 4: Community ToC
  • 44. Women PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits Men YouthNo rights = no interest Step 4: Community ToC
  • 45. There are legal markets for wildlife and wildlife products (e.g. tourism) WOMEN MEN YOUTH Disagree: • There is demand for some products, but we, as a community, do not wish to engage in it because it will destroy the habitat. Strongly disagree: • Viewing tourism is possible, but not much else. • People can use some resources (medicinal plants) for themselves but not sell to others. • There is no legal domestic market for wildlife - if # of wildlife in conservancy grows, we can give to others but not sell. Strongly agree: • Research and tourism markets
  • 46. Women PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits Men Youth Legal markets exist Step 4: Community ToC
  • 47. WOMEN MEN YOUTH Strongly agree: • No specific comments Strongly agree: • No specific comments Strongly disagree: • We know that there are benefits but there is no transparency at all • Balance sheets and other records are not publicly shared • Tourism revenues going to community coffers not known or subjected to audit Step 4: Community ToC Those in positions of power within the community (e.g. conservancy staff and representatives) and their families do not benefit more than others as a result of their positions
  • 48. Women PathwayB – Wildlife-basedbenefits Men Youth Powerful individuals do not get more benefits Step 4: Community ToC
  • 49. WOMEN MEN YOUTH Women: Strongly agree - no specific comments Men: Agree • This generation will do whatever they can until they die but it is up to our children to choose what to do after that • We don’t know if their children will conserve but it is possible as the children are learning from the older generation and with outside support they might even do a better job of conservation Step 4: Community ToC The benefits from wild plants and animals will continue forever (1 of 2)
  • 50. WOMEN MEN YOUTH Youth: Disagree • Not sure – “the future will decide on its own” • We would like to but not sure if we can – climatic change pose a challenge we are not sure about • Successful conservation would result in more wildlife and therefore more jobs • Community does not have resources to protect wildlife, hence we cannot say the benefits will continue forever Step 4: Community ToC The benefits from wild plants and animals will continue forever (2 of 2)
  • 52. Step 4: Community ToC Feedback to whole community meeting and group discussions (within and among focus groups)
  • 53. Pathway Ranking by Focus Group Step 4: Community ToC
  • 54. Pathway Ranking across Focus Groups 0 2 4 6 8 10 12 Pathway A Pathway B Pathway C Pathway D Women Men Youth Step 4: Community ToC
  • 55. Whole community pathway ranking Step 4: Community ToC
  • 57. Tasks 1. Update the community ToC development tool using the newly validated implementer/designer ToC and assumptions 2. Test the implementer/designer assumptions within the community, using focus groups; 3. Hold a whole community meeting to present the consolidated results of focus group discussions; and 4. Construct a community ToC. Step 4: Community ToC
  • 58. BASELINE TOC A. B. C. D. IMPLEMENTER / DESIGNER TOC A. B. C. D. COMMUNITYTOC A. B. D.C. Implementer / Designer ToC Testing Tool Community ToC Testing Tool Step 4: Community ToC
  • 59. Outputs Checklist ✅ The Community ToC Step 4: Community ToC
  • 60. Communities Combatting Illegal Wildlife Trade Final Comments or Questions?
  • 61. Thank you for joining today ©PhilipJ.Briggs