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Duncan Macqueen
Organisational innovations
that make community
forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
‘Negotiated visions of what people value and have reason to value in line with the common good’
Values…
based on
familiarity
Land and natural resources
Jobs and material wealth
based on
common
interest
Social networks and relationships
Health and security
based on
passions
Education and fulfilment
Cultural identity / purpose / recreation
The
common
good
Macqueen, D., Bolin, A., Greijmans, M., Grouwels, S. and Humphries, S. (2020) Innovations towards prosperity emerging in locally
controlled forest business models and prospects for scaling up. World Development 125, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.08.004
Why ‘prosperity’?
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
• Continuing forest loss threatens global climate
– net forest loss of 3.3 million hectares per year
• Main drivers of forest loss lie elsewhere –
industrial agriculture / forestry
• Positive impacts of community forestry –
Secure ‘community forestry’ delivers more! – forest,
biocultural diversity, livelihoods, climate resilience
• Scale is collectively huge – products worth
US$1.3 trillion annually – 26% of world’s forests –
40% of protected areas.
• COVID-19 – highlights fragility of supply chains and
need for sustainable local production
3
Why community forestry?
Macqueen, D. and Mayers, J. (2020) Unseen foresters – an assessment of approaches for wider recognition and spread of sustainable
forest management by local communities. WWF-Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden. https://pubs.iied.org/g04468
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED 4
Diversity
of
landscapes
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED 5
Diversity
of
value
chains
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED 6
1. If I plant or manage it, will I benefit and / or can I sell it?
Rights and institutional setting – secure tenure
2. If I can sell it, will I get a fair price?
Addressing community needs – market access
3. If I can sell it at a fair price, can I grow it to specification?
Availability of natural resource – technical extension
4. Can collective organization ensure the above until harvest?
Effective governance and participation – organisation
5. If yes, is collective action able to cope with the unexpected?
Adaptive management and learning – flexibility
How to make community forestry prosperous?
Macqueen, D.J. and deMarsh, P. (2016) Enabling investment for locally controlled forestry. Chapter 7 pp 109-131 in Forests, Business and
Sustainability; edited by Rajat Panwar, Robert Kozak and Eric Hansen.
Focus
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
4th Tier – regional
cooperation – global
advocacy / exchanges
3rd Tier – National policy
representation, channel
project finance
2nd Tier – Regional value addition,
marketing, business incubation,
finance, projects
1st Tier –
local
production
Where to start? Locally accountable organisation
Whether you want to shape policy, build business or
improve climate action – organise to thrive!
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Guatemala
Probosque law 2015 commits US$ 20 million per year for forest and agroforestry producers.
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Priorities: CF group links to farmer organisations
ROPPA
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Togo
Expanded agroforestry systems and new cassava processing facility for Novi Va, Togo
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Priorities: Organisations doing risk assessment
Fresh leaf
purchases
From each
individual farmer
Pre-drying Drying
Grinding,
sieving
Packing
Commercialization
Technical
support and
purchase
coordination
The company: RunaTarpuna
Planting &
care of
crops
Producers
Fresh leaf
purchases
From each
individual farmer
Pre-drying Drying
Grinding,
sieving
Packing
Commercialization
Technical
support and
purchase
coordination
Company: RunaTarpuna
Planting &
care of
crops
“24 de mayo”
Packing and
wholesale to
company
New role for “24 de Mayo” association in the guayusa value chain:
24 de
Mayo
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Ecuador
Vertical integration of ‘24 de Mayo’ in Guayusa value chain following risk assessment
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Bolivia
First-tier
local
organisation
Second-tier
regional
association
Third-tier
national
federation
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Priorities: Organised federations changing policy
US$ 37 million
cocoa incentive
programme over
five years
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Priorities:Apex organisations incubating business
Ghana
New federation of 1 million members – with inbuilt business incubation team (BIT)
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Governance & legality
Social organisation
Research & development
Business support
Technical advice
Finance & insurance
CF cooperatives
Larger CF
business
incubator
Value chain marketing
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Priorities: Organisations mobilising internal finance
Viet
Nam
US$ 3.5 million cinnamon processing factory installed by 23 person cooperative
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Priorities: Women’s empowerment through business
Thiongote in Laikipia County in Kenya developing women’s tree fruit business
Kenya
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Priorities: Organisations upscaling climate solutions
Madagascar
Four supply cooperatives to Manarivo AB diversifying away from peanuts into aromatic oils
SOCIAL
1. Organizational systems
2. Membership services
3. Political representation
4. Technical extension
5. Business incubation
6. Financial services
7. Quality assurance
8. Cooperative union
ECOLOGICAL
9. Climate adapted stock
10. Biodiversity
11. Spatial optimisation
12. Tree based productivity
13. Pest management
14. Erosion control
15. Soil mulching
PHYSICAL
23. Mapping
24. Inventory / remote sensing
25. Physical boundaries
26. Terracing
27. Water management
28. Storage and transport
29. Electrification and connectivity
30. Information services
ECONOMIC
16. Increase scale
17. Stock information
18. Processing and packaging
19. Vertical integration
20. More distribution channels
21. Better marketing
22. Horizontal diversification
Climate
resilience
options
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Priorities: Organisations that leave none behind
Zambia
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Priorities: Blend this and more into compelling stories
Nepal
Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
Duncan Macqueen @IIED
Cheers!

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Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous

  • 1. www.iied.org @IIED Duncan Macqueen Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
  • 2. Duncan Macqueen @IIED ‘Negotiated visions of what people value and have reason to value in line with the common good’ Values… based on familiarity Land and natural resources Jobs and material wealth based on common interest Social networks and relationships Health and security based on passions Education and fulfilment Cultural identity / purpose / recreation The common good Macqueen, D., Bolin, A., Greijmans, M., Grouwels, S. and Humphries, S. (2020) Innovations towards prosperity emerging in locally controlled forest business models and prospects for scaling up. World Development 125, https://doi.org/10.1016/j.worlddev.2018.08.004 Why ‘prosperity’? Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
  • 3. Duncan Macqueen @IIED • Continuing forest loss threatens global climate – net forest loss of 3.3 million hectares per year • Main drivers of forest loss lie elsewhere – industrial agriculture / forestry • Positive impacts of community forestry – Secure ‘community forestry’ delivers more! – forest, biocultural diversity, livelihoods, climate resilience • Scale is collectively huge – products worth US$1.3 trillion annually – 26% of world’s forests – 40% of protected areas. • COVID-19 – highlights fragility of supply chains and need for sustainable local production 3 Why community forestry? Macqueen, D. and Mayers, J. (2020) Unseen foresters – an assessment of approaches for wider recognition and spread of sustainable forest management by local communities. WWF-Sweden, Stockholm, Sweden. https://pubs.iied.org/g04468 Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
  • 4. Duncan Macqueen @IIED 4 Diversity of landscapes Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
  • 5. Duncan Macqueen @IIED 5 Diversity of value chains Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
  • 6. Duncan Macqueen @IIED 6 1. If I plant or manage it, will I benefit and / or can I sell it? Rights and institutional setting – secure tenure 2. If I can sell it, will I get a fair price? Addressing community needs – market access 3. If I can sell it at a fair price, can I grow it to specification? Availability of natural resource – technical extension 4. Can collective organization ensure the above until harvest? Effective governance and participation – organisation 5. If yes, is collective action able to cope with the unexpected? Adaptive management and learning – flexibility How to make community forestry prosperous? Macqueen, D.J. and deMarsh, P. (2016) Enabling investment for locally controlled forestry. Chapter 7 pp 109-131 in Forests, Business and Sustainability; edited by Rajat Panwar, Robert Kozak and Eric Hansen. Focus Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
  • 7. Duncan Macqueen @IIED 4th Tier – regional cooperation – global advocacy / exchanges 3rd Tier – National policy representation, channel project finance 2nd Tier – Regional value addition, marketing, business incubation, finance, projects 1st Tier – local production Where to start? Locally accountable organisation Whether you want to shape policy, build business or improve climate action – organise to thrive! Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Guatemala Probosque law 2015 commits US$ 20 million per year for forest and agroforestry producers.
  • 8. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Priorities: CF group links to farmer organisations ROPPA Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Togo Expanded agroforestry systems and new cassava processing facility for Novi Va, Togo
  • 9. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Priorities: Organisations doing risk assessment Fresh leaf purchases From each individual farmer Pre-drying Drying Grinding, sieving Packing Commercialization Technical support and purchase coordination The company: RunaTarpuna Planting & care of crops Producers Fresh leaf purchases From each individual farmer Pre-drying Drying Grinding, sieving Packing Commercialization Technical support and purchase coordination Company: RunaTarpuna Planting & care of crops “24 de mayo” Packing and wholesale to company New role for “24 de Mayo” association in the guayusa value chain: 24 de Mayo Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Ecuador Vertical integration of ‘24 de Mayo’ in Guayusa value chain following risk assessment
  • 10. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Bolivia First-tier local organisation Second-tier regional association Third-tier national federation Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Priorities: Organised federations changing policy US$ 37 million cocoa incentive programme over five years
  • 11. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Priorities:Apex organisations incubating business Ghana New federation of 1 million members – with inbuilt business incubation team (BIT)
  • 12. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Governance & legality Social organisation Research & development Business support Technical advice Finance & insurance CF cooperatives Larger CF business incubator Value chain marketing Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Priorities: Organisations mobilising internal finance Viet Nam US$ 3.5 million cinnamon processing factory installed by 23 person cooperative
  • 13. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Priorities: Women’s empowerment through business Thiongote in Laikipia County in Kenya developing women’s tree fruit business Kenya
  • 14. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous Priorities: Organisations upscaling climate solutions Madagascar Four supply cooperatives to Manarivo AB diversifying away from peanuts into aromatic oils SOCIAL 1. Organizational systems 2. Membership services 3. Political representation 4. Technical extension 5. Business incubation 6. Financial services 7. Quality assurance 8. Cooperative union ECOLOGICAL 9. Climate adapted stock 10. Biodiversity 11. Spatial optimisation 12. Tree based productivity 13. Pest management 14. Erosion control 15. Soil mulching PHYSICAL 23. Mapping 24. Inventory / remote sensing 25. Physical boundaries 26. Terracing 27. Water management 28. Storage and transport 29. Electrification and connectivity 30. Information services ECONOMIC 16. Increase scale 17. Stock information 18. Processing and packaging 19. Vertical integration 20. More distribution channels 21. Better marketing 22. Horizontal diversification Climate resilience options
  • 15. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Priorities: Organisations that leave none behind Zambia Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous
  • 16. Duncan Macqueen @IIED Priorities: Blend this and more into compelling stories Nepal Organisational innovations that make community forestry prosperous

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