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Chap: 2 Cells
By:Zainab Kulsoom
• To identify and label the parts of a typical animal cell, plant cell.
• To compare the relative sizes of different types of cells.
• To compare the structure and function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells.
.
Learning Objective
Success Criteria
Starter
The image below shows some onion cells under a light microscope.
Can you identify any of the parts of the cell?
Photo courtesy of (@wikimedia.org) - granted under creative commons licence – attribution
Starter
cell membrane
cell wall
cytoplasm
nucleus
Photo courtesy of (@wikimedia.org) - granted under creative commons licence – attribution
A Cell
A cell is the unit of
life.
It was first
discovered by
Robert Hooke in
1665.
Cells perform
different jobs in
organism’s body.
The organelles
present inside the
cell are contributing
in the efficacy of
the cell function.
An Animal Cell
A typical eukaryotic cell.
Enclosed by a plasma membrane.
Membrane bounded nucleus and
organelles are present.
The size of animal cell ranges between
1 and 100 micrometer, thus only visible
under a microscope.
Animal cell is capable of developing
great diversity of cell types, tissues and
organs.
Specialized cells are performing
specialized functions in animal’s body.
Characteristics Of Cells
Plasma
Membrane
• A surrounding membrane.
• Protects the cell.
Protoplasm
& Organelles
• Cell contents in thick fluid
• Structures for cell function.
Nucleus
• Contains hereditary information.
• Controls all the activities of the cell.
Cell Membrane/ plasma membrane/cell surface
membrane
• Separates the inside of the cell from the
outside environment.
• Partially permeable to control substances
entering or leaving the cell.
• Selective permeability
• Allowing some substances to cross more easily
than others.
• Block passage of some substances altogether.
• Consists of A Lipid Bilayer ( Phospholipid
Bilayer).
Cytoplasm & its Function.
• It’s the living portion of the cell.
• All the organelles are embedded in
cytoplasm, thus it’s responsible to
carry out all the life processes.
• Composition Of Cytoplasm.
• It’s mainly composed of water, salts
and proteins.
• It lacks any color pigment so gives
transparent appearance.
Ribosomes And Their Function.
Ribosomes are the minute rounded
bodies present inside the cell.
There are two types of Ribosomes
,i.e;
Free floating
Attached to Endoplasmic reticulum.
Composition of ribosomes:
Made up of RNA and proteins.
Also called as macromolecular
machines which synthesize proteins.
Nucleus
• The control center of the cell.
• It contains the hereditary material
called DNA.
Definition
• Nucleus is a membrane bound
organelle that controls all the activities
in cell.
• It’s present in the center of the cell.
Position Of
Nucleus.
• The DNA is enclosed in a nuclear
envelop that contains small pores
which help to regulate the nuclear
transport of molecules across the
membrane.
Function Of Nuclear
Envelope
Plant Cell
Sub-cellular Structures
nucleus
contains genetic
information and controls
the activities of the cell
mitochondria
site of aerobic
respiration, which
releases energy for the
cell
cell membrane
controls the movement
of substances into and
out of the cell
cytoplasm
jelly-like substance
where chemical
reactions occur
ribosome
carries out protein
synthesis using the
genetic code from DNA
cell wall
strengthens the cell and
provides support
permanent vacuole
contains cell sap to keep
the cell rigid
chloroplast
contains chlorophyll, which
absorbs light energy for
photosynthesis
Sub-Cellular Structures
Bacterial Cell
cell membrane
controls the movement of substances into
and out of the cell
cytoplasm
jelly-like substance where chemical
reactions occur
ribosome
carries out protein
synthesis using the
genetic code from DNA
flagellum
tail-like structure that allows the cell to
move
cell wall
strengthens the cell and provides
support
plasmid
small ring of DNA that codes for specific
functions
DNA loop
carries genetic information
Relative Size of Cells
Bacterial cell is typically 0.5
- 5μm in length,
approximately 10 times
smaller than plant cell.
Animal cells are
typically between
10 - 30μm in length.
Plant cells are larger than
animal cells and range from
10 - 100μm in length.
1 millimetre (mm) = 0.001m
1 micrometre (μm) = 0.000001m
1 nanometre (nm) = 0.000000001m
smallest largest
Comparing Cells
Part of the cell Animal Cell Plant Cell Bacterial Cell
Plasma Membrane ✔ ✔ ✔
Cell Wall ❌ ✔ ✔
Cytoplasm ✔ ✔ ✔
Plasmid ❌
❌
✔
Nucleus ✔ ✔ ❌
Ribosomes ✔ ✔ ✔
Flagellum ❌ ❌ ✔
Chloroplast ❌ ✔ ❌
Plenary
You have 60 seconds to summarise the lesson and what you have learned today. You
could do this as a mind map, diagram or doodle, a short sentence or even a list of
keywords.
60 Second Challenge
start finish
To understand the term cell, tissue, organ and organ system and
organisms as illustrated by examples.
To understand that cells can become specialized and that their
structures are related to their specific functions, as illustrated by
examples.
.
Learning Objective 1
Learning Objective 2
Specialized Cells, Tissues, Organ
and Organ System
Definition
A cell that becomes
specialized to perform a
specific function is called as
specialized cell.
Such kind of cells are present
in both plants and animals.
Root Hair Cell.
It has nucleus and a vacuole.
It’s long and narrow.
It increases the surface area to
volume ratio of the cell.
Helps in efficient absorption of
water and mineral salts from the
soil.
Red Blood Cell
It’s circular and biconcave in shape.
Contains a red color pigment hemoglobin
that absorbs oxygen from the lungs and
delivers to all parts of the body.
The shape of RBC increases the surface
area for the quick diffusion of oxygen.
Xylem Vessels
Water conducting tissues.
Cross walls and protoplasm are absent in xylem vessels.
Also called as dead cells.
Lumen (space) enables the continuous flow of water.
Lignin is a hard substance, present in walls of xylem.
It strengthens the walls and prevents collapse of
vessels.
Tissues
Cells of the same type group together to form
tissues.
Such tissues have different functions to
perform.
Examples;
Epithelial tissue: A sheet of muscle which
cover both the internal and external organs.
Tissues
Plant Epidermis is a
covering tissue.
It’s thin and have
nucleus.
Tissues
Bone tissue makes
bones.
Nervous tissue
makes the
nervous system.
Organs
Different tissues are united to make organs.
These tissues enable the organ to perform its
function.
Examples:
Stomach, Liver, Heart, Brain, Bones and in plants;
stem, root, leaf and flower are the organs which
are made up of different types of tissues.
Organs System
Several organs working together for a
special purpose make up an Organ
System.
Examples:
Digestive System, Circulatory system,
Respiratory System, Nervous System,
Reproductive System, Excretory system.
Plenary
You have 60 seconds to summarise the lesson and what you have learned today. You
could do this as a mind map, diagram or doodle, a short sentence or even a list of
keywords.
60 Second Challenge
start finish

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Chapter: 2 "Cells"

  • 2. • To identify and label the parts of a typical animal cell, plant cell. • To compare the relative sizes of different types of cells. • To compare the structure and function of eukaryotic and prokaryotic cells. . Learning Objective Success Criteria
  • 3. Starter The image below shows some onion cells under a light microscope. Can you identify any of the parts of the cell? Photo courtesy of (@wikimedia.org) - granted under creative commons licence – attribution
  • 4. Starter cell membrane cell wall cytoplasm nucleus Photo courtesy of (@wikimedia.org) - granted under creative commons licence – attribution
  • 5. A Cell A cell is the unit of life. It was first discovered by Robert Hooke in 1665. Cells perform different jobs in organism’s body. The organelles present inside the cell are contributing in the efficacy of the cell function.
  • 6. An Animal Cell A typical eukaryotic cell. Enclosed by a plasma membrane. Membrane bounded nucleus and organelles are present. The size of animal cell ranges between 1 and 100 micrometer, thus only visible under a microscope. Animal cell is capable of developing great diversity of cell types, tissues and organs. Specialized cells are performing specialized functions in animal’s body.
  • 7. Characteristics Of Cells Plasma Membrane • A surrounding membrane. • Protects the cell. Protoplasm & Organelles • Cell contents in thick fluid • Structures for cell function. Nucleus • Contains hereditary information. • Controls all the activities of the cell.
  • 8. Cell Membrane/ plasma membrane/cell surface membrane • Separates the inside of the cell from the outside environment. • Partially permeable to control substances entering or leaving the cell. • Selective permeability • Allowing some substances to cross more easily than others. • Block passage of some substances altogether. • Consists of A Lipid Bilayer ( Phospholipid Bilayer).
  • 9. Cytoplasm & its Function. • It’s the living portion of the cell. • All the organelles are embedded in cytoplasm, thus it’s responsible to carry out all the life processes. • Composition Of Cytoplasm. • It’s mainly composed of water, salts and proteins. • It lacks any color pigment so gives transparent appearance.
  • 10. Ribosomes And Their Function. Ribosomes are the minute rounded bodies present inside the cell. There are two types of Ribosomes ,i.e; Free floating Attached to Endoplasmic reticulum. Composition of ribosomes: Made up of RNA and proteins. Also called as macromolecular machines which synthesize proteins.
  • 11. Nucleus • The control center of the cell. • It contains the hereditary material called DNA. Definition • Nucleus is a membrane bound organelle that controls all the activities in cell. • It’s present in the center of the cell. Position Of Nucleus. • The DNA is enclosed in a nuclear envelop that contains small pores which help to regulate the nuclear transport of molecules across the membrane. Function Of Nuclear Envelope
  • 12. Plant Cell Sub-cellular Structures nucleus contains genetic information and controls the activities of the cell mitochondria site of aerobic respiration, which releases energy for the cell cell membrane controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell cytoplasm jelly-like substance where chemical reactions occur ribosome carries out protein synthesis using the genetic code from DNA cell wall strengthens the cell and provides support permanent vacuole contains cell sap to keep the cell rigid chloroplast contains chlorophyll, which absorbs light energy for photosynthesis
  • 13. Sub-Cellular Structures Bacterial Cell cell membrane controls the movement of substances into and out of the cell cytoplasm jelly-like substance where chemical reactions occur ribosome carries out protein synthesis using the genetic code from DNA flagellum tail-like structure that allows the cell to move cell wall strengthens the cell and provides support plasmid small ring of DNA that codes for specific functions DNA loop carries genetic information
  • 14. Relative Size of Cells Bacterial cell is typically 0.5 - 5μm in length, approximately 10 times smaller than plant cell. Animal cells are typically between 10 - 30μm in length. Plant cells are larger than animal cells and range from 10 - 100μm in length. 1 millimetre (mm) = 0.001m 1 micrometre (μm) = 0.000001m 1 nanometre (nm) = 0.000000001m smallest largest
  • 15. Comparing Cells Part of the cell Animal Cell Plant Cell Bacterial Cell Plasma Membrane ✔ ✔ ✔ Cell Wall ❌ ✔ ✔ Cytoplasm ✔ ✔ ✔ Plasmid ❌ ❌ ✔ Nucleus ✔ ✔ ❌ Ribosomes ✔ ✔ ✔ Flagellum ❌ ❌ ✔ Chloroplast ❌ ✔ ❌
  • 16. Plenary You have 60 seconds to summarise the lesson and what you have learned today. You could do this as a mind map, diagram or doodle, a short sentence or even a list of keywords. 60 Second Challenge start finish
  • 17. To understand the term cell, tissue, organ and organ system and organisms as illustrated by examples. To understand that cells can become specialized and that their structures are related to their specific functions, as illustrated by examples. . Learning Objective 1 Learning Objective 2 Specialized Cells, Tissues, Organ and Organ System
  • 18. Definition A cell that becomes specialized to perform a specific function is called as specialized cell. Such kind of cells are present in both plants and animals.
  • 19. Root Hair Cell. It has nucleus and a vacuole. It’s long and narrow. It increases the surface area to volume ratio of the cell. Helps in efficient absorption of water and mineral salts from the soil.
  • 20. Red Blood Cell It’s circular and biconcave in shape. Contains a red color pigment hemoglobin that absorbs oxygen from the lungs and delivers to all parts of the body. The shape of RBC increases the surface area for the quick diffusion of oxygen.
  • 21. Xylem Vessels Water conducting tissues. Cross walls and protoplasm are absent in xylem vessels. Also called as dead cells. Lumen (space) enables the continuous flow of water. Lignin is a hard substance, present in walls of xylem. It strengthens the walls and prevents collapse of vessels.
  • 22. Tissues Cells of the same type group together to form tissues. Such tissues have different functions to perform. Examples; Epithelial tissue: A sheet of muscle which cover both the internal and external organs.
  • 23. Tissues Plant Epidermis is a covering tissue. It’s thin and have nucleus.
  • 24. Tissues Bone tissue makes bones. Nervous tissue makes the nervous system.
  • 25.
  • 26. Organs Different tissues are united to make organs. These tissues enable the organ to perform its function. Examples: Stomach, Liver, Heart, Brain, Bones and in plants; stem, root, leaf and flower are the organs which are made up of different types of tissues.
  • 27. Organs System Several organs working together for a special purpose make up an Organ System. Examples: Digestive System, Circulatory system, Respiratory System, Nervous System, Reproductive System, Excretory system.
  • 28. Plenary You have 60 seconds to summarise the lesson and what you have learned today. You could do this as a mind map, diagram or doodle, a short sentence or even a list of keywords. 60 Second Challenge start finish