SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 23
Impacts of a Cash Plus intervention on gender
attitudes among Tanzanian adolescents
APPAM International 2019, Barcelona, July 29 2019
Tia Palermo, Yekaterina Chzhen, and Leah Prencipe on behalf of the Tanzania Cash Plus
Evaluation Team
“Societal expectations about men’s
and women’s roles, rights,
and responsibilities.”
- Vu et al, 2017
GENDER NORMS
for every child, answers
Background
Gender norms influence behaviours (including
health and violence domains)
Research on determinants of gender-norms
attitudes in adolescence is mostly from North
America and Western Europe (Kågesten et al,
2016)
A review of 31 evaluations of small-scale
programmes in LMICs documents short-term
impacts on adolescents’ attitudes (John et al, 2017)
for every child, answers
Cash Plus: The Intervention
The Cash: cash transfer to the household - Tanzania’s
Productive Social Safety Net (PPSN)
The Plus:
• 12 weeks of training on livelihoods and life skills
(including HIV/SRH and gender equity)
• Mentoring (including referrals and productive grant)
• Linkages to adolescent-friendly services (e.g.
sexual and reproductive health; violence response)
for every child, answers
Training Topics
Livelihoods
• Dreams and goals
• Entrepreneurship skills
• Business plans and record keeping
• Savings
HIV/SRH
• Coping with puberty
• Relationships
• HIV knowledge, prevention and protection
• Pregnancy and family planning
• Violence and gender-based violence
• Addressing negative gender attitudes and
norms
• Alcohol and drugs
• Healthy living and nutrition
RESEARCH QUESTION 1:
What is the impact of the (cash
plus) training on attitudes towards
equitable gender norms among 14-
19-year-olds in rural Tanzania in
cash transfer recipient households?
RESEARCH QUESTION 2:
Whether and how does the impact
differ with personal characteristics
(e.g. gender, sexual debut)?
Study Design: Cluster
Randomized Control Trial
130 villages (clusters) in two districts
in Tanzania randomized into:
• Treatment: Cash + adolescent-
focused services
• Control: Cash only
for every child, answers
Data
Youth questionnaire
• Baseline (pre-intervention/pre-
randomization) survey
• Midline (12-month follow-up) survey
Youth Sample
for every child, answers
Analytic sample
(after excluding DK)
GEM scale: 1,279
Violence: 1,907
Reproductive Health: 1,606
Sexual Relationships: 1,505
Domestic chores and daily
life: 2,012
for every child, answers
Measures
Gender norms: Gender Equitable Men
(GEM) scale (Pulerwitz et al, 2008)
• 24 items validated in a study of
adolescents in Uganda (Vu et al, 2017)
• Four domains: violence, reproductive
health, sexual relationships; domestic
chores & daily life
• Items recoded, dichotomized and
summed into a scale (Cronbach’s alpha
0.87 in our sample).
• Higher values denote greater
support for equitable gender norms
“It is alright for a man to beat his
wife if she is unfaithful.”
“Only when a woman has a child is
she a real woman.”
“Men are always ready to have sex.”
“A woman should obey her
husband in all things.”
for every child, answers
Estimation
Imperfect compliance with the intervention  intent-to-treat (ITT) impacts
Low autocorrelation between outcomes at baseline and midline (ρ=0.13)  Analysis of
Covariance (ANCOVA)
𝒀 𝟏𝒊𝒋 = 𝜶 𝟎 + 𝜶 𝟏 𝑻𝒋 + 𝜶 𝟐 𝒀 𝟎𝒊𝒋 + 𝜶 𝟑 𝑿𝒊𝒋 + 𝜺𝒊𝒋
𝑌0𝑖𝑗 - baseline value of the outcome for adolescent i living in village j
𝑌1𝑖𝑗 - midline value of the outcome for adolescent i living in village j
Tj – treatment dummy (1-lives in a treatment village; 0 otherwise)
Xij – controls (age at baseline, gender, district x village size fixed effects)
No impact on the overall GEM scale.
Cash Plus Intervention Impacts
on Gender-Norms Attitudes
for every child, answers
ITT Impact Baseline
Mean
Midline
Cash Only
Midline
Cash Plus
Mean Mean
(1) (2) (3) (4)
GEM scale (0-24) 0.776 12.475 14.685 15.558
(0.40)
N 1,279 1,279 666 613
Violence sub-scale (0-6) 0.120 3.686 3.841 3.976
(0.09)
N 1,907 1,907 981 926
Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 0.167 2.779 3.171 3.358
(0.09)
N 1,606 1,606 840 766
Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) 0.144 4.298 5.393 5.564
(0.14)
N 1,505 1,505 774 731
Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) 0.263** 1.719 1.937 2.237
(0.10)
N 2,012 2,012 1,034 978
*p<0.05, **p<0.01. Controlling for gender, age & outcome value at baseline, district x village size fixed effects.
Standard errors (in parentheses) adjusted for village-level clustering.
The intervention increased
support for equitable gender
norms only among males
(for the overall scale;
violence sub-scale and
domestic chores sub-scale).
Cash Plus Intervention Impacts on
Gender-Norms Attitudes (by gender)
for every child, answers
Females Males
ITT Impact ITT Impact Differential impact
(1) (2) (3)
GEM scale (0-24) -0.051 1.368* -1.412*
(0.44) (0.53) (0.60)
N 546 733
Violence sub-scale (0-6) -0.064 0.278* -0.350
(0.13) (0.12) (0.18)
N 845 1,062
Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 0.110 0.206 -0.095
(0.10) (0.12) (0.14)
N 699 907
Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) -0.145 0.347 -0.505*
(0.17) (0.18) (0.23)
N 643 862
Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) -0.006 0.489** -0.508*
(0.12) (0.15) (0.20)
N 913 1,099
*p<0.05, **p<0.01. Column 3 refers to regressions estimated on the pooled panel sample and augmented by the
interaction term (treatment x subgroup). The estimated coefficient on the interaction term is reported.
The intervention increased
support for equitable gender
norms only among males who
had not sexually debuted (at
baseline).
Cash Plus Intervention Impacts on Gender-Norms
Attitudes (males & females, by sexual debut at baseline)
for every child, answers
Sexually debuted Not sexually debuted
Males
ITT
impact
Females
ITT impact
Differential
impact
Males
ITT
impact
Females
ITT impact
Differential
impact
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6)
GEM scale (0-24) 1.25 0.30 -0.95 1.46* -0.06 -1.52*
(1.07) (0.81) (1.35) (0.57) (0.50) (0.68)
Violence sub-scale (0-6) 0.03 -0.01 -0.04 0.32* -0.08 -0.41*
(0.28) (0.25) (0.37) (0.13) (0.14) (0.20)
Reproductive health
sub-scale (0-5)
0.16 0.28 0.12 0.23 0.08 -0.15
(0.31) (0.19) (0.37) (0.12) (0.12) (0.16)
Sexual relationships sub-
scale (0-8)
0.45 -0.03 -0.48 0.37 -0.16 -0.53*
(0.40) (0.30) (0.52) (0.19) (0.19) (0.25)
Domestic chores sub-
scale (0-5)
0.60 0.11 -0.49 0.52** -0.04 -0.56*
(0.32) (0.20) (0.38) (0.16) (0.13) (0.22)
*p<0.05, **p<0.01. Column 3 refers to regressions estimated on the pooled panel sample and augmented by the
interaction term (treatment x subgroup). The estimated coefficient on the interaction term is reported.
for every child, answers
Key findings
The Cash Plus intervention had no impact on gender equitable attitudes among 14-19-year-olds.
The Cash Plus intervention increased gender equitable attitudes among males (but not females),
particularly in the domains of violence and the domestic chores.
But the impact was heterogeneous even among males:
• The intervention only increased support for equitable gender norms among males who had not
reported experiences of sexual debut at baseline
• This is not driven by age differences: the intervention affected males (but not females) in both the
younger (14 -15) and older (16-19) cohorts, with or without controlling for sexual debut at baseline
for every child, answers
Implications
Gender-focused interventions need to take place early, before
personal experiences have led to the consolidation of attitudes to
gender norms.
• Experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with less equitable
gender norms in adolescents (Uganda; Vu et al, 2017)
More efforts need to be made to demonstrate the value of
progressive gender norms to female adolescents.
Broader social protection policy can affect gender attitudes via
impacts on drivers of gender attitudes .
• Cash transfer programmes targeting mothers of young children
increase women’s empowerment (Zambia; Bonilla et al 2017)
On behalf of the Tanzania Cash Plus evaluation team
UNICEF Office of Research: Tia Palermo (co-Principal Investigator), Lusajo Kajula,
Jacobus de Hoop, Leah Prencipe, Valeria Groppo, Jennifer Waidler
Economic Development Initiatives: Johanna Choumert Nkolo (co-Principal Investigator),
Respichius Mitti (co-Principal Investigator), Nathan Sivewright, Koen Leuveld, Bhoke Munanka
Tanzania Social Action Fund: Paul Luchemba, Tumpe Lukongo
Tanzania Commission for Aids: Aroldia Mulokozi
UNICEF Tanzania: Ulrike Gilbert, Paul Quarles van Ufford, Rikke Le Kirkegaard, Frank Eetaama
THANK YOU.
ANNEX
Descriptive Statistics
Control Treatment
Variables Mean N Mean N p-value
Age 16.09 1,071 16.05 1,009 0.58
Female (ref: Male) 0.47 1,071 0.43 1,009 0.12
Mufindi PAA (ref: Rungwe) 0.51 1,071 0.51 1,009 0.97
Large village (ref: small) 0.71 1,071 0.67 1,009 0.54
Baseline means of background characteristics in the panel sample, by treatment status
Means of outcome variables at baseline in the panel sample, by treatment status
Control Treatment
Mean N Mean N p-value
GEM scale (0-24) 12.62 849 12.32 763 0.55
Violence sub-scale (0-6) 3.73 1,026 3.67 978 0.63
Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 2.78 952 2.74 863 0.72
Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) 4.34 919 4.27 842 0.70
Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) 1.76 1,056 1.67 998 0.49
for every child, answers
Attrition & Balance
Means of outcome variables at baseline, by attribution status
for every child, answers
Attrited Panel Difference Difference
Cash
Only
Cash
Plus
P-value Cash
Only
Cash
Plus
P-value Col(1)-Col(4) P-value Col(2)-Col(5) P-value
(1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10)
GEM scale (0-24) 13.66 11.63 0.01 12.62 12.32 0.48 1.04 0.06 -0.69 0.08
Violence sub-scale (0-6) 3.99 3.55 0.05 3.73 3.67 0.63 0.26 0.06 -0.12 0.34
Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 2.68 2.45 0.21 2.78 2.74 0.68 -0.10 0.37 -0.30 0.02
Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) 4.67 4.20 0.09 4.34 4.27 0.68 0.33 0.08 -0.07 0.60
Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) 1.78 1.49 0.13 1.76 1.67 0.44 0.02 0.88 -0.18 0.05
Notes: Mean values represent unadjusted statistics, while p-values in column 3 are from the coefficient on 'treatment' from a regression predicting each characteristic listed in the table among the group of attritors, while
column 6 is the same among the panel sample. All regressions control for district x size fixed effects and standard errors are clustered at the community level. N may differ by indicator.
PSSN Details
Impacts of a Cash Plus Intervention on Gender Attitudes Among Tanzanian Adolescents

More Related Content

What's hot

Adolescents, social protection and HIV in South Africa
Adolescents, social protection and HIV in South AfricaAdolescents, social protection and HIV in South Africa
Adolescents, social protection and HIV in South AfricaRENEWAL-IFPRI
 
Cash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & Zambia
Cash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & ZambiaCash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & Zambia
Cash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & ZambiaThe Transfer Project
 
How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...
How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...
How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...
Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...
Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...The Transfer Project
 
Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...
Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...
Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...Michelle Mills
 
An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...
An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...
An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A framework
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A frameworkGender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A framework
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A frameworkUNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Violence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of Intersection
Violence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of IntersectionViolence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of Intersection
Violence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of IntersectionUNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...
What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...
What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer Programme
Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer ProgrammeChild Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer Programme
Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer ProgrammeThe Transfer Project
 
Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...
Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...
Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...
Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...
Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...unicefmne
 

What's hot (20)

Cash Transfers, Violence & Youth
Cash Transfers, Violence & YouthCash Transfers, Violence & Youth
Cash Transfers, Violence & Youth
 
Adolescents, social protection and HIV in South Africa
Adolescents, social protection and HIV in South AfricaAdolescents, social protection and HIV in South Africa
Adolescents, social protection and HIV in South Africa
 
Cash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & Zambia
Cash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & ZambiaCash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & Zambia
Cash Transfers & Child Work in Malawi, Tanzania & Zambia
 
How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...
How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...
How do national social protection strategies and programmes integrate gender ...
 
Linking Data on Violence Against Children to Action for Impact
Linking Data on Violence Against Children to Action for ImpactLinking Data on Violence Against Children to Action for Impact
Linking Data on Violence Against Children to Action for Impact
 
Violence against children and women — Project brief
Violence against children and women — Project briefViolence against children and women — Project brief
Violence against children and women — Project brief
 
Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...
Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...
Impacts of Cash Transfers on Adolescents' & Young Women's Well-Being Globally...
 
Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...
Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...
Impact of the Kenya Cash Transfer for Orphans and Vulnerable Children on safe...
 
An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...
An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...
An Overview: Handbook of Adolescent Development Research and it Impact on Glo...
 
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A framework
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A frameworkGender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A framework
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP): A framework
 
Violence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of Intersection
Violence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of IntersectionViolence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of Intersection
Violence Against Women & Violence Against Children - Points of Intersection
 
What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...
What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...
What Makes Me? Core capacities for living and learning. Presentation at WISE ...
 
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP)
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP)Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP)
Gender-Responsive Age-Sensitive Social Protection (GRASSP)
 
Social Protection & Adolescence
Social Protection & AdolescenceSocial Protection & Adolescence
Social Protection & Adolescence
 
Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer Programme
Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer ProgrammeChild Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer Programme
Child Work in the Karamoja ECD Cash or Food Transfer Programme
 
Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...
Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...
Beyond Masks: Societal impacts of COVID-19 and accelerated solutions for chil...
 
Can Universal Child Grants Lead to a More Gender-Equal Society?
Can Universal Child Grants Lead to a More Gender-Equal Society? Can Universal Child Grants Lead to a More Gender-Equal Society?
Can Universal Child Grants Lead to a More Gender-Equal Society?
 
Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...
Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...
Why is ECD the Bona Fide Foundation for the SDGs - Pia Rebello Britto, Senior...
 
Ethical research involving children — Project brief
Ethical research involving children — Project briefEthical research involving children — Project brief
Ethical research involving children — Project brief
 
Conditional cash transfers, child work and schooling in Tanzania
Conditional cash transfers, child work and schooling in TanzaniaConditional cash transfers, child work and schooling in Tanzania
Conditional cash transfers, child work and schooling in Tanzania
 

Similar to Impacts of a Cash Plus Intervention on Gender Attitudes Among Tanzanian Adolescents

Social Protection & Intimate Partner Violence
Social Protection & Intimate Partner ViolenceSocial Protection & Intimate Partner Violence
Social Protection & Intimate Partner ViolenceThe Transfer Project
 
Cash Transfers and Violence Against Women and Children
Cash Transfers and Violence Against Women and ChildrenCash Transfers and Violence Against Women and Children
Cash Transfers and Violence Against Women and ChildrenThe Transfer Project
 
Government Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in Ghana
Government Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in GhanaGovernment Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in Ghana
Government Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in GhanaThe Transfer Project
 
AEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_Dungkharka
AEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_DungkharkaAEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_Dungkharka
AEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_DungkharkaCharlayne Davis
 
Effects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & Children
Effects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & ChildrenEffects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & Children
Effects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & ChildrenThe Transfer Project
 
Going All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex Disaggregation
Going All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex DisaggregationGoing All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex Disaggregation
Going All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex DisaggregationMEASURE Evaluation
 
The Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research Study
The Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research StudyThe Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research Study
The Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research StudyChristine Wekerle
 
Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...
Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...
Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...Christine Wekerle
 
Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...
Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...
Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...The Transfer Project
 
Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....
Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....
Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....CORE Group
 
Dementias and psychological treatment for families
Dementias and psychological treatment for familiesDementias and psychological treatment for families
Dementias and psychological treatment for familiesYasir Hameed
 
Childhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health Outcomes
Childhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health OutcomesChildhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health Outcomes
Childhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health OutcomesChristine Wekerle
 
ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...
ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...
ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...Christine Wekerle
 
Down with low child sex ratio challenges ahead
Down with low child sex ratio  challenges aheadDown with low child sex ratio  challenges ahead
Down with low child sex ratio challenges aheadGulrukh Hashmi
 
Unconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in Africa
Unconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in AfricaUnconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in Africa
Unconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in AfricaThe Transfer Project
 
Preventing Family Violence
Preventing Family ViolencePreventing Family Violence
Preventing Family ViolenceRebecca J Macy
 
Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000
Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000
Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000The Transfer Project
 

Similar to Impacts of a Cash Plus Intervention on Gender Attitudes Among Tanzanian Adolescents (20)

Social Protection & Intimate Partner Violence
Social Protection & Intimate Partner ViolenceSocial Protection & Intimate Partner Violence
Social Protection & Intimate Partner Violence
 
Cash Transfers and Violence Against Women and Children
Cash Transfers and Violence Against Women and ChildrenCash Transfers and Violence Against Women and Children
Cash Transfers and Violence Against Women and Children
 
Government Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in Ghana
Government Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in GhanaGovernment Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in Ghana
Government Anti-Poverty Programming & IPV in Ghana
 
AEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_Dungkharka
AEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_DungkharkaAEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_Dungkharka
AEA2014Group4Poster_RiskForViolenceAgainstWomen_STI_Dungkharka
 
Cash Transfers & IPV in LMICs
Cash Transfers & IPV in LMICsCash Transfers & IPV in LMICs
Cash Transfers & IPV in LMICs
 
Effects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & Children
Effects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & ChildrenEffects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & Children
Effects of Cash Transfers on Protection & Wellbeing of Women & Children
 
Going All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex Disaggregation
Going All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex DisaggregationGoing All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex Disaggregation
Going All the Way: Gender Integration Beyond Sex Disaggregation
 
The Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research Study
The Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research StudyThe Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research Study
The Maltreatment and Adolescent Pathways (MAP) Research Study
 
Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...
Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...
Wekerle CIHR Team - Child Sexual Abuse & Adolescent Development: Moving from ...
 
Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...
Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...
Social Safety Nets and linkages to Violence Against Children and Violence Aga...
 
Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....
Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....
Scaling-up GBC Interventions Using Organization Barrier Analysis_Cloninger_5....
 
Dementias and psychological treatment for families
Dementias and psychological treatment for familiesDementias and psychological treatment for families
Dementias and psychological treatment for families
 
Childhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health Outcomes
Childhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health OutcomesChildhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health Outcomes
Childhood maltreatment, PTSD, Attachment Study and Health Outcomes
 
PAA presentation
PAA presentationPAA presentation
PAA presentation
 
ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...
ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...
ISPCAN Jamaica 2018 (CIHRTeamSV) - Improving Health and Behavioral Outcomes a...
 
Down with low child sex ratio challenges ahead
Down with low child sex ratio  challenges aheadDown with low child sex ratio  challenges ahead
Down with low child sex ratio challenges ahead
 
Unconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in Africa
Unconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in AfricaUnconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in Africa
Unconditional Cash Transfers & Youth Mental Health in Africa
 
Preventing Family Violence
Preventing Family ViolencePreventing Family Violence
Preventing Family Violence
 
Economic Transfers and Social Cohesion in a Refugee-hosting Setting
Economic Transfers and Social Cohesion in a Refugee-hosting SettingEconomic Transfers and Social Cohesion in a Refugee-hosting Setting
Economic Transfers and Social Cohesion in a Refugee-hosting Setting
 
Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000
Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000
Impacts of Integrated Social Protection on IPV: the case of Ghana's LEAP 1000
 

More from UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti

LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...
LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...
LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...
Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...
Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...
Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...
Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 
Children with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project brief
Children with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project briefChildren with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project brief
Children with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project briefUNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti
 

More from UNICEF Office of Research - Innocenti (20)

LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...
LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...
LAUNCH: Intersections between violence against children and violence against ...
 
Harmful Practices - Project Brief
Harmful Practices - Project Brief Harmful Practices - Project Brief
Harmful Practices - Project Brief
 
Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...
Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...
Ending Violence Against Girls, Boys and Women Via A Gender-Transformative, Li...
 
Teachers for All PROJECT BRIEF (9).pdf
Teachers for All PROJECT BRIEF (9).pdfTeachers for All PROJECT BRIEF (9).pdf
Teachers for All PROJECT BRIEF (9).pdf
 
Teachers for All - Project Brief
Teachers for All - Project BriefTeachers for All - Project Brief
Teachers for All - Project Brief
 
Sport for Development Research Project Brief
Sport for Development Research Project BriefSport for Development Research Project Brief
Sport for Development Research Project Brief
 
Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...
Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...
Webinar Summary: Intersections Between Violence Against Children and Violence...
 
Data Must Speak — Project brief
Data Must Speak — Project briefData Must Speak — Project brief
Data Must Speak — Project brief
 
Digital learning — Project brief
Digital learning — Project briefDigital learning — Project brief
Digital learning — Project brief
 
Research uptake and impact — Project brief
Research uptake and impact — Project briefResearch uptake and impact — Project brief
Research uptake and impact — Project brief
 
Gender-responsive age-sensitive social protection — Project brief
Gender-responsive age-sensitive social protection — Project briefGender-responsive age-sensitive social protection — Project brief
Gender-responsive age-sensitive social protection — Project brief
 
Child labour — Project brief
Child labour — Project briefChild labour — Project brief
Child labour — Project brief
 
Global kids online — Project brief
Global kids online — Project briefGlobal kids online — Project brief
Global kids online — Project brief
 
Disrupting harm — Project brief
Disrupting harm — Project briefDisrupting harm — Project brief
Disrupting harm — Project brief
 
Time to teach — Project brief
Time to teach — Project briefTime to teach — Project brief
Time to teach — Project brief
 
Let us learn — Research brief
Let us learn — Research briefLet us learn — Research brief
Let us learn — Research brief
 
Children, migration and displacement — Project Brief
Children, migration and displacement — Project BriefChildren, migration and displacement — Project Brief
Children, migration and displacement — Project Brief
 
Children with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project brief
Children with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project briefChildren with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project brief
Children with disabilities in humanitarian settings — Project brief
 
Research governance — Project brief
Research governance — Project briefResearch governance — Project brief
Research governance — Project brief
 
Research capacity building and evidence synthesis — Project brief
Research capacity building and evidence synthesis — Project briefResearch capacity building and evidence synthesis — Project brief
Research capacity building and evidence synthesis — Project brief
 

Recently uploaded

2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 24
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 242024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 24
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 24JSchaus & Associates
 
23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programme
23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programme23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programme
23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programmeChristina Parmionova
 
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...Christina Parmionova
 
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptxPETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptxCrisAnnBusilan
 
GOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATIONGOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATIONShivamShukla147857
 
If there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdf
If there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdfIf there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdf
If there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdfKatrina Sriranpong
 
Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...
Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...
Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...Christina Parmionova
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.Christina Parmionova
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.Christina Parmionova
 
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdfNL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdfBertrand Coppin
 
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...MartMantilla1
 
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...Amil Baba Dawood bangali
 
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human DignityPope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human DignityEnergy for One World
 
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, IndiaISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, IndiaTrinity Care Foundation
 
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxProfessional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxjennysansano2
 
European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...
European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...
European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...Energy for One World
 
Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...
Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...
Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...Amil baba
 
PEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFO
PEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFOPEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFO
PEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFOMAIRIEORGERUS
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 232024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23JSchaus & Associates
 

Recently uploaded (20)

2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 24
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 242024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 24
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 24
 
23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programme
23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programme23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programme
23rd Infopoverty World Conference - Agenda programme
 
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information -  United Nations Economic an...
2024 ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM -logistical information - United Nations Economic an...
 
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptxPETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
PETTY CASH FUND - GOVERNMENT ACCOUNTING.pptx
 
GOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATIONGOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATION
GOVERNMENT OF NCT OF DELHI DIRECTORATE OF EDUCATION
 
If there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdf
If there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdfIf there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdf
If there is a Hell on Earth, it is the Lives of Children in Gaza.pdf
 
Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...
Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...
Youth shaping sustainable and innovative solution - Reinforcing the 2030 agen...
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 - Side Events Schedule -17 April.
 
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
ECOSOC YOUTH FORUM 2024 Side Events Schedule-18 April.
 
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdfNL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
NL-FR Partnership - Water management roundtable 20240403.pdf
 
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
Republic Act 11032 (Ease of Doing Business and Efficient Government Service D...
 
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
NO1 Certified Best vashikaran specialist in UK USA UAE London Dubai Canada Am...
 
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human DignityPope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
Pope Francis Teaching: Dignitas Infinita- On Human Dignity
 
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, IndiaISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
ISEIDP in Chikkaballapura, Karnataka, India
 
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptxProfessional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
Professional Conduct and ethics lecture.pptx
 
European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...
European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...
European Court of Human Rights: Judgment Verein KlimaSeniorinnen Schweiz and ...
 
Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...
Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...
Uk-NO1 Black magic Specialist Expert in Uk Usa Uae London Canada England Amer...
 
PEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFO
PEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFOPEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFO
PEO AVRIL POUR LA COMMUNE D'ORGERUS INFO
 
Housing For All - Fair Housing Choice Report
Housing For All - Fair Housing Choice ReportHousing For All - Fair Housing Choice Report
Housing For All - Fair Housing Choice Report
 
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 232024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
2024: The FAR, Federal Acquisition Regulations - Part 23
 

Impacts of a Cash Plus Intervention on Gender Attitudes Among Tanzanian Adolescents

  • 1. Impacts of a Cash Plus intervention on gender attitudes among Tanzanian adolescents APPAM International 2019, Barcelona, July 29 2019 Tia Palermo, Yekaterina Chzhen, and Leah Prencipe on behalf of the Tanzania Cash Plus Evaluation Team
  • 2. “Societal expectations about men’s and women’s roles, rights, and responsibilities.” - Vu et al, 2017 GENDER NORMS
  • 3. for every child, answers Background Gender norms influence behaviours (including health and violence domains) Research on determinants of gender-norms attitudes in adolescence is mostly from North America and Western Europe (Kågesten et al, 2016) A review of 31 evaluations of small-scale programmes in LMICs documents short-term impacts on adolescents’ attitudes (John et al, 2017)
  • 4. for every child, answers Cash Plus: The Intervention The Cash: cash transfer to the household - Tanzania’s Productive Social Safety Net (PPSN) The Plus: • 12 weeks of training on livelihoods and life skills (including HIV/SRH and gender equity) • Mentoring (including referrals and productive grant) • Linkages to adolescent-friendly services (e.g. sexual and reproductive health; violence response)
  • 5. for every child, answers Training Topics Livelihoods • Dreams and goals • Entrepreneurship skills • Business plans and record keeping • Savings HIV/SRH • Coping with puberty • Relationships • HIV knowledge, prevention and protection • Pregnancy and family planning • Violence and gender-based violence • Addressing negative gender attitudes and norms • Alcohol and drugs • Healthy living and nutrition
  • 6. RESEARCH QUESTION 1: What is the impact of the (cash plus) training on attitudes towards equitable gender norms among 14- 19-year-olds in rural Tanzania in cash transfer recipient households?
  • 7. RESEARCH QUESTION 2: Whether and how does the impact differ with personal characteristics (e.g. gender, sexual debut)?
  • 8. Study Design: Cluster Randomized Control Trial 130 villages (clusters) in two districts in Tanzania randomized into: • Treatment: Cash + adolescent- focused services • Control: Cash only for every child, answers
  • 9. Data Youth questionnaire • Baseline (pre-intervention/pre- randomization) survey • Midline (12-month follow-up) survey
  • 10. Youth Sample for every child, answers Analytic sample (after excluding DK) GEM scale: 1,279 Violence: 1,907 Reproductive Health: 1,606 Sexual Relationships: 1,505 Domestic chores and daily life: 2,012
  • 11. for every child, answers Measures Gender norms: Gender Equitable Men (GEM) scale (Pulerwitz et al, 2008) • 24 items validated in a study of adolescents in Uganda (Vu et al, 2017) • Four domains: violence, reproductive health, sexual relationships; domestic chores & daily life • Items recoded, dichotomized and summed into a scale (Cronbach’s alpha 0.87 in our sample). • Higher values denote greater support for equitable gender norms “It is alright for a man to beat his wife if she is unfaithful.” “Only when a woman has a child is she a real woman.” “Men are always ready to have sex.” “A woman should obey her husband in all things.”
  • 12. for every child, answers Estimation Imperfect compliance with the intervention  intent-to-treat (ITT) impacts Low autocorrelation between outcomes at baseline and midline (ρ=0.13)  Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA) 𝒀 𝟏𝒊𝒋 = 𝜶 𝟎 + 𝜶 𝟏 𝑻𝒋 + 𝜶 𝟐 𝒀 𝟎𝒊𝒋 + 𝜶 𝟑 𝑿𝒊𝒋 + 𝜺𝒊𝒋 𝑌0𝑖𝑗 - baseline value of the outcome for adolescent i living in village j 𝑌1𝑖𝑗 - midline value of the outcome for adolescent i living in village j Tj – treatment dummy (1-lives in a treatment village; 0 otherwise) Xij – controls (age at baseline, gender, district x village size fixed effects)
  • 13. No impact on the overall GEM scale. Cash Plus Intervention Impacts on Gender-Norms Attitudes for every child, answers ITT Impact Baseline Mean Midline Cash Only Midline Cash Plus Mean Mean (1) (2) (3) (4) GEM scale (0-24) 0.776 12.475 14.685 15.558 (0.40) N 1,279 1,279 666 613 Violence sub-scale (0-6) 0.120 3.686 3.841 3.976 (0.09) N 1,907 1,907 981 926 Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 0.167 2.779 3.171 3.358 (0.09) N 1,606 1,606 840 766 Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) 0.144 4.298 5.393 5.564 (0.14) N 1,505 1,505 774 731 Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) 0.263** 1.719 1.937 2.237 (0.10) N 2,012 2,012 1,034 978 *p<0.05, **p<0.01. Controlling for gender, age & outcome value at baseline, district x village size fixed effects. Standard errors (in parentheses) adjusted for village-level clustering.
  • 14. The intervention increased support for equitable gender norms only among males (for the overall scale; violence sub-scale and domestic chores sub-scale). Cash Plus Intervention Impacts on Gender-Norms Attitudes (by gender) for every child, answers Females Males ITT Impact ITT Impact Differential impact (1) (2) (3) GEM scale (0-24) -0.051 1.368* -1.412* (0.44) (0.53) (0.60) N 546 733 Violence sub-scale (0-6) -0.064 0.278* -0.350 (0.13) (0.12) (0.18) N 845 1,062 Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 0.110 0.206 -0.095 (0.10) (0.12) (0.14) N 699 907 Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) -0.145 0.347 -0.505* (0.17) (0.18) (0.23) N 643 862 Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) -0.006 0.489** -0.508* (0.12) (0.15) (0.20) N 913 1,099 *p<0.05, **p<0.01. Column 3 refers to regressions estimated on the pooled panel sample and augmented by the interaction term (treatment x subgroup). The estimated coefficient on the interaction term is reported.
  • 15. The intervention increased support for equitable gender norms only among males who had not sexually debuted (at baseline). Cash Plus Intervention Impacts on Gender-Norms Attitudes (males & females, by sexual debut at baseline) for every child, answers Sexually debuted Not sexually debuted Males ITT impact Females ITT impact Differential impact Males ITT impact Females ITT impact Differential impact (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) GEM scale (0-24) 1.25 0.30 -0.95 1.46* -0.06 -1.52* (1.07) (0.81) (1.35) (0.57) (0.50) (0.68) Violence sub-scale (0-6) 0.03 -0.01 -0.04 0.32* -0.08 -0.41* (0.28) (0.25) (0.37) (0.13) (0.14) (0.20) Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 0.16 0.28 0.12 0.23 0.08 -0.15 (0.31) (0.19) (0.37) (0.12) (0.12) (0.16) Sexual relationships sub- scale (0-8) 0.45 -0.03 -0.48 0.37 -0.16 -0.53* (0.40) (0.30) (0.52) (0.19) (0.19) (0.25) Domestic chores sub- scale (0-5) 0.60 0.11 -0.49 0.52** -0.04 -0.56* (0.32) (0.20) (0.38) (0.16) (0.13) (0.22) *p<0.05, **p<0.01. Column 3 refers to regressions estimated on the pooled panel sample and augmented by the interaction term (treatment x subgroup). The estimated coefficient on the interaction term is reported.
  • 16. for every child, answers Key findings The Cash Plus intervention had no impact on gender equitable attitudes among 14-19-year-olds. The Cash Plus intervention increased gender equitable attitudes among males (but not females), particularly in the domains of violence and the domestic chores. But the impact was heterogeneous even among males: • The intervention only increased support for equitable gender norms among males who had not reported experiences of sexual debut at baseline • This is not driven by age differences: the intervention affected males (but not females) in both the younger (14 -15) and older (16-19) cohorts, with or without controlling for sexual debut at baseline
  • 17. for every child, answers Implications Gender-focused interventions need to take place early, before personal experiences have led to the consolidation of attitudes to gender norms. • Experience of sexual intercourse is correlated with less equitable gender norms in adolescents (Uganda; Vu et al, 2017) More efforts need to be made to demonstrate the value of progressive gender norms to female adolescents. Broader social protection policy can affect gender attitudes via impacts on drivers of gender attitudes . • Cash transfer programmes targeting mothers of young children increase women’s empowerment (Zambia; Bonilla et al 2017)
  • 18. On behalf of the Tanzania Cash Plus evaluation team UNICEF Office of Research: Tia Palermo (co-Principal Investigator), Lusajo Kajula, Jacobus de Hoop, Leah Prencipe, Valeria Groppo, Jennifer Waidler Economic Development Initiatives: Johanna Choumert Nkolo (co-Principal Investigator), Respichius Mitti (co-Principal Investigator), Nathan Sivewright, Koen Leuveld, Bhoke Munanka Tanzania Social Action Fund: Paul Luchemba, Tumpe Lukongo Tanzania Commission for Aids: Aroldia Mulokozi UNICEF Tanzania: Ulrike Gilbert, Paul Quarles van Ufford, Rikke Le Kirkegaard, Frank Eetaama THANK YOU.
  • 19. ANNEX
  • 20. Descriptive Statistics Control Treatment Variables Mean N Mean N p-value Age 16.09 1,071 16.05 1,009 0.58 Female (ref: Male) 0.47 1,071 0.43 1,009 0.12 Mufindi PAA (ref: Rungwe) 0.51 1,071 0.51 1,009 0.97 Large village (ref: small) 0.71 1,071 0.67 1,009 0.54 Baseline means of background characteristics in the panel sample, by treatment status Means of outcome variables at baseline in the panel sample, by treatment status Control Treatment Mean N Mean N p-value GEM scale (0-24) 12.62 849 12.32 763 0.55 Violence sub-scale (0-6) 3.73 1,026 3.67 978 0.63 Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 2.78 952 2.74 863 0.72 Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) 4.34 919 4.27 842 0.70 Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) 1.76 1,056 1.67 998 0.49 for every child, answers
  • 21. Attrition & Balance Means of outcome variables at baseline, by attribution status for every child, answers Attrited Panel Difference Difference Cash Only Cash Plus P-value Cash Only Cash Plus P-value Col(1)-Col(4) P-value Col(2)-Col(5) P-value (1) (2) (3) (4) (5) (6) (7) (8) (9) (10) GEM scale (0-24) 13.66 11.63 0.01 12.62 12.32 0.48 1.04 0.06 -0.69 0.08 Violence sub-scale (0-6) 3.99 3.55 0.05 3.73 3.67 0.63 0.26 0.06 -0.12 0.34 Reproductive health sub-scale (0-5) 2.68 2.45 0.21 2.78 2.74 0.68 -0.10 0.37 -0.30 0.02 Sexual relationships sub-scale (0-8) 4.67 4.20 0.09 4.34 4.27 0.68 0.33 0.08 -0.07 0.60 Domestic chores sub-scale (0-5) 1.78 1.49 0.13 1.76 1.67 0.44 0.02 0.88 -0.18 0.05 Notes: Mean values represent unadjusted statistics, while p-values in column 3 are from the coefficient on 'treatment' from a regression predicting each characteristic listed in the table among the group of attritors, while column 6 is the same among the panel sample. All regressions control for district x size fixed effects and standard errors are clustered at the community level. N may differ by indicator.

Editor's Notes

  1. [Conclusion] Thank you and contact information #1