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BHAGYA VIJAYAN
PALB:3120
INTRODUCTION
• The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP)
( Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation), is the
administrative body responsible for the civic and
infrastructural assets of the Greater Bangalore metropolitan
area.
• The BBMP represents the third level of government. Bruhat
Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is run by a city council.
• The city council comprises elected representatives, called
"corporators", one from each of the wards (localities) of the
city. 12th schedule
of
constitution
5/11/2014 2
STRUCTURE
• A mayor and deputy mayor of the council are also elected for a
period of 1-year, though not by popular vote.
• However, in the absence of an elected body, the BBMP is at
present run by an Administrator and a Commissioner, who are
appointed by the State Government..
• The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is responsible for
civic and infrastructural requirements of the city. It often
works in conjunction with other civic bodies such as
the Agenda for Bengaluru Infrastracture Development Task
Force (ABIDe) and the Bangalore Development Authority
(BDA) to design and implement civic and infrastructural
projects.
5/11/2014 3
A REPERTOIRE.....
• The history of municipal governance of Bangalore dates back
to 27 March 1862, when nine leading citizens of the city
formed a Municipal Board under the Improvement of Towns
Act of 1850. Later, a similar Municipal Board was also formed
in the Cantonment area of the city. The two boards were
legalised in 1881, and functioned as two independent bodies
called the Bangalore City Municipality and the Bangalore
Civil and Military Station Municipality. The following year,
the concept of elected representatives come into being and also
saw the introduction of property tax.
5/11/2014 4
• In January 2007, the Karnataka Government issued a
notification to merge 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore
Mahanagara Palike with seven City Municipal Councils
(CMC)s, one Town Municipal Council (TMC) and 111
villages around the city to form a single administrative area.
• The process was completed by April 2007 and the body was
renamed 'Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike‘.
5/11/2014 5
JURISDICTION
• BBMP is divided into eight zones, for the ease of
administration:
1. Mahadevapura
2. Dasarahalli
3. Byatarayanapura
4. Bommanahalli
5. Rajarajeshwarinagar
6. South
7. West
8. East
• Every zone has a Joint Commissioner
5/11/2014 6
ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES
• The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is the fourth
largest Municipal Corporation in India, after the city
corporations that administer Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai. The
BBMP is responsible for infrastructural assets of the Greater
Bangalore Metropolitan area, spread across 800 km2, with a
population of 8.4 million.
• Its roles and responsibilities include the "orderly development
of the city" — zoning and building
regulations, health, hygiene, licensing, trade and education, as
well as quality of life issues such as water bodies, parks
and greenery.
5/11/2014 7
Grappling with waste management
..........an overview
5/11/2014 8
SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT
• The rapid growth of population in Bangalore metropolitan area
and changing lifestyles has resulted in increased waste
generation.
• Consequently, waste management has become a key issue
needing be addressed.
• The various waste streams include municipal solidwaste
(households, commercial establishments), Bio medical waste
(Hospital, dispensaries), and industrial waste (industries) and
electronic waste (discards from electronic equipments
including PC’s).
5/11/2014 9
For the planning purposes and overall governance, the Bangalore
Metropolitan Area comprises of:
• 1) The Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) or
Greater Bangalore, it includes Bangalore City Corporation
area, the erstwhile seven City Municipal Councils and one
Town Municipal Council and 111 villages an extent of 800
sqkm. With 84 lakhs ( population as per census 2011).
• 2) Bangalore Development Authority the local planning
authority prepares the master plan for the Bangalore
Metropolitan area with an area of 1294 sq.km.
• Most of the study reports suggest waste generation rate of 0.4
to 0.6 Kg per capita per day. Based on this per capita
consumption of 0.5 kg per capita per day is proposed as waste
generation pattern for Bangalore city.
5/11/2014 10
• The collection and disposal systems in the city are in line with
the overall guidelines of the Solid Waste Management and
Handling Rules 2000.
• BBMP has put in place both Primary and secondary collection
and transportation. Over the past years, it has identified and
developed land fill sites for Solid waste management on PPP
route and on its own funds.
5/11/2014 11
Key City Statistics related to SWM
• Population (Census 2011): 8.4 million
• •Area: 800 sq. km
• Total Number of wards: 198
• Total number of Households: 25 lakhs (Approx)
• Commercial Properties: 3.5 lakhs (Approx)
• Total road length: 14,000 km (Approx)
• BBMP Pour Karmika’s:3197
• Contractual Pour Karmika’s:18562
• Estimated Municipal Solid Waste generation Projection from
all sources for BBMP zones is 4000 MTPD
• Annually about 250 crores is spent on solid waste
management (BBMP Poura Karmikas salary ,Contract
payment, Tipping fees )
5/11/2014 12
• The current practice of solid waste management at BBMP is,
about 70% of the MSW (Municipal Solid waste) activity
starting from primary collection to disposal has been
outsourced & 30% is managed by BBMP.
• While the increase in population has been tremendous, there
has been increase in the generation of Solid waste.
• Bangalore generates 4,000 tons of waste everyday
fromhouseholds and commercial establishments. Around 70%
of this waste is organic. The balance is accounted for inorganic
and hazardous waste.
• The current practice of primary collection (door to door) as
well as the secondary collection and transportation is in place.
The waste is disposed off in the dump / landfill sites at the end.
5/11/2014 13
Organization for SWM management
• Solid Waste Management activity has been decentralized zone
wise.
• At the Head Office the Chief Engineer is in charge for
establishment of processing and disposal sites
• The zonal officers look after the collection and transportation
of solid waste.
• About 80 % of the MSW activity has been outsourced
• •Small numbers of Self Help Group’s (SHGs) are engaged in
door to door collection in some of the new areas.
5/11/2014 14
Primary collection (Door to Door)
• The primary collection is performed using pushcarts & auto
tippers.
• There are around 11000 pushcarts & 650 auto tippers for Door
to Door collection of waste.
• There are about 4300 Pourakarmikas (Sweepers) of BBMP &
10000 Pourakarmikas (Sweepers) from contractor who
performs Door to Door collection& Sweeping activities.
• In some of the residential areas the Residential Welfare
Associations (RWA’s) are involved in Door to Door collection
& decentralization of composting the waste.
• Waste is collected in the unsegregated form as Segregation is
not practiced at source.
5/11/2014 15
5/11/2014 16
Secondary collection and transportation
• There are about 600 MSW transportation vehicles including
Compactors, Tipper Lorries, Dumper placers & Mechanical
Sweepers Both belonging to BBMP and contractors.
• The waste collected from the households is brought to a
common point i.e., secondary locations from where the waste
is shifted to the treatment sites through compactors & tipper
lorries.
• Segregation at source & the secondary storage is not
happening hence un segregated waste reaches the processing
plants.
5/11/2014 17
Existing Landfill and dump sites
• Till recently, the dumping has been ongoing and with
increased un segregated wastereaching the landfill sites/ dump
sites, objections have been raised by the surrounding villages
for the nuisance created by the dumping – mainly smell,
ground water contamination, etc.
• BBMP on the directions of the Hon. High Court has initiated
a series of steps to remediate the existing dump/land fill sites.
• The existing landfill sites and dump sites are proposed to be
used for processing in a sustainable manner.
• The current processes and the organizations associated with
each site are shown in the next slide.
5/11/2014 18
5/11/2014 19
ISSUES AND CHALLENGES
Continuous inflow of waste:
• The continuous inflow of garbage of about 4000 TPD is cause
of concern, as the quantum of waste cannot be allowed to be
directly led into the existing landfills.
• The capacity of the landfill sites will be exhausted. BBMP has
taken up the segregation at the source and efficiency of the
system will be observed in the future.
• The partially segregated waste reaching the landfill site will
have to be dealt simultaneously along with the processing of
the existing waste.
5/11/2014 20
Historical accumulation of the wastes at the land fill/dump
sites.
• The dumping of the waste in non segregated methods has led
to the pile of up of waste over 24 Lakh Metric Tons.
• The waste are distributed unevenly between the seven sites.
• Processing of the existing waste is a priority and reduction of
the ultimate inerts.
• The ultimate inerts can then be suitably capped.
5/11/2014 21
Constraints of Land
• The growth of the city in all directions and in a rapid pace
poses serious problems.
• The developments are occurring in close proximity to the land
fill sites.
• The existing waste on the land fill impacts these settlements
and developments. The expansion of the existing land fill is
not feasible. The existing landfill sites have finite capacity and
land for sanitary landfill should be mobilized either through
private sector or by working closely with other departments /
acquisition of land.
• The non development buffers as mandated by the law around
the landfill sites puts further constraints. The increased land
values/prices does not enable the acquisition of land within the
BMA.
5/11/2014 22
Generation of Green house gases :
• Due to the high organic content in the existing waste in the
landfills. The unsegregated waste remains buried in layers
within anaerobic conditions.
• This allows the production of Methane and other Green
houses gases.
• It is necessary to prevent the generation of green house gases
which are detrimental to the environment.
5/11/2014 23
Biological activity :
• Due to the accumulation of non segregated waste and
conditions favourable for the biological activity, the landfill
sites become the host for complex biological activity.
• The production of leachate and its disposal is of greater
problem.
• This impacts the health and ground water conditions.
• Remediation is to be carried out in a scientific manner and in
Indian conditions, aerobic treatment is helpful.
5/11/2014 24
Land fill closure and capping :
• The Capping and closure of landfill with mixed waste will lead
to production of Methnation and GHG’s [Green House Gases].
The tapping of landfill gases calls for use of patented
technology along with large investments. The long term
impacts of the land fill site such as the ground water
contamination, etc will prevail as seepages may occur. The
capping can be carried out for section of the landfill where the
inerts have been dumped as further processing is not possible. .
5/11/2014 25
• Adherence to the MSW Act 2000
• Though the aspects of technology is discussed in the MSW
act, the basic operation discussed is the separation and the
processing of the waste into the recyclables and recoverable
thereby minimizing the inerts for ultimate disposal. Waste to
energy through varied methods are to be adopted by testing the
same for sustainability.
5/11/2014 26
Public co-operation and participation of stakeholders:
• With increased negative impacts of the dumping of the waste
in the existing landfill sites, the public at large in and around
the waste land fill sites have been seeking a solution for
management of the waste effectively. Various forums and
citizen groups have been leading, on site and off site protests.
The Hon. High Court has recognized the ground realities and
has sought action on the SWM from BBMP in a time bound
manner.
5/11/2014 27
5/11/2014 28
5/11/2014 29
EXPRESSION OF INTEREST
5/11/2014 30
EXAMPLES OF EOI
5/11/2014 31
5/11/2014 32
• The adoption of the technology is dependent on the
following parameters:
1. Composition of waste
2. Quantum of waste
3. Processing Efficiency
4. Support Infrastructure
5. Legal and environmental framework.
5/11/2014 33
Composition of waste
5/11/2014 34
Quantum of waste
5/11/2014 35
Processing efficiency
• The processing efficiency is of utmost importance for making
the decision on adoption of the technology.
• The key aspects related to the efficiency are the following:
• The origin and quality of the waste (mixed, segregated or non
segregated)
• Presence of hazardous or toxic waste
• Category of the technology – Physical, biological, thermal or
a mix of three.
• Time taken for processing the waste.
• Support infrastructure and manpower required for the
processing
• Unit cost per Metric Tons for the processing
5/11/2014 36
Support Infrastructure
• Engineering feasibility and operations
• Viability within financial inputs.
• Man power – technical inputs.
• Understanding and roles of the various stakeholders to make it
successful such as the creating demand for compost, revision
of tariff.
• Continuous input of the feed for continuous operation of the
process.
• Ease in operations including enabling and obtaining
permissions/ sanctions.
5/11/2014 37
Legal and environmental framework
• The technologies allowed must comply with the allowable
technologies under the MSW2000 Act. Composting, vermin
composting, incineration, etc are allowed subject.
• The waste processing /separation in the existing land fill site
needs to be allowed.
• Waste to energy and other technologies require clearance from
KSPCB and CPCB before implementation.
• For projects requiring private investment, project structuring
must be carried out.
• Detailed analysis for PPP mode may be adopted and the
procedures laid out by the GoK as well IDD department, GOI
must be followed.
5/11/2014 38
ACTION PLAN
5/11/2014 39
By products and their uses
5/11/2014 40
ROLE OF CITIZENS
• GOING GREEN
• ABIDING BY RULES
• REDUCE YOUR CARBON FOOT PRINTS
• CARE FOR MOTHER NATURE
5/11/2014 41

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BRUHAT BENGALURU MAHANAGARA PALIKE

  • 2. INTRODUCTION • The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) ( Greater Bangalore Municipal Corporation), is the administrative body responsible for the civic and infrastructural assets of the Greater Bangalore metropolitan area. • The BBMP represents the third level of government. Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is run by a city council. • The city council comprises elected representatives, called "corporators", one from each of the wards (localities) of the city. 12th schedule of constitution 5/11/2014 2
  • 3. STRUCTURE • A mayor and deputy mayor of the council are also elected for a period of 1-year, though not by popular vote. • However, in the absence of an elected body, the BBMP is at present run by an Administrator and a Commissioner, who are appointed by the State Government.. • The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is responsible for civic and infrastructural requirements of the city. It often works in conjunction with other civic bodies such as the Agenda for Bengaluru Infrastracture Development Task Force (ABIDe) and the Bangalore Development Authority (BDA) to design and implement civic and infrastructural projects. 5/11/2014 3
  • 4. A REPERTOIRE..... • The history of municipal governance of Bangalore dates back to 27 March 1862, when nine leading citizens of the city formed a Municipal Board under the Improvement of Towns Act of 1850. Later, a similar Municipal Board was also formed in the Cantonment area of the city. The two boards were legalised in 1881, and functioned as two independent bodies called the Bangalore City Municipality and the Bangalore Civil and Military Station Municipality. The following year, the concept of elected representatives come into being and also saw the introduction of property tax. 5/11/2014 4
  • 5. • In January 2007, the Karnataka Government issued a notification to merge 100 wards of the erstwhile Bangalore Mahanagara Palike with seven City Municipal Councils (CMC)s, one Town Municipal Council (TMC) and 111 villages around the city to form a single administrative area. • The process was completed by April 2007 and the body was renamed 'Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike‘. 5/11/2014 5
  • 6. JURISDICTION • BBMP is divided into eight zones, for the ease of administration: 1. Mahadevapura 2. Dasarahalli 3. Byatarayanapura 4. Bommanahalli 5. Rajarajeshwarinagar 6. South 7. West 8. East • Every zone has a Joint Commissioner 5/11/2014 6
  • 7. ROLES AND RESPONSIBILITIES • The Bruhat Bengaluru Mahanagara Palike is the fourth largest Municipal Corporation in India, after the city corporations that administer Mumbai, Delhi and Chennai. The BBMP is responsible for infrastructural assets of the Greater Bangalore Metropolitan area, spread across 800 km2, with a population of 8.4 million. • Its roles and responsibilities include the "orderly development of the city" — zoning and building regulations, health, hygiene, licensing, trade and education, as well as quality of life issues such as water bodies, parks and greenery. 5/11/2014 7
  • 8. Grappling with waste management ..........an overview 5/11/2014 8
  • 9. SOLID WASTE MANAGEMENT • The rapid growth of population in Bangalore metropolitan area and changing lifestyles has resulted in increased waste generation. • Consequently, waste management has become a key issue needing be addressed. • The various waste streams include municipal solidwaste (households, commercial establishments), Bio medical waste (Hospital, dispensaries), and industrial waste (industries) and electronic waste (discards from electronic equipments including PC’s). 5/11/2014 9
  • 10. For the planning purposes and overall governance, the Bangalore Metropolitan Area comprises of: • 1) The Bruhat Bangalore Mahanagara Palike (BBMP) or Greater Bangalore, it includes Bangalore City Corporation area, the erstwhile seven City Municipal Councils and one Town Municipal Council and 111 villages an extent of 800 sqkm. With 84 lakhs ( population as per census 2011). • 2) Bangalore Development Authority the local planning authority prepares the master plan for the Bangalore Metropolitan area with an area of 1294 sq.km. • Most of the study reports suggest waste generation rate of 0.4 to 0.6 Kg per capita per day. Based on this per capita consumption of 0.5 kg per capita per day is proposed as waste generation pattern for Bangalore city. 5/11/2014 10
  • 11. • The collection and disposal systems in the city are in line with the overall guidelines of the Solid Waste Management and Handling Rules 2000. • BBMP has put in place both Primary and secondary collection and transportation. Over the past years, it has identified and developed land fill sites for Solid waste management on PPP route and on its own funds. 5/11/2014 11
  • 12. Key City Statistics related to SWM • Population (Census 2011): 8.4 million • •Area: 800 sq. km • Total Number of wards: 198 • Total number of Households: 25 lakhs (Approx) • Commercial Properties: 3.5 lakhs (Approx) • Total road length: 14,000 km (Approx) • BBMP Pour Karmika’s:3197 • Contractual Pour Karmika’s:18562 • Estimated Municipal Solid Waste generation Projection from all sources for BBMP zones is 4000 MTPD • Annually about 250 crores is spent on solid waste management (BBMP Poura Karmikas salary ,Contract payment, Tipping fees ) 5/11/2014 12
  • 13. • The current practice of solid waste management at BBMP is, about 70% of the MSW (Municipal Solid waste) activity starting from primary collection to disposal has been outsourced & 30% is managed by BBMP. • While the increase in population has been tremendous, there has been increase in the generation of Solid waste. • Bangalore generates 4,000 tons of waste everyday fromhouseholds and commercial establishments. Around 70% of this waste is organic. The balance is accounted for inorganic and hazardous waste. • The current practice of primary collection (door to door) as well as the secondary collection and transportation is in place. The waste is disposed off in the dump / landfill sites at the end. 5/11/2014 13
  • 14. Organization for SWM management • Solid Waste Management activity has been decentralized zone wise. • At the Head Office the Chief Engineer is in charge for establishment of processing and disposal sites • The zonal officers look after the collection and transportation of solid waste. • About 80 % of the MSW activity has been outsourced • •Small numbers of Self Help Group’s (SHGs) are engaged in door to door collection in some of the new areas. 5/11/2014 14
  • 15. Primary collection (Door to Door) • The primary collection is performed using pushcarts & auto tippers. • There are around 11000 pushcarts & 650 auto tippers for Door to Door collection of waste. • There are about 4300 Pourakarmikas (Sweepers) of BBMP & 10000 Pourakarmikas (Sweepers) from contractor who performs Door to Door collection& Sweeping activities. • In some of the residential areas the Residential Welfare Associations (RWA’s) are involved in Door to Door collection & decentralization of composting the waste. • Waste is collected in the unsegregated form as Segregation is not practiced at source. 5/11/2014 15
  • 17. Secondary collection and transportation • There are about 600 MSW transportation vehicles including Compactors, Tipper Lorries, Dumper placers & Mechanical Sweepers Both belonging to BBMP and contractors. • The waste collected from the households is brought to a common point i.e., secondary locations from where the waste is shifted to the treatment sites through compactors & tipper lorries. • Segregation at source & the secondary storage is not happening hence un segregated waste reaches the processing plants. 5/11/2014 17
  • 18. Existing Landfill and dump sites • Till recently, the dumping has been ongoing and with increased un segregated wastereaching the landfill sites/ dump sites, objections have been raised by the surrounding villages for the nuisance created by the dumping – mainly smell, ground water contamination, etc. • BBMP on the directions of the Hon. High Court has initiated a series of steps to remediate the existing dump/land fill sites. • The existing landfill sites and dump sites are proposed to be used for processing in a sustainable manner. • The current processes and the organizations associated with each site are shown in the next slide. 5/11/2014 18
  • 20. ISSUES AND CHALLENGES Continuous inflow of waste: • The continuous inflow of garbage of about 4000 TPD is cause of concern, as the quantum of waste cannot be allowed to be directly led into the existing landfills. • The capacity of the landfill sites will be exhausted. BBMP has taken up the segregation at the source and efficiency of the system will be observed in the future. • The partially segregated waste reaching the landfill site will have to be dealt simultaneously along with the processing of the existing waste. 5/11/2014 20
  • 21. Historical accumulation of the wastes at the land fill/dump sites. • The dumping of the waste in non segregated methods has led to the pile of up of waste over 24 Lakh Metric Tons. • The waste are distributed unevenly between the seven sites. • Processing of the existing waste is a priority and reduction of the ultimate inerts. • The ultimate inerts can then be suitably capped. 5/11/2014 21
  • 22. Constraints of Land • The growth of the city in all directions and in a rapid pace poses serious problems. • The developments are occurring in close proximity to the land fill sites. • The existing waste on the land fill impacts these settlements and developments. The expansion of the existing land fill is not feasible. The existing landfill sites have finite capacity and land for sanitary landfill should be mobilized either through private sector or by working closely with other departments / acquisition of land. • The non development buffers as mandated by the law around the landfill sites puts further constraints. The increased land values/prices does not enable the acquisition of land within the BMA. 5/11/2014 22
  • 23. Generation of Green house gases : • Due to the high organic content in the existing waste in the landfills. The unsegregated waste remains buried in layers within anaerobic conditions. • This allows the production of Methane and other Green houses gases. • It is necessary to prevent the generation of green house gases which are detrimental to the environment. 5/11/2014 23
  • 24. Biological activity : • Due to the accumulation of non segregated waste and conditions favourable for the biological activity, the landfill sites become the host for complex biological activity. • The production of leachate and its disposal is of greater problem. • This impacts the health and ground water conditions. • Remediation is to be carried out in a scientific manner and in Indian conditions, aerobic treatment is helpful. 5/11/2014 24
  • 25. Land fill closure and capping : • The Capping and closure of landfill with mixed waste will lead to production of Methnation and GHG’s [Green House Gases]. The tapping of landfill gases calls for use of patented technology along with large investments. The long term impacts of the land fill site such as the ground water contamination, etc will prevail as seepages may occur. The capping can be carried out for section of the landfill where the inerts have been dumped as further processing is not possible. . 5/11/2014 25
  • 26. • Adherence to the MSW Act 2000 • Though the aspects of technology is discussed in the MSW act, the basic operation discussed is the separation and the processing of the waste into the recyclables and recoverable thereby minimizing the inerts for ultimate disposal. Waste to energy through varied methods are to be adopted by testing the same for sustainability. 5/11/2014 26
  • 27. Public co-operation and participation of stakeholders: • With increased negative impacts of the dumping of the waste in the existing landfill sites, the public at large in and around the waste land fill sites have been seeking a solution for management of the waste effectively. Various forums and citizen groups have been leading, on site and off site protests. The Hon. High Court has recognized the ground realities and has sought action on the SWM from BBMP in a time bound manner. 5/11/2014 27
  • 33. • The adoption of the technology is dependent on the following parameters: 1. Composition of waste 2. Quantum of waste 3. Processing Efficiency 4. Support Infrastructure 5. Legal and environmental framework. 5/11/2014 33
  • 36. Processing efficiency • The processing efficiency is of utmost importance for making the decision on adoption of the technology. • The key aspects related to the efficiency are the following: • The origin and quality of the waste (mixed, segregated or non segregated) • Presence of hazardous or toxic waste • Category of the technology – Physical, biological, thermal or a mix of three. • Time taken for processing the waste. • Support infrastructure and manpower required for the processing • Unit cost per Metric Tons for the processing 5/11/2014 36
  • 37. Support Infrastructure • Engineering feasibility and operations • Viability within financial inputs. • Man power – technical inputs. • Understanding and roles of the various stakeholders to make it successful such as the creating demand for compost, revision of tariff. • Continuous input of the feed for continuous operation of the process. • Ease in operations including enabling and obtaining permissions/ sanctions. 5/11/2014 37
  • 38. Legal and environmental framework • The technologies allowed must comply with the allowable technologies under the MSW2000 Act. Composting, vermin composting, incineration, etc are allowed subject. • The waste processing /separation in the existing land fill site needs to be allowed. • Waste to energy and other technologies require clearance from KSPCB and CPCB before implementation. • For projects requiring private investment, project structuring must be carried out. • Detailed analysis for PPP mode may be adopted and the procedures laid out by the GoK as well IDD department, GOI must be followed. 5/11/2014 38
  • 40. By products and their uses 5/11/2014 40
  • 41. ROLE OF CITIZENS • GOING GREEN • ABIDING BY RULES • REDUCE YOUR CARBON FOOT PRINTS • CARE FOR MOTHER NATURE 5/11/2014 41