CHANGING TRENDS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

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CHANGING TRENDS OF AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION

  1. 1. CHANGING TRENDS IN AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION BHAGYA VIJAYAN PALB 3120
  2. 2. INTRODUCTION • Well-being of rural population linked to the performance of agricultural sector • Agricultural extension: Increasing growth potential of agricultural sector Promoting sustainable, inclusive agricultural and economic development World Development Report (2008)
  3. 3. • Extension services are needed Specific contexts Economic enterprises Livelihood functions Different farmer categories • Based on differences in entrepreneurship, poverty and gender
  4. 4. Changes in India’s extension system: • Policy reforms • Decentralization of extension services • Institutional Restructuring • Management Reforms • Strenghthening R-E-F linkages • Mainstreaming of women in Agriculture
  5. 5. • Use of media and IT • Pluralistic mode of extension financing • Participatory extension approaches • Capacity training
  6. 6. Pluralistic Extension System • Enhance competitiveness of local agricultural production • Local economic development • Enhance local livelihoods • Ultimately reduce rural poverty • Improve food security • Promote greater gender equality
  7. 7. CONCEPT OF PLURALISTIC EXTENSION SYSTEM
  8. 8. PLURALISM • Inherent in extension in terms of: • Concept • Objectives • Structures • Functions • Methods • Inclusive
  9. 9. Recognize existence and value of various organizations with different realities, agenda and behaviour, with a view to embrace a broadened mandate for agricultural extension with increased emphasis on rural livelihood approach PLURALISTIC EXTENSION
  10. 10. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS… CONCEPT POLICY INSTRUMENT EDUCATIONAL PROCESS PROFESSION SUBJECT MATTER DISCIPLINE SERVICE
  11. 11. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS… OBJECTIVES DESIRABLE BEHAVIOURA L CHANGES NEED BASED INFORMATION TOT SOCIO- ECONOMIC CHANGE EMPOWERME NT OF RURAL PEOPLE
  12. 12. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS… STRUCTURES PUBLIC PRIVATE NON- GOVERNMENT AL VOLUNTARY CLIENT GROUPS
  13. 13. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS… FUNCTIONS INFORMATION DISSEMINATION TOT SERVICING INPUT REQUIREMENT TRAINING & HRD EDUCATION IMPLEMENTING DEVELOPMENT PROGRAMMES
  14. 14. PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS…
  15. 15. FARMERS NARS: Research NAES: Extension NAETS: Education and Training AKIS AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION AGROPROCESSORS PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS EXPORTERS INPUT SUPPLIERS CREDIT LAND AGENCIES
  16. 16. FARMER/USERS EXTENSION ORGANIZATIONS EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS FINANCIAL INSTITUTIONS FARMER BASED/COMMUNITY BASED ORGANIZATION MINISTRIES/DEPARTM ENTS/AGENCIES OF GOVERNMENT INTERNATIONAL AND REGIONAL ORGANIZATIONS NGOS RESEARCH ORGANIZATIONS INPUT DEALERS
  17. 17. CONSUMER RETAILER WHOLE SALER PROCESSOR TRADER FARMER FBO/SHG FSS ATMA EXTENSION WORKERS DOA KVK SAU ICAR AGRICLINIC INPUT DEALER NGO MEDIA E-CHOUPAL
  18. 18. Extension services should be CONTEXT- SPECIFIC SITUATION-SPECIFIC PURPOSE- SPECIFIC NEED- SPECIFIC TARGET- SPECIFIC
  19. 19. For farmers, public extension services are just one source of information, often the one focusing purely on production issues Spielman et al. 2011
  20. 20. Business- related services: Private extension sector Facilitation services: NGOs and Farmer’s organizations
  21. 21. MULTI-AGENCY EXTENSION SERVICE AGRICULTURAL EXTENSION NETWORK Public Extension and Research Services Private Extension Services Mass Media and Information Technology
  22. 22. Public Extension and Research Services • State government line departments • ATMA • ICAR • SAUs • KVKs and Krishi Gyan Kendras (KGKs) • ATICs • Institute Village Linkage Program (IVLP)
  23. 23. Private Extension Services • Agri-clinics and agribusinesses • Input suppliers/dealers • Corporate sector • Community based organizations: FIGs SHGs • Para extension workers: gopals, mitra kisans, and mahila mitra kisans
  24. 24. Mass Media and Information Technology • Print media • Radio, TV and private cable channels • NICNET, internet and V-SAT • Farm Information & Advisory Centers (FIACs) • Private portals • Public and private information shops
  25. 25. PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP PUBLIC DELIVERY & PUBLIC FINANCE Traditional government extension PUBLIC DELIVERY & PRIVATE FINANCE Contracting public staff PRIVATE DELIVERY & PUBLIC FINANCE NGOs, CBOs PRIVATE DELIVERY & PRIVATE FINANCE Privatised extension
  26. 26. FARMING SYSTEMS APPROACH Farming Nutrition Food security Sustainability Risk minimization Income and employment generation
  27. 27. FARMER-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH • Problem diagnosis • Searching for appropriate technology • Implementation process • Monitoring, evaluation and feedback
  28. 28. DEMAND-DRIVEN AND FARMER- ACCOUNTABLE EXTENSION • Access to linkage mechanisms • Relevant information/data • Improving feedback systems : FOs
  29. 29. THRUST ON MARKET EXTENSION • Marketing: major constraint in enhancing farm incomes • Need to focus on agricultural marketing • Public and private sectors, Media
  30. 30. OBJECTIVES OF MARKET LED EXTENSION. • Conversion of Agriculture sector into profit oriented business • Strengthening R-E-F linkages – between various departments at various levels. • Strengthening market linkages to farmers – IT application in Agricultural marketing. • Wider use of electronic mass media for Agricultural Extension. 31
  31. 31. REPERTOIRE OF MLE • During last 50 years emphasis was given on PRODUCTION-LED EXTENSION (PLE) • India become self reliant on food production. • But the farmers at individual level are not realizing remunerative prices for their produce • They sell their produce “AS IS WHERE” basis.
  32. 32.  Started in Kerala in the year 1993  As an experiment by combining SHGs and market oriented production.  The GOI in collaboration with MANAGE Hyderabad as successfully pilot tested MLE with ATMA in 7 states and 28 districts Some of the developments are  Collective marketing  AGMARKNET  Rythu Bazaars (Rythara Santhe)  RKVY
  33. 33. Getting impetus from....... Globalization/Economic liberalization Changed consumer preference Revolution in ICT New trade opportunities within and outside the country Export opportunities
  34. 34. A brief idea......... Market-A congregation of prospective buyers & sellers with a common motive of trading a particular commodity.  Extension- It is the spreading/reaching out to the mass  Market led Extension- Agriculture & economics coupled with extension is the perfect blend for reaching at the door steps of common man
  35. 35. CHARGING FOR EXTENSION SERVICES • Emergence of a market for private extension advice • To recover the costs
  36. 36. INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING • Increase farmer input in program planning and resource allocation • Increase accountability to stakeholders • Increase program coordination and integration between departments • e.g. ATMA
  37. 37. GROUP APPROACH TO EXTENSION • FIGs and SHGs • Farmer cooperatives • Bottom-up approach • Farmer and extension worker participatory process
  38. 38. STRENGTHENING RESEARCH- EXTENSION-FARMER LINKAGES • Participatory education rather than prescription • Joint actions in the field • Widening the range of extension delivery services
  39. 39. • Promotion of a Direct Interface between Farmers, Extension Workers and Researchers
  40. 40. CAPACITY BUILDING OF EXTENSION WORKERS • Formulation of Human Resource Development (HRD) Policy by States • Formulation of a Training Plan for Extension Workers • Upgrading SAMETIs
  41. 41. ESTABLISHING WOMEN IN AGRICULTURE • Improving Access to Extension and Training • Redesigning Extension Services to Reach Women Farmers • Expanding the Sphere of Women Extension Workers
  42. 42. USE OF IT • Information Technology Applications in Agricultural Marketing • Wider Use of Electronic Mass Media for Agricultural Extension • Farmer Participation in IT Programs
  43. 43. • Private Information Shops/Kiosks
  44. 44. FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY AND RESOURCE MOBILIZATION • Carefully targeted public funding • Cost-Cutting Mechanisms: Involvement of NGOs Use of mass media Need based coverage
  45. 45. OUTSOURCING SERVICES • Contracting-in the services • Based on comparative and competitive advantages • Synergy and complementarities in service provision
  46. 46. DECENTRALIZATION • Bottom up approach • Authority at lower levels • Participatory decision making
  47. 47. FARMER FIELD SCHOOL (FFS) • Group-based learning process • Innovative, participatory and interactive model approach
  48. 48. REFERENCES • Market led extension dimensions and tools: F.M.H.Kaleel,Jayasree Krishnankutty K.Satheesh Babu • Review of Agricultural Extension in India: IFPRI • Future Extension Education Perspective in India: A.K.Singh,Lakhan Singh,Roy Burman • Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India: Innovations and Constraints: M.S. Meena and K.M. Singh and B.E. Swanson • Agricultural Extension in Transition Worldwide:FAO • Decentralization of Public-Sector Agricultural Extension in India: IFPRI
  49. 49. THANK YOU…

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