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CHANGING TRENDS IN
AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION
BHAGYA VIJAYAN
PALB 3120
INTRODUCTION
• Well-being of rural population linked to the
performance of agricultural sector
• Agricultural extension:
Increasing growth potential of agricultural
sector
Promoting sustainable, inclusive
agricultural and economic development
World Development Report (2008)
• Extension services are needed
Specific contexts
Economic enterprises
Livelihood functions
Different farmer categories
• Based on differences in entrepreneurship,
poverty and gender
Changes in India’s extension
system:
• Policy reforms
• Decentralization of extension services
• Institutional Restructuring
• Management Reforms
• Strenghthening R-E-F linkages
• Mainstreaming of women in Agriculture
• Use of media and IT
• Pluralistic mode of extension financing
• Participatory extension approaches
• Capacity training
Pluralistic Extension System
• Enhance competitiveness of local
agricultural production
• Local economic development
• Enhance local livelihoods
• Ultimately reduce rural poverty
• Improve food security
• Promote greater gender equality
CONCEPT OF PLURALISTIC
EXTENSION SYSTEM
PLURALISM
• Inherent in extension in terms of:
• Concept
• Objectives
• Structures
• Functions
• Methods
• Inclusive
Recognize existence and value of
various organizations with different
realities, agenda and behaviour, with
a view to embrace a broadened
mandate for agricultural extension
with increased emphasis on rural
livelihood approach
PLURALISTIC EXTENSION
PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS…
CONCEPT
POLICY
INSTRUMENT
EDUCATIONAL
PROCESS
PROFESSION
SUBJECT
MATTER
DISCIPLINE
SERVICE
PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS…
OBJECTIVES
DESIRABLE
BEHAVIOURA
L CHANGES
NEED BASED
INFORMATION
TOT
SOCIO-
ECONOMIC
CHANGE
EMPOWERME
NT OF RURAL
PEOPLE
PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS…
STRUCTURES
PUBLIC
PRIVATE
NON-
GOVERNMENT
AL
VOLUNTARY
CLIENT
GROUPS
PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS…
FUNCTIONS
INFORMATION
DISSEMINATION
TOT
SERVICING
INPUT
REQUIREMENT
TRAINING & HRD
EDUCATION
IMPLEMENTING
DEVELOPMENT
PROGRAMMES
PLURALISTIC DIMENSIONS…
FARMERS
NARS:
Research
NAES:
Extension
NAETS:
Education
and
Training
AKIS
AGRICULTURAL INNOVATION
AGROPROCESSORS
PRODUCER ORGANIZATIONS
EXPORTERS
INPUT SUPPLIERS
CREDIT
LAND AGENCIES
FARMER/USERS
EXTENSION
ORGANIZATIONS
EDUCATIONAL
INSTITUTIONS
FINANCIAL
INSTITUTIONS
FARMER
BASED/COMMUNITY
BASED ORGANIZATION
MINISTRIES/DEPARTM
ENTS/AGENCIES OF
GOVERNMENT
INTERNATIONAL AND
REGIONAL
ORGANIZATIONS
NGOS
RESEARCH
ORGANIZATIONS
INPUT
DEALERS
CONSUMER
RETAILER
WHOLE SALER
PROCESSOR
TRADER
FARMER
FBO/SHG
FSS
ATMA
EXTENSION
WORKERS
DOA
KVK
SAU
ICAR
AGRICLINIC
INPUT
DEALER
NGO MEDIA E-CHOUPAL
Extension services should be
CONTEXT- SPECIFIC
SITUATION-SPECIFIC
PURPOSE- SPECIFIC
NEED- SPECIFIC
TARGET- SPECIFIC
For farmers, public extension
services are just one source
of information, often the one
focusing purely on
production issues
Spielman et al. 2011
Business-
related
services:
Private
extension
sector
Facilitation
services:
NGOs and
Farmer’s
organizations
MULTI-AGENCY EXTENSION SERVICE
AGRICULTURAL
EXTENSION
NETWORK
Public Extension
and Research
Services
Private
Extension
Services
Mass Media and
Information
Technology
Public Extension and Research Services
• State government line departments
• ATMA
• ICAR
• SAUs
• KVKs and Krishi Gyan Kendras (KGKs)
• ATICs
• Institute Village Linkage Program (IVLP)
Private Extension Services
• Agri-clinics and agribusinesses
• Input suppliers/dealers
• Corporate sector
• Community based organizations: FIGs SHGs
• Para extension workers: gopals, mitra
kisans, and mahila mitra kisans
Mass Media and Information Technology
• Print media
• Radio, TV and private cable channels
• NICNET, internet and V-SAT
• Farm Information & Advisory Centers (FIACs)
• Private portals
• Public and private information shops
PUBLIC PRIVATE PARTNERSHIP
PUBLIC DELIVERY &
PUBLIC FINANCE
Traditional
government extension
PUBLIC DELIVERY &
PRIVATE FINANCE
Contracting public
staff
PRIVATE DELIVERY &
PUBLIC FINANCE
NGOs, CBOs
PRIVATE DELIVERY &
PRIVATE FINANCE
Privatised extension
FARMING SYSTEMS APPROACH
Farming
Nutrition
Food security
Sustainability
Risk minimization
Income and employment generation
FARMER-PARTICIPATORY APPROACH
• Problem diagnosis
• Searching for appropriate technology
• Implementation process
• Monitoring, evaluation and feedback
DEMAND-DRIVEN AND FARMER-
ACCOUNTABLE EXTENSION
• Access to linkage mechanisms
• Relevant information/data
• Improving feedback systems : FOs
THRUST ON MARKET EXTENSION
• Marketing: major constraint in enhancing
farm incomes
• Need to focus on
agricultural marketing
• Public and private sectors, Media
OBJECTIVES OF MARKET LED EXTENSION.
• Conversion of Agriculture sector into profit oriented
business
• Strengthening R-E-F linkages – between various
departments at various levels.
• Strengthening market linkages to farmers – IT
application in Agricultural marketing.
• Wider use of electronic mass media for Agricultural
Extension.
31
REPERTOIRE OF MLE
• During last 50 years emphasis was given on
PRODUCTION-LED EXTENSION (PLE)
• India become self reliant on food production.
• But the farmers at individual level are not
realizing remunerative prices for their produce
• They sell their produce “AS IS WHERE” basis.
 Started in Kerala in the year 1993
 As an experiment by combining SHGs and market oriented
production.
 The GOI in collaboration with MANAGE Hyderabad as
successfully pilot tested MLE with ATMA in 7 states and 28
districts
Some of the developments are
 Collective marketing
 AGMARKNET
 Rythu Bazaars (Rythara Santhe)
 RKVY
Getting impetus from.......
Globalization/Economic liberalization
Changed consumer preference
Revolution in ICT
New trade opportunities within and outside the country
Export opportunities
A brief idea.........
Market-A congregation of prospective buyers &
sellers with a common motive of trading a
particular commodity.
 Extension- It is the spreading/reaching out to the
mass
 Market led Extension- Agriculture & economics
coupled with extension is the perfect blend for
reaching at the door steps of common man
CHARGING FOR EXTENSION SERVICES
• Emergence of a market for private
extension advice
• To recover the costs
INSTITUTIONAL RESTRUCTURING
• Increase farmer input in program planning
and resource allocation
• Increase accountability to stakeholders
• Increase program coordination and
integration between departments
• e.g. ATMA
GROUP APPROACH TO EXTENSION
• FIGs and SHGs
• Farmer cooperatives
• Bottom-up approach
• Farmer and extension worker participatory
process
STRENGTHENING RESEARCH-
EXTENSION-FARMER LINKAGES
• Participatory education rather than
prescription
• Joint actions in the field
• Widening the range of extension delivery
services
• Promotion of a Direct Interface between
Farmers, Extension Workers and
Researchers
CAPACITY BUILDING OF EXTENSION
WORKERS
• Formulation of Human Resource
Development (HRD) Policy by States
• Formulation of a Training Plan for Extension
Workers
• Upgrading SAMETIs
ESTABLISHING WOMEN IN
AGRICULTURE
• Improving Access to Extension and Training
• Redesigning Extension Services to Reach
Women Farmers
• Expanding the Sphere of Women Extension
Workers
USE OF IT
• Information Technology Applications in
Agricultural Marketing
• Wider Use of Electronic Mass Media for
Agricultural Extension
• Farmer Participation in IT Programs
• Private Information Shops/Kiosks
FINANCIAL SUSTAINABILITY AND
RESOURCE MOBILIZATION
• Carefully targeted public funding
• Cost-Cutting Mechanisms:
Involvement of NGOs
Use of mass media
Need based coverage
OUTSOURCING SERVICES
• Contracting-in the services
• Based on comparative and
competitive advantages
• Synergy and
complementarities in
service provision
DECENTRALIZATION
• Bottom up approach
• Authority at lower
levels
• Participatory decision
making
FARMER FIELD SCHOOL (FFS)
• Group-based learning process
• Innovative, participatory and interactive
model approach
REFERENCES
• Market led extension dimensions and tools:
F.M.H.Kaleel,Jayasree Krishnankutty
K.Satheesh Babu
• Review of Agricultural Extension in India:
IFPRI
• Future Extension Education Perspective in India:
A.K.Singh,Lakhan Singh,Roy Burman
• Pluralistic Agricultural Extension System in India:
Innovations and Constraints:
M.S. Meena and K.M. Singh and B.E. Swanson
• Agricultural Extension in Transition Worldwide:FAO
• Decentralization of Public-Sector Agricultural Extension in
India:
IFPRI
THANK YOU…

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