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BHAGYA VIJAYAN
Jr. MSc Agricultural Extension
Topics for discussion
Conceptual frame work of HRD
Inter disciplinary approach of HRD
Function systems
Case studies
HRD Interventions-Different experiences
2
Definition of HRD
3
Emergence of HRD
Employee needs, extend beyond the training
classroom
Includes coaching, group work, and problem
solving
Need for basic employee development
Need for structured career development
4
Relationship Between HRM and
HRD
Human resource management (HRM) encompasses
many functions
Human resource development (HRD) is just one of
the functions within HRM
5
HRM
HRD
Human resource planning
Equal employment opportunity
Staffing (recruitment and selection)
Compensation and benefits
Employee and labour relations
Health, safety, and security
Human resource development
Primary Functions of HRM
6
Secondary HRM Functions
Organization and job design
Performance management/
performance appraisal systems
Research and information
systems
7
HRD Functions
Training and development (T&D)
Organizational development
Career development
8
Training and Development (T&D)
Training – improving the knowledge, skills and
attitudes of employees for the short-term, particular to
a specific job or task – e.g.,
Employee orientation
Skills & technical training
Coaching
Counseling
9
Training and Development (T&D)
Development – preparing for future responsibilities,
while increasing the capacity to perform at a current job
Management training
Supervisor development
10
Organizational
Development
 organization’s effectiveness and
member’s wellbeing- behavioral science
concepts
Focuses on both macro and micro-levels
HRD plays the role of a change agent
11
Career Development
Ongoing process by which individuals
progress through series of changes until they
achieve their personal level of maximum
achievement.
Career planning
Career management
12
Critical HRD Issues
Strategic management and HRD
The supervisor’s role in HRD
Organizational structure of HRD
13
Strategic Management & HRD
Strategic management aims to ensure organizational
effectiveness for the foreseeable future – e.g.,
maximizing profits in the next 3 to 5 years
HRD aims to get managers and workers ready for new
products, procedures, and materials
14
Supervisor’s Role in HRD
Implements HRD programs and procedures
On-the-job training (OJT)
Coaching/mentoring/counseling
Career and employee development
A “front-line participant” in HRD
15
Organizational Structure
of HRD Departments
16
Depends on company size, industry and maturity
No single structure used
Depends in large part on how well the HRD manager
becomes an institutional part of the company – i.e., a
revenue contributor, not just a revenue user
Sample HRD Jobs/Roles
Executive/Manager
HR Strategic Advisor
HR Systems Designer/Developer
Organization Change Agent
Organization Design Consultant
Learning Program Specialist
Instructor/Facilitator
Individual Development and Career Counselor
Performance Consultant (Coach)
Researcher
17
Challenges for HRD
Changing workforce demographics
Competing in global economy
Eliminating the skills gap
Need for lifelong learning
Need for organizational learning
18
New technologies
Need for more skilled and educated workers
Cultural sensitivity required
Team involvement
Problem solving
Better communications skills
Competing in the Global Economy
19
Need for Lifelong Learning
Organizations change
Technologies change
Products change
Processes change
PEOPLE must change!!
20
Need for Organizational Learning
Organizations must be able to learn, adapt
and change
Principles:
Systems thinking
Personal mastery
Mental models
Shared visions
Team learning
22
Creating a Learning Organization
Personal Mastery: managers empower employees and allow them
to create and explore.
 Mental Models: challenge employees to find new, better methods
to perform a task.
 Team Learning: is more important than individual learning since
most decisions are made in groups.
 Build a Shared Vision: people share a common mental model of
the firm to evaluate opportunities.
 Systems Thinking: know that actions in one area of the firm
impacts all others.
23
A Framework for the HRD Process
HRD efforts should use the following four phases (or
stages):
Needs assessment
Design
Implementation
Evaluation
24
25
Establishing HRD priorities
Defining specific training and objectives
Establishing evaluation criteria
Need Assessment Phase
26
Design Phase
Selecting who delivers program
Selecting and developing program content
Scheduling the training program
27
Implementation Phase
Implementing or delivering the
program
28
Evaluation Phase
Determining program effectiveness – e.g.,
Keep or change providers?
Offer it again?
What are the true costs?
Can we do it another way?
29
Interdisciplinary Approach
Include 6 areas
1. HRD Quality
2.HRD Planning
3. Personal policy and practices
4.HRD data
5.Performance management
6.Training
30
Subject matter areas from which
HRD derives knowledge
 Education- adult education,work orientation
 Psychology- career counselling,incentives
 System Theory- system analysis
 Organizational behaviour- group dynamics,change
theory
 Economy- micro and macro levels
31
From point of view of organisation
 increasing organisation capacity to achieve goal
Increases and develop employee perfomances
Using employees knowledge and skills efficiently
Improves the organisation’s ability to manage change
Benefits of establishing strong HRD
system
32
From point of view of
employees
Improves equity ,employee compensation and levels
of responsibilities
Helps employees understand how their work relates
to the mission and value of the org.
Helps employees feel highly motivated
Increases employee job satisfaction
33
HRD SYSTEMS
HRD functions are carried out through its systems
and sub systems.
HRD has five major systems
 each of the systems has sub systems
1.Career system
2.Work system
3. Development system
4. Self renewal system
5. Culture System
34
individual and team oriented
organization based
1. Career system:
subsystems
Manpower planning
Recruitment
Career planning
Succession planning
Retention
35
2. Work system:
sub systems
Role analysis
Role efficacy
Performance plan
Performance feedback and guidance
Performance appraisal
Promotion
Job rotation
Reward
36
3. Development system:
subsystems
37
Induction
Training
Job enrichment
Self-learning mechanisms
Potential appraisal
Succession Development
Counselling
Mentor system
4. Self-renewal system:
sub systems
38
Survey
Action research
Organizational Development interventions
Organizational Retreats
 5. Culture system:
subsystems
39
• Vision, Mission and Goal
• Values
• Communication
• Get-togethers and celebrations
• Task forces
• Small Groups
HRD PROCESSES
• HRD - a process-oriented function
• HRD functions - fail
because the processes involving the systems
are not adequately addressed.
• concerns the question of “how”& “why ”
• emphasises - behavioural &interactional
dimensions.
40
HRD processes centred around
1. Employee
2.Role
3.Teams
4.Organization itself
41
1.Individual: Individual is the basic constituent of
an organization. All the behavioural pattern and
dynamisms emerge from individuals.
Efficacy
 Effectiveness
 Styles
Leadership
42
2.Role: Role is a dynamic entity which involves the
expectations of significant others and self from the
position of the role holder.
 role related HRD processes in organizations.
Competencies for job performance
Commitment
 Motivation
 Frustration
Stress & Burnout
43

3.Teams:
 When individuals begin to work in team, behavioural
patterns and dynamisms emerge.
• Communication
• Feedback
• Conflict resolution
• Collaboration
44
 
4.Organization: A large number of HRD processes 
are organization related. 
45
 
Organizational Climate
 Communication
 Learning Organization
 Organizational Change
 Organizational Development
47
The force within us that activates our behaviour.
It is a function of three distinct components,
Intensity, Direction, and Persistence.
Intensity PersistenceDirection
MotivationMotivation
48
Intensity refers to the amount of mental and
physical effort put forth by the person.
PersistenceDirection
MotivationMotivation
Intensity
49
The extent to which an individual determines
and chooses efforts focused on a particular
goal.
Intensity PersistenceDirection
MotivationMotivation
50
The extent to which the goal-directed effort is
put forth over time.
Intensity PersistenceDirection
MotivationMotivation
Motivation:
Intrinsic
When doing the job is 
inherently motivating
Extrinsic
When rewards such as pay 
and formal recognition act 
as motivators
51
Why Reward & Recognition
Drives Stretch in Performance
Enhances aspirations and creates Motivation
Feeling Valued
Builds Self Esteem and sense of Belonging
Improves Individual Attitudes
52
Reward is a Right; Recognition is a Gift…..
Rewards 
 Direct Financial (pay)
 Indirect Financial (benefits)
 Work Content (work)
 Careers (development)
 Affiliation (feeling of   
   belonging)
Recognition
Praise
Time
Toys, Trophies & Trinkets
Fun, Freedom & Food
Small Money
Others
53
What is Diversity?
In simple terms, diversity is "otherness," or those 
human qualities that are different from our own and 
outside the groups in which we belong. There are 
various qualities that differentiate one individual from 
the next. 
56
Elements of Diversity
Age
Gender
Sex
Ethnicity
Race
Physical Ability
Physical Characteristics
Income
Education
Marital Status
Religious Beliefs
Geographic Location
Parental Status 
Personality Type
57
58
  Diversity:
The uniqueness of all individuals;
includes everyone.
Principles of Diversity Management
 Establish a business strategy for effectively 
managing a diverse workforce
 Create a positive work environment
 Promote personal and professional development
 Empower all people to reach their full potential
 Remove barriers that hinder progress
 Ensure equal opportunities and prevent 
discrimination 
59
Techniques for Managing
Diversity
Compensation and reward programs tied to 
achieving diversity goals
Language training
Mentoring programs
Cultural advisory groups
Corporate social activities that celebrate diversity 
60
Managing diversity effectively
Greater range of perspectives, ideas, and creativity.
Better problem definition, generation of 
alternatives, and decisions.
Greater potential of developing a high performance 
team.
Greater resilience in dealing with escalating 
demands.
61
Implications for Managers
Managing a diverse workforce is an important part 
of an international manager’s job
Must understand the impact of diversity and know 
how to utilize
Realize different cultures view diversity differently 
and consider impact on manager
62
Potential Benefits of an Effective Diversity
Management Program
Improve organizational performance
Help prevent unlawful discrimination or harassment incidents
Improve workplace relations
Build more effective work teams
Improve organizational problem solving
Improve customer service
Enhanced recruitment efforts
63
Barriers in preventing a
balanced workforce
Limiting area of consideration
Lack of diversity at the senior ranks 
Categorizing people into certain positions
Always recruiting from same source 
Grooming/developing only one person 
64
Types  of exercises
Group discussion
Interview simulations / role plays
Case studies
66
Group Discussions
candidates are brought together as a committee or
project team with one or a number of items to make a
recommendation on.
 Candidates may be assigned specific roles to play in
the group or it may be structured in such a way that
all the candidates have the same basic information.
67
Interview Simulations / Role Plays
candidates meet individually with a role player or resource
person.
gather information to form a view and make a decision, or
alternatively, to engage in discussion with the resource
person to come to a resolution on an aspect or issue of
dispute.
68
Case Studies / Analysis Exercises
the candidate is presented with the task of
making a decision about a particular business
case.
69
Objective Setting
An objective is a simple statement of an end result to
be achieved within a specified time frame.
It should be short, clear and specific.
It can also be in the form of an activity as it may not
always be possible to quantify the end results.
71
Why Objective setting ?
Gives direction to job.
Helps focus on important job areas.
Assists review and change in job emphasis.
Provides a basis for appraisal, counselling and
feedback.
Increases mutual job understanding with superior.
72
Objectives
Targets – are specific conditions to be
achieved/indicates how much of what and by when
Activities – action steps which lead to the end
results / used when targets are not quantifiable /
indicate what by when
73
Process of goal setting
What is the job ?
What are the end results expected ?
What policies / procedures / work methods are
impeding performance ?
What changes are needed for better results ?
How can work assignments be regrouped/altered to
improve schedule ?
What problems need to be overcome next year ?
74
Objectives should be
S - Specific
M - Measurable
A - Attainable
R - Relevant
T - Time-bound
75
Process
Establishing specific goals to support stated purpose.
Determining the importance of these goals.
Making plans for action.
Arriving at performance standards and measurement
criteria.
Stating anticipated problems.
76
Process..
Weighing the resources required to carry out the
planned action.
Providing for interaction of organization and
individual goals.
Following up with actual performance measurement
and evaluation.
77
HRs role in Performance
Management
Delivering time-lines
Ensuring timely adherence
Auditing the objectives jointly with line managers
Ensuring objectives are in line with organisational
goals
Requesting modification if required
78
Case study
Job satisfaction and turnover intention in
organizations :A Study across in Indian Persepective
 CASE:
Several organizations are facing a serious threat of
employee turnover irrespective of sectors ,across
countries .This case study is an attempt to identify the
factors influencing job satisfaction and turnover
intention of employees from multiple sectors in
Chennai city.This research considered a sample of 588
employees across various sectors to find out the
varied
opinions about the levels of satisfaction experinced
by them.
79
OBJECTIVES OF THE STUDY
Identify the factors influencing job satisfaction in
multi- sector organizations
To classify the employees based on the employees’
perception of job satisfaction in multi-sector
organizations
To identify the major reasons for the employee
turnover intention in organizations
To identify the correlation between employee job
satisfaction and turnover intention in organizations
80
METHODOLOGY
The study mainly depends on primary data collected
through a well- framed and structured questionnaire to
elicit the opinions of the respondents , and the
secondary data were obtained from scholarly articles
published in journals ,websites etc.
The study was among employees across sectors from
Chennai city in order to have varied opinion about job
satisfaction in various sectors during the period from
2010-2012
Sample selected – non probability convenience
sampling
The respondents were from
IT firms 81
Research Measures
Job satisfation
Turnover Intention
82
Conclusion
Job satisfaction turnover –negative relationship
MANAGERIAL IMPLICATIONS
The study has shown that job satisfation is a consistent
worry for organization ,irrespective of sectors based
on demographic aspects ,and other influencing
factors like pay and promotion ,work ,organizational
aspects etc.These factors are perceived differently by
different individuals.Hence ,whatever steps the
organization takes in order to improve with respect to
these aspects ,it rests with the employees to perceive
it rightly and get satisfied .
83
Therefore ,it is clear that the emloyees’ intent to leave
their present present organizations need not occur
only if the employees are not satisfied.The employee
may intend to leave an organization even if he/she is
satisfied.So the organization should chalk out
methods to retain the interest of the most calibered
employees .Therefore the organizations should
employ those methods to recruit potential personnels
as soon as the present employee shows intention to
quit, so that the organizational efforts are not wasted
in creating features for job satisfaction to prevent turn
over intention.
84
HRD Interventions
1. Performance management in Amul marketing chain
2. Qualitative management (eployee satisfaction )in
facebook ,the social networking site
3. Performance management in IFFCO’s research wing
4. Capacity building of the personnell in KAMCO
85
REFERANCES
Prabandhan:Indian journal of Management
International Journal of Management and Business
Studies
Tripati,P.C. and Reddy,P.N.,2010,Principle of
Management
Udaykumar Haldar,Human Resource Management
86
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Human resource development

Editor's Notes

  1. DIVERSITY: WHAT THINGS COME TO MIND? LISTING
  2. .