### Biophysics and Bioinstrument- Centrifuge Measurement

• 1. INTER-COLLEGIATE SEMINAR COMPETITION TOPIC : CENTRIFUGE MEASUREMENT PRESENTED BY: TANISHA SHUKLA BSc III YEAR SHIVAJI SCIENCE COLLEGE, NAGPUR
• 2. SCHEMA  What is Centrifuge ?  History  Principle & Structure  Types of Centrifuge  Mathematical Treatment(RCF or g – force)  Sedimentation rate  Uses  A way forward  Summary
• 3. What is centrifuge? An apparatus that rotate at high speed and separates heterogeneous mixtures of solid and liquid of different density by centrifugation. Centrifugation Centrifugation is a mechanical process which involves the use of the centrifugal force to separate particles from a solution . The denser components of the mixture migrate away from the axis of the centrifuge, while the less dense components of the mixture migrate towards the axis.
• 4. Centripetal and Centrifugal Force Centripetal force is the component of force acting on an object in curvilinear motion which is directed towards the axis of rotation or centre of curvature. Centrifugal force is a pseudo force in a circular motion which acts along the radius and is directed away from the centre of the circle.
• 5. History In 1864, Antonin Prandtl proposed the idea of a dairy centrifuge to separate cream from milk. The idea was subsequently put into practice by his brother, Alexander Prandtl, who made improvements to his brother's design, and exhibited a working butterfat extraction machine in 1875
• 6. Principle of Centrifuge Measurement The centrifuge consist of motor and rotor  The sample to be separated is placed on the rotor and the motor makes the rotor spin The spinning produces a force called centrifugal force this forces causes the substances to move away from the axis more rapidly
• 7. Structure of Centrifuge The centrifuge consist of: •Motor •Rotor •Sample Holders There are two types of angle holders •Angle type & •Swing Bucket type
• 8. There are two types of angle holders •Angle type & •Swing Bucket type Angle type Swing – bucket type
• 9. Types of Centrifuge • Low speed centrifuge • High speed centrifuge • Ultra centrifuge • Differential centrifuge Low speed centrifuges • It reaches speeds between 4000-5000 rpm. High speed centrifuges •It reaches speeds between 25,000 rpm Ultra speed centrifuges •It reaches speeds between 60,000 rpm Uses: They are used for general laboratory applications, such as separating large particles such as cells, separating sera, plasma, urine, sperm, among others.
• 10. What is Relative Centrifugal Force? The relative centrifugal force (RCF) or the g force is the radial force generated by the spinning rotor as expressed relative to the earth's gravitational force. F=(ω^2)r where , ω= 2П * rpm rotation per seconds 60 RCF= (2П * rpm )^2 x r 60 hence, RCF = (RPM)2 × 1.118 × 10-5 × r
• 11. Sedimentation rate The rate of movement of particles in a centrifugal field is called sedimentation rate. Principle : The particles sediment because of gravitational pull , spinning increases gravitational pull. Pellet: The sedimented particle is called pellet. Supernatant: The solution above pellet is called supernatant.
• 12. The rate of sedimentation depends on: 1. Density of particle 2. Size of particle 3. Viscosity of medium 4. Gravitational pull
• 14. A WayForward ( Gravity Simulation) Gravity offload system works by using overhead crane type devices to offload the weight of human or equipment to simulate zero gravity. This can be achieved by centrifugal effect caused by centripetal force of floor of a rotating structure pushing up on the person.
• 15. Centrifuges are very important devices that help us in our day to day lives as they can be used in various walks of life.  Ranging from laboratories, pharmaceuticals, biology and chemical technology experiments, mining, and industrial processes. These centrifuges, though important, do come in with a notable number of drawbacks that need to be considered. They have a wide range of specifications that need to be considered before acquiring one. SUMMARY
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