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MOHAMMAD SYAIFUL AZRIE BIN ZULKIFLI
AIDA SYAZWANI BINTI SHARUDDIN
CHE ANIS BINTI CHE ANIS
NORFATIHA BINTI SUHIMI
SITI ZAITON BINTI ISMAIL
EMD7M4A
BIODIVERSITY
JOBDISTRIBUTION
CHE ANIS
MARINE BIODIVERSITY
NORFATIHA
FRESHWATER BIODIVERSITY
SYAIFUL AZRIE
TERESTRIAL
SITI ZAITON
RAINFOREST PLANT
AIDA SYAZWANI
RAINFOREST ANIMAL
BIODIVERSITY
MARINE
FRESHWATER
TERRESTIAL
RAINFOREST
(PLANT)
RAINFOREST
(ANIMAL)
INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY
Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living species on Earth including marine, terrestrial, aquatic ecosystem and also flora and
fauna in the rainforest.
It is important in conserving the global biodiversity for sustaining human life in local and even in the global levels. We are depending on
healthy functionality of other life form to get foods supply, fresh water and also the healthy environment
Therefore, there are important for us in preserving and conserving the biodiversity and together solving the issues that related that may harm the
biodiversity such as over fishing, poaching, deforestation and etc.
INTRODUCTION TO MARINE BIODIVERSITY
 "biological diversity" means the variability among living organisms from all sources including
inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of
which they are includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems.
Ecosystems GenesSpeciesCommunities
 In this case, the most important sources of animal proteins for human use is
marine fish.
 In most countries, marine fishery is also one of the important industry.
 Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so huge and so
resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor
could marine fishery resources be depleted.
 Half a century later, a lot of people agreed that the depletion of fishery
resources is happening mainly due to many factors such as overfishing,
habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate
change.
 Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity
drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action.
 So, in this case, we want to focus only on overfishing.
Effects of Overfishing to Others
Losses of fish stocks will give impact to the price of
fish which are already rising in response to demand
and it also will increase the costs of fishing.
Fishing for people across the globe is not just as a
source of food, it is their way of life and how they
support themselves and their family.
Loss of
food
sources
Loss of
livelihood
If overfishing continues, more species will
be driven to extinction and aquatic
ecosystems will collapse.
By catch from long lining, bottom trawling
and other fishing techniques will kill
numbers of non-targeted fish. For
examples are sea turtles, seabirds and
marine mammals such as dolphins, seals,
manatees and sea lions are all being
caught unintentionally and often are
discarded.
Loss of
species
Wildlife
discarded
What Taiwan Have Done
 Building excellent environment of fishing grounds, for
restocking fisheries resources
o Deployment of artificial reefs
In order to improve the environment of fishing grounds, and
restock fisheries resources, artificial reefs were deployed in 88
localities with sinking of cement reefs, electricity wire pole
reefs, steel and iron reefs, vessel reefs and naval ship reefs.
o Release of fish fry
Healthy fish seeds are produced in hatchery and released to the sea for restocking of fisheries
resources.
Concurrently, approximately 10 million fries are released annually, with main species including
threadfin fish, sand snapper, seabreams, snappers, groupers, etc.
https://www.fa.gov.tw/en/WorldOceansDay/content.aspx?id=3&chk=e18b2aa9-f67e-4a67-84d1-4367f00160b9&param=pn%3D1
 Conservation of fisheries resources, and sustainable fisheries operations
o Establishment of marine protected areas
 For the protection of marine biodiversity, and for the conservation, management and sustainable
use of fisheries resources, marine protected areas, which cover an area of 30,579.42 sq. km,
have been delineated. They account for 47% of the territorial waters in Taiwan.
o Conservation and Management of Shark Resources
 To ensure sustainable use of shark resources, and to meet the requirements of shark
conservation and management, the government has been actively promoting the measure of
“shark’s fins naturally attached”, and publicize regulations on imports of shark’s fins, requiring
fishing vessels and importers to observe.
http://www.fa.gov.tw/en/FisheriesoROC/content.aspx?id=5&chk=4b287405-ead6-4244-
ae05-0b0c67edad48&param=pn%3D1
What Malaysia Have Done
Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry
(MOA) and the Department of Fisheries
Malaysia (DOF) had decided to ban trawling.
Marine police detained the Vietnamese fishermen for illegally
fishing in Malaysian waters at Pulau Tinggi, Mersing.
 WWF is working with partners in Malaysia to develop a marine conservation plan
in 3 areas:
1) The east coast of Sabah, Borneo in a part of the Sulu-Sulawesi marine eco region and
the Coral Triangle.
2) The Strait of Malacca on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which forms the
southern part of the Andaman Sea.
3) The South China Sea on Peninsular Malaysia’s east coast.
Challenges
Faced
Energy
Security
Dealing
with
Changing
Climate
Biodiversity
Conservation and
Ecosystem Health
Food
Security
1. Energy security: to support carbon sequestration, they needs support for developing
energy resources, particularly liquid natural gas and renewable energy and research.
2. Food security: to improve management of wild-catch fisheries, they needs a research to
support a booming aquaculture industry, as well as data and tools.
3. Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem health: to predict impacts of development
on marine biodiversity, they needs environmental baselines, effective indicators of
ecosystem health to guides national marine environmental monitoring, and tools.
4. Dealing with changing climate: needs to understand and have a skill in prediction of the
impacts of sea level rise, increasing sea temperature and ocean acidification and the role
of the ocean as a carbon sink.
Solutions to Overfishing Problems
Working with
Governments
• The lack of regulations and specific policy, and the fact that fishing
has been an industry tied to the history of humans and civilization,
many groups, like the World Wildlife Fund, are helping countries
learn to prepare adequate and effective management protocols.
Helping
Developing
Countries
• Because fishing is a crucial industry in many poor and developing
nations, conservation efforts are focusing on helping these areas
set-up procedures to ensure sustainability in the long run.
Educating
Retailers
• Another way that conservationists are trying to change the
problem of overfishing is by working with retailers to educate
them on ways to purchase their seafood from sustainable fisheries.
Reducing
Subsidies
• Many governments subsidize the fishing industry with subsidies, in an
effort to keep the industry thriving. The problem with this, is that it
incentivizes fishermen to continue to expand, which means that
subsidies only end up contributing to the problem of overfishing.
More Protected
Marine Areas
• Setting up more protected areas in the ocean is an effort to help
reduce the effects of overfishing on some of the world’s most
incredible reefs and marine structures.
Potential Un-ethical Problems and How to Overcome it
DO’s DON’Ts
 Eat Less Fish - Reducing seafood consumption can
help to lessen the impact on our oceans.
 Avoid top predators like sharks, swordfish and
Bluefin tuna.
 Know your fish facts - Become familiar with
sustainable choices and species of concern.
 Carry the Seafood Watch card in your wallet and
use it.
 Buy Local – When possible purchase seafood from
local fishing communities. Fishing sustainably is
hard work. Support fishermen taking bold steps to
conserve our fish while maintaining their livelihood.
 Unsustainable Fishing - This involves using nets,
fishing methods and other equipment that catch too
much fish to a degree that they are endangered.
 Overcapacity - All over the world, many fishing
industries have huge vessels, equipment and
technology that they can deploy deep into the
oceans.
 Economic and Food Needs – As the humans have
multiplied, so the need for food and fish has also
multiplied. This, together with economic ambitions
of fisheries have forced them to catch more fish.
FRESHWATER?? WHAT IS IT??
It can be in
form of liquid,
gaseous or
solid state
“FRESH” does not
mean it is drinkable
Water that has
a low
concentration
of salts
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresh_water
TYPE OF FRESHWATER
Ponds
and lakes
Streams and
rivers
Wetlands
http://study.com/academy/lesson/freshwater-biomes-climate-locations-plants-animals.html
Importance
of
Freshwater
Supply water for
drinking
ECONOMIC
GROWTH
- Manufacturing
ECOSYSTEM
SERVICES
- Transport
FOOD CHAINS
- Fishes
- Growing crops
ENERGY
GENERATION
Help to prevent
erosion
Dispose of
waste
Provide natural
protection from
flooding
https://www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/area-of-work/protecting-our-rivers-lakes-and-freshwater
WHAT IS THE ISSUE??
Do not have access
to clean and sufficient drinking
water
OVERDEVELOPMENT
POLLUTED RUNOFF
INCREASING OF HUMAN
POPULATION
WHY FRESHWATER IS THREATENED?
CONSEQUENCES OF FRESHWATER ISSUES
LACK OF
ACCESS TO
CLEAN
WATER
INCREASED
OF GLOBAL
CONFLICT
FOOD
SHORTAGES
ENERGY
SHORTAGES
ECONOMIC
SLOWDOWN
http://www.seametrics.com/blog/water-shortage-consequences/
LACK OF ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER
Due to bad
economics or poor
infrastructure
The result of
political instability,
ethnic conflicts
Increased
flooding
problems
http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/water/
https://thewaterproject.org/why-water/poverty
http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/AB776E/ab776e02.htm
INCREASE OF GLOBAL CONFLICT
Freshwater resources
are often shared by two
or more countries. It
may lead to more
international conflicts
as freshwater becomes
more scarce.
http://www.seametrics.com/blog/water-shortage-consequences/
FOOD SHORTAGES
It causes the drying
rivers & damaged
habitats.
Bring the damage to
freshwater ecosystems
Overdevelopment
cause the flooding &
drought
https://www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/area-of-work/protecting-our-rivers-lakes-and-freshwater
ENERGY SHORTAGES
INCREASING
OF HUMAN
POPULATION
THUS INCREASE
THE
DEVELOPMENT TO
COMFORT OUR
LIFE
MORE
DEVELOPMENT,
MORE POLLUTION
OCCURED
GLOBAL
WARMING
MAKE OUR
FRESHWATER
DRY UP
NO SUFFICIENT
WATER TO
CREATE
ENERGY
https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/mar/08/how-water-shortages-lead-food-crises-conflicts
ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN
INSUFFICIENT CLEAN WATER
CREATE DISEASES, FOOD
SHORTAGES
FOOD CHAIN
UNINTERRUPTED
SPREADING OF DISEASES
GOVERNMENT
NEED TO SPEND
AN AMOUNT TO
SOLVE THIS
PROBLEM
http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/water-
shortage-to-hinder-worlds-economic-growth-7834944.html
SAVING WATER
USAGE
CLEAN
TECHNOLOGY,
JOBS &
INNOVATION
NATIONAL PARKS,
PROTECTED AREAS
& ECOSYSTEM
PROTECTING
WATERSHEDS
SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY
MALAYSIA’S FRESHWATER PROGRAMMECONSERVINGRIVERBASINS
Through an
approaches such
Integrated River
Basin
Management(IRBM),
we can maintain and
restore the
freshwater habitat
and ecological
process.
SUSTAINABLEWATERUSE
Integrated Water
Resources
Management (IWRM)
help us to focus on
sustainable water use
policies and practices
that contribute to
freshwater habitat
conservation.
CONSERVINGFRESHWATER
HABITATS
We are focus on
improved protection
and management of
priority freshwater
habitats.
http://www.wwf.org.my/about_wwf/what_we_do/freshwater_main/
THE CONSERVING FRESHWATER IN NORTH AMERICA
WATER RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE – Improve the operations at dam to
more closely mimic seasonal river conditions to enhance ecosystem health.
WATER FUNDS – The financial help toward
conservation of key lands upstream that
filter and regulate water supply.
RISK REDUCTION & RESILIENCE – Natural
solution such as sand dunes, marshes and reefs to
reduce flood risk.
WATER MARKET –It is mechanism where
communities invest conservation
management practices.
AGRICULTURE – Use science-based approach to
help farmers to feed growing population as well as
ensuring clean and abundant water supplies.
https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/habitats/riverslakes/north-americas-freshwater.xml
CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION
PERSON
• NO AWARENESS ON WATER CONSUMPTION
• SELF ATTITUDE
COMMUNITY
• URBAN LIFESTYLE
• POPULATION GROWTH
• NO CAMPAIGN
GOVERNMENT
• NO STRICT LAWS ARE APPLIED
• MAY SPEND MANY COST TO DO SUSTAINABLE ACTIVITIES
• FOCUS MORE ON DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR NATIONAL IMAGE
DO’S DON’TS
- SAVE DAILY WATER USAGE
- GREYWATER REUSE SYSTEM
- COLLECT RAINWATER AND
REUSE IT TO WATER THE
GARDEN
- USE ENERGY SAVE APPLIANCES
- DISPOSE WASTE WISELY
- PLANS FOR GREEN
TECHNOLOGY
-TAKE LONG SHOWERS
- DISPOSE CHEMICAL WASTE
TO RIVERS
- DEVELOPMENT NEAR THE
WATER RESOURCES
- LET THE WATER RUN
WHILE BRUSHING TEETH OR
WASHING
http://www.dummies.com/education/science/environmental-science/enviro
science-how-to-conserve-fresh-water/
http://wwf.panda.org/how_you_can_help/live_green/save_water/
What is TERRESTRIAL
BIODIVERSITY
????
Terrestrial biodiversity can be defined as
the variety of life forms on the land
surface of the Earth.
TYPE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS
■ TAIGA
– COLD
– HARSH CLIMATE
– LOW RATE OF
PRECIPITATION
(SNOW AND RAIN)
– SHORT GROWING
SEASON
■ TUNDRA
o Earth's Coldest
o Treeless Regions
o -12 To -6 Degrees Celsius
o The Summer Growing
Season Is Just 50 To 60
Days, When The Sun Shines
24 Hours A Day.
■ DECIDUOUS
FORESTS
o temperate broad-leaf forests are
dominated by trees that lose their
leaves each year.
o The average temperature of the
forest is about 10°C
o The four seasons are easily
recognizable and each lasts about
3 months.
■ GRASSLAND
 Also known as prairies,
pampas, steppes, and
savannas.
 Made mostly of grasses
 Do not receive enough
rainfall to grow trees
 Twenty-five percent of the
Earth is covered by the
grassland
■ TROPICAL
RAIN FORESTS
 Made up of four layers:
o emergent
o upper canopy
o understory
o forest floor
 Trees grow far apart and
tall
 Branches reaching above
the canopy
■ DESSERT
 Forms due to the low level
of rainfall it receives each
year.
 Cover about 20% of the
earth.
 Very hot at daytime, they
can get very cold at night.
 The driest desert on Earth
receives on average 1
centimeter of rainfall every 5
to 20 years.
DEFORESTATI
ON
WEATHER
HAVOC
GLOBAL
WARMING
WHAT IS THE ISSUE???
•To make more
land available
for housing and
urbanization
WHAT CAUSES OF
DEFORESTATION
To create
room for
cattle
ranching
To harvest timber
to create
commercial items
WHAT CAUSES OF WEATER
HAVOC
Greenhouse gases
Type of gases
High temperature
WHAT CAUSES OF GLOBAL
WARMING
THE EFFECT WHEN THIS
HAPPENING
EXTREMELY HIGH
TEMPERATURE
DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM
DIRTIER AIR
HIGHER WILDLIFE EXTINCTION
RATE
CLOSE BUILDING
EASILY TRAP SOLAR
RADIATION
INCREASES OF
URBANIZATION FOR
COMFORT LEVEL
OVER POPULATED
CAN MAKE ONE
FOCUS POINT OF
HEAT TRAP
EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURE
DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM
TOO MANY
CARBON GAS
AT
ATMOSPHER
E
STILL
DOES’T
HAVE
ADVANCE
TECHNOLO
GY TO
NEUTRAL
THE
SITUATION
INSUFFICIENT
TREE TO
ABSORB THE
GASES
DIRTIER AIR
EXCESSIVELY
INDUSTRIES
FIRE UP THE
FOREST FOR
AGRICULTURE
MASSIVE USE OF
VEHICLE
THERE ARE TOO
MANY DOMESTIC
WASTE TO HANDLE
ANIMAL
NEED TO
FIGHT FOR
THEIR LIFE
SUCH AS
FOR FOOD
HUMAN SEE
THEM AS
LUXURY
ITEM
LOST THEIR
HABITAT TO
STAY SAFE
START
AWARENESS
TO LOVE OUR
EARTH
GREEN
INDUSTRIES,
TECHNOLOGY
AND
INNOVATION
GAZETTED
NATIONAL
PARKS, BUILD
ECOTOURIST
REPLANT THE
TREE
SUSTAINABLE SOLUTIONS
MALAYSIA’S TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY
PROGRAMME
Public awareness for biodiversity conservation
• Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes in Article 13 the need to create awareness and
educate the public. Public awareness is one of the four components formed under
BBEC with the objective of establishing models to change behavior of the target groups
towards biodiversity conservation.
Seminar to heighten Biodiversity conservation awareness in the State
• It set out to share experiences and knowledge of WWF-Malaysia on environmental
conservation issues
• The gazettement of the proposed will significantly contribute towards habitat protection.
The Role of Youth in the Conservation of Biodiversity
• They are energetic, technology-savvy, constantly evolving, oriented to problem-solving
and often propagate active consumerism.
• advocates for reduction in footprints and improved quality of life across sectors and
industries is essential for the future.
South West Australia Ecoregion
Conservation Plan
- plan utilizes a data-rich, explicit planning
process that is informed by robust expert
advice.
Building ecosystem resilience in a
changing climate
- maintaining the extent of habitat; creating nature
reserves or conservation management agreements on
public and private land; organizing complementary
sustainable land and sea management practices; and
implementing targeted species-specific conservation.
Establish a national long-term
biodiversity monitoring and reporting
system
-Monitoring changes to biodiversity and the
environment over time will also help us to
understand how to intervene to build broader
landscape resilience.
AUSTRALIA'S BIODIVERSITY
CONSERVATION STRATEGY
CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION
HUMAN
• LACK OF AWERENESS ABOUT LOVING OUR
TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY
• SELF BEHAVIOUR
COMMUNITY
• RAPID POPULATION GROWTH
• WANT LUXURY AND URBAN LIFESTYLE
GOVERNMENT
• NEED TO SPEND A LOT OF MONEY WHEN TO
START THIS IMPLEMENTATION
• NO STRICT LAW AND ACT
- PLANT SIMPLE FLOWER OR PLANT IN OUR YARD
- DON’T SIMPLY CUT DOWN TREE AT OUR BACKYARD
- REPLANT ANY TREE’S SEED THAT EASY TO GROW
- CHANGE OUR LIFESTYLE TO SIMPLICITY NOT LUXURY
- DON’T SUPPORT ANY ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES FOR OUR LAND
- START LOVE OUR EARTH
- FIRE UP OUR BACKYARD FOR SMALL GARDEN
- DISPOSE OUR DAILY DOMESTIC WASTE INTO WOOD
- SWEEP OUT OUR FOREST FOR URBANIZATION
- DON’T FEEL SORRY FOR OUR EARTH
DO’S
DON’TS
Introduction to Rainforest Plant
 Rainforests are the heart of biodiversity among the world's ecosystems. Plants is the habitat of a
site, providing structure, shelter and food that contributing to overall biodiversity.
 There are many types of plants including:
Flowering plant Gymnosperms Bryophytes
Scadoxus Cinnobarinus
Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92
The statistic of deforestation in the world
• Nowadays, our rainforest are threatened
due to human activities. The irresponsible
person had done a lot destruction to the
rainforest aiming for high profit without
thinking the consequences.
• In Malaysia, especially in Borneo and also
peninsular land, suffers from a high rate of
deforestation. The major reasons for
deforestation in Malaysia are for oil palm
plantation, logging and mining, forest fire
and also tourism.
http://homeguides.sfgate.com/major-reasons-deforestation-malaysia-78510.html
Effect of Deforestation
 Affecting the habitat of animals and plants
As we know 80% of animal and plants live in the forest and it will not survive
and no where to-live if we are continuing destroys their homes.
 Extreme temperature
The forest act like the canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and
holds in heat at night. If we continue to disrupt the forest this will contribute in
increasing temperature and global warming.
 Less oxygen produced
Less oxygen produced that will harm the animals and human being because we
need the oxygen to live.
 Loss food sources
The animals that eat plants will loss their sources of the food and will interrupt the food chain.
 Impacting pharmaceutical industry
We will lose some potential drugs that can be extracted from rainforest that will be used for
fighting and curing multiple diseases.
Other harmful effect:
 Release of greenhouse gas emissions
According to Tony Johnson, 30 percent of global greenhouse-gas
emissions each year is due to the loss of forests and causes the
increase of global warming.
 Disrupted water cycle
Forests transport large quantities of water into the atmosphere via
plant transpiration. This replenishes the clouds and instigates rain
that maintains the forests. When deforestation occurs, precious
rain is lost from the area, flowing away as river water and causing
permanent drying.
 Increased soil erosion
Due to deforestation it will increase the probability of landslide to
be happened like we can see in the development area there is a
case of landslide.
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_loss
Solution in Conserving The Plant
Biodiversity Done in Malaysia
 In Malaysia, the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) had
taking the initiative starting in 2015 for overcoming the
deforestation that focus in Sabah and Sarawak. They are
cooperating with Sabah and Sarawak state governments
because there are 80% of the rainforest in Malaysian Borneo
had destroyed due to logging activities.
Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah.
Retrieved from http://www.wwf.org.my/media_and_information/updates__former_newsroom_main_/?uNewsID=19485
The initiatives that been implemented
including:
 Enhancing protected areas, conservation spatial planning, responsible forestry and
forest certification which could reduce deforestation rate and create a balance
between development and conservation.
 Introduce Systematic Conservation Planning that produce maps showing areas for
priority conservation.
 Sarawak must ensure that the Totally Protected Areas and Permanent Forest Estates
are managed properly and sustainably
 Gazetting new areas as protection forest reserves in November 2014
 Provides technical support to forest reserves undergoing certification for responsible
forest management following the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards.
 Assisting Sabah Government towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest
Degradation (REDD+) so that the avoidance of deforestation, sustainable forest
management and forest restoration achieved by the government and other forest
license holders can be financially rewarded.
Solution in Conserving The Plant
Biodiversity Done in Brazil
In Brazil, they are success in reducing the deforestation.
Data from 2009–2010 showed that Brazil’s area of deforestation,
which averaged 19,508 square kilometers (km2) per year in 1996
until 2005 had succeed to drop by 67 percent, to just 6,451 km2.
By using a formula for converting deforested area to CO2 emissions
based on the work of the research institute IMAZON, estimated a
reduction in Brazil’s global warming pollution of nearly 1 billion
tons.
Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
How Brazil do it?
 Both state and federal levels expanded its network of indigenous reserves and
protected areas.
 The government have introduce the strong enforcement of logging laws, including
seizures of illegal timber, closing of illegal sawmills, and jailing of the perpetrators
(including government officials who had been taking bribes to look the other way)
 Launching The Zero Deforestation campaign
 Brazil’s citizens played a critical role in pushing their government to go further
and in exerting pressure for change on the businesses that are the main agents of
deforestation
 Brazilian NGO’s campaign for soybean and beef industries should not sell products
raised on deforested land
 Research institutes such as IPAM and IMAZON have been important in monitoring
progress and showing how ranchers, farmers, and loggers can increase their
productivity in ways that make deforestation unnecessary.
Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
The Challenges
 Need large amount of money for setting up the agency and an independent
institution for monitoring emissions from forests
 It is difficult in reducing the deforestation while growing up the economy
 Special interests and corruption among the responsible person
 Lack of coordination from government
 Loose of law enforcement
 Mindset of people
Other suggestion in conserving plant biodiversity
Plant a tree Go paperless
Applying 3R : reduce, reuse and recycle Buy sustainably certified wood products
Do and Don’t
DO DON’T
Practice 3R’s concept (reduce, reuse and recycle)
starting at home
Assuming 3R’s is not important
Minimizing waste Buying a lot of unnecessary thing and harm to
environment
Minimize the used of paper because nowadays a lot
of development of technology can be used in
replacing paper e.g. WhatsApp Application
Using paper as source of communication
Buy sustainably certified wood products Use furniture without checking the certified wood
products
Avoiding open burning because it can cause big fire
to nearest forest if not controlled properly
Doing the open burning
Enforce the law against the illegal logging and
mining buy giving the appropriate penalties
Tolerable with illegal logging and mining i.e.
corruption
 Biodiversity makes lives more credible and desirable.
There are too many species arise on our earth.
 Based on specialist, there are about 10 million to 80
million species arise on earth but only manage to attain
about 1.4 million species so far.
Source: Pranab Pal D,2016
Loss of biodiversity of
animals is continuing
and became more
serious nowadays.
Population of human,
strong competition of
consumerism and
urbanization are
common aspect to be
considered in
enhancing
environmental
problems and to verify
the potential of life on
earth.
 The crime (illegal wildlife trade) became worst from times
to times. People rushed hunting or seizing of wild
animals.
 It can be considered as a threat to animals population as
it can affect biodiversity not even to wildlife but also
plants. Then, ecosystem will be bothered when species
in danger.
Causes of poaching:
 Bush meat: usually animal that rarely be found (mammals
or birds). This kind of animals is protected under law. The
poachers hunt for consumption and even for profit.
 Poverty: usually done by rural poachers that seeks for a
better life by violating law and nature.
 Wealth: wildlife is part of high demand product. Their skins,
trunks, ivory and etc. can make a quality product and even
some people used them as symbols of status and wealth.
NO SPECIES POACHING
CASES
NO. OF
ANIMALS
POACHED
SEIZURE
CASES
REPORTED
QUANTITY
OF
SEIZED ITEMS
1 Deer 34 48 32 16 skins,169 kg
meat,8 antlers,
5 heads and 3
legs
2 Elephant 18 18 20 39 tusks,
5tushes,31 kg
Ivory and 2 Ivory
pieces
3 Peacock 30 116 2 Paws and
feathers
4 Rhinoceros 22 22 1 One horn
5 Wild boar 11 10 12 6 kg meat, 1
skull and1 bone
Source: Down to Earth
Table 1: Poaching and seizure of wild animals in India, 2014.
 Increasing in human population
effect biodiversity in many ways.
For instance, the need of residence
development will cause the need of
new dam for electricity propose
thus cause destruction of flora and
fauna.
 Loss of forest by means due to
deforestation for any development
purposes has been widespread up
until now, yet give impact to
distribution of biodiversity of fauna
and flora. When the forest damage,
the wildlife species is in danger
because their habitat is disturbed.
Country: SOUTH
AFRICA
Source: brandsouthafrica.com
Establish the uniform national system that will employ the same
standard around the country.
Provide for the formal registration of all captive breeding
facilities, nurseries, scientific institutions, sanctuaries and
rehabilitation facilities.
Only hunters that registered with recognized body got
permit.
No tolerance towards poaching. Firm penalties (fine
and imprisonment up to 5 years).
For a private land (borders national or provincial protected
area), hunting also not allowed except got permission
from landowner and board authority, other than
environmental MEC or minister approve it.
Promote tourism.
Country: MALAYSIA
Enhance laws on biodiversity
management.
• People need to have permit or licence
to do activities related to wildlife
FRIM conduct research for
forest development
Established National Park to
save wildlife in preserve area.
What can
Malaysia do?
Informing All
Society
Protected
Area
Strong
Institution
• Help maximize the benefits of conserve
rainforest for animals sake.
• It is much expensive to restore the
ecosystem rather than protecting the
existing.
• Chose the best place where all
ecosystem can be placed in one place.
It need to be well designed and
effectively managed.
• Include enforcement measures and
considered impact on biodiversity.
• Take the issues related to rainforest’s
animal into national level.
• Provide incentives to sustain rainforest’s
animal.
COST
 Lack of budget laid for sustainability
of animal biodiversity.
HUMAN TOLERANCE
 Some might be support that the wildlife has
right to exist but some might oppose it.
Most of wildlife provide economic and
ecological services that human valued.
 Carnivores shows a huge reduction over
times. It is due to no tolerance towards
them. Human hunt for their skins, trunks
and many more that will cause harm to
them and at the same time, these
carnivores looses their preys (herbivores)
also due to human greed.
CLIMATE CHANGE
 Climate change can gives impact to
certain species, causing them in
danger.
 Continuing global warming will affect
in change of rainfall pattern. It can
cause lost in habitat if forest cannot
be maintained.
LAWS AND REGULATION
 Lack serious action towards
poachers.
DO’S
 Redesign habitat and corridors
for wildlife suitable with their
flexibility.
 On going improvise
management.
 Enhance law and regulation
related to wildlife. Gives a
serious penalties towards
poachers; no warning needed.
 Promote tourism so that
sustainability of wildlife
guaranteed.
 Raising public awareness
DON’TS
ꓫ Deforestation will lead to lost
of animal’s habitat.
ꓫ Has exotic species as pets
ꓫ Support product from animal’s
part.
ꓫ Tolerate poaching.
For a healthy economic growth and
together with ecosystem’s stability,
biodiversity is necessary because
everything we did on this earth is
related to biodiversity which means
biodiversity and live humans on this
earth are depends on each other.
Sustainable development
consists of maintain the whole
balance, valued the environment
and prevent any fatigue of
natural resources. We must take
action in sustaining the
biodiversity of our earth for
future generation.
CONCLUSION
Internet
1. Protecting South Africa’s wildlife retrieved on October 18,2017 from
https://www.brandsouthafrica.com/governance/sustainable/conservation-030506
2. Biodiversity & Human Well-being retrieved on October 20,2017 from https://www.greenfacts.org/en/biodiversity/
3. Jianying (2015) ‘Achievements of Taiwan’s Marine Protected Areas’’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from
https://www.fa.gov.tw/en/WorldOceansDay/content.aspx?id=3&chk=e18b2aa9-f67e-4a67-84d1-4367f00160b9&param=pn%3D1
4. Jianying (2015) ‘Fisheries of the Republic of China(Taiwan)’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from
http://www.fa.gov.tw/en/FisheriesoROC/content.aspx?id=5&chk=4b287405-ead6-4244-ae05-0b0c67edad48&param=pn%3D1
5. Hellwig, Christian (2015, June 29). Deforestation impacting pharmaceutical industry. Retrieved from
http://globalriskinsights.com/2015/06/deforestation-impacting-pharmaceutical-industry/
6. (2015, May 12). Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah,. Retrieved from
http://www.wwf.org.my/media_and_information/updates__former_newsroom_main_/?uNewsID=19485
7. (2011, Feb). Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-
deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
8. Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92
9. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/major-reasons-deforestation-malaysia-78510.html
10. Deforestation. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation/
11. 10 ways to conserve biodiversity. Retrieve from https://greentumble.com/10-ways-to-conserve-biodiversity/
Journal
1. Pranab Pal D (2016) Managing Biodiversity with Emphasis on Sustainable Development, J Ecosys Ecograph S5:008.
2. Sustainable Wildlife Management CPW and Biodiversity, Wildlife FAO.
Biodiversity - EIS (MEC600)
Biodiversity - EIS (MEC600)
Biodiversity - EIS (MEC600)

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Biodiversity - EIS (MEC600)

  • 1. MOHAMMAD SYAIFUL AZRIE BIN ZULKIFLI AIDA SYAZWANI BINTI SHARUDDIN CHE ANIS BINTI CHE ANIS NORFATIHA BINTI SUHIMI SITI ZAITON BINTI ISMAIL EMD7M4A BIODIVERSITY
  • 2. JOBDISTRIBUTION CHE ANIS MARINE BIODIVERSITY NORFATIHA FRESHWATER BIODIVERSITY SYAIFUL AZRIE TERESTRIAL SITI ZAITON RAINFOREST PLANT AIDA SYAZWANI RAINFOREST ANIMAL
  • 4. INTRODUCTION TO BIODIVERSITY Biodiversity is defined as the variability among living species on Earth including marine, terrestrial, aquatic ecosystem and also flora and fauna in the rainforest. It is important in conserving the global biodiversity for sustaining human life in local and even in the global levels. We are depending on healthy functionality of other life form to get foods supply, fresh water and also the healthy environment Therefore, there are important for us in preserving and conserving the biodiversity and together solving the issues that related that may harm the biodiversity such as over fishing, poaching, deforestation and etc.
  • 5. INTRODUCTION TO MARINE BIODIVERSITY  "biological diversity" means the variability among living organisms from all sources including inter alia, terrestrial, marine and other aquatic ecosystems and the ecological complexes of which they are includes diversity within species, between species and of ecosystems. Ecosystems GenesSpeciesCommunities
  • 6.  In this case, the most important sources of animal proteins for human use is marine fish.  In most countries, marine fishery is also one of the important industry.  Fifty years ago, many people believed that the ocean was so huge and so resilient that there was no way the marine environment could be changed, nor could marine fishery resources be depleted.  Half a century later, a lot of people agreed that the depletion of fishery resources is happening mainly due to many factors such as overfishing, habitat destruction, pollution, invasive species introduction, and climate change.  Since overfishing can cause chain reactions that decrease marine biodiversity drastically, there will be no seafood left after 40 years if we take no action.  So, in this case, we want to focus only on overfishing.
  • 7. Effects of Overfishing to Others Losses of fish stocks will give impact to the price of fish which are already rising in response to demand and it also will increase the costs of fishing. Fishing for people across the globe is not just as a source of food, it is their way of life and how they support themselves and their family. Loss of food sources Loss of livelihood
  • 8. If overfishing continues, more species will be driven to extinction and aquatic ecosystems will collapse. By catch from long lining, bottom trawling and other fishing techniques will kill numbers of non-targeted fish. For examples are sea turtles, seabirds and marine mammals such as dolphins, seals, manatees and sea lions are all being caught unintentionally and often are discarded. Loss of species Wildlife discarded
  • 9. What Taiwan Have Done  Building excellent environment of fishing grounds, for restocking fisheries resources o Deployment of artificial reefs In order to improve the environment of fishing grounds, and restock fisheries resources, artificial reefs were deployed in 88 localities with sinking of cement reefs, electricity wire pole reefs, steel and iron reefs, vessel reefs and naval ship reefs.
  • 10. o Release of fish fry Healthy fish seeds are produced in hatchery and released to the sea for restocking of fisheries resources. Concurrently, approximately 10 million fries are released annually, with main species including threadfin fish, sand snapper, seabreams, snappers, groupers, etc. https://www.fa.gov.tw/en/WorldOceansDay/content.aspx?id=3&chk=e18b2aa9-f67e-4a67-84d1-4367f00160b9&param=pn%3D1
  • 11.  Conservation of fisheries resources, and sustainable fisheries operations o Establishment of marine protected areas  For the protection of marine biodiversity, and for the conservation, management and sustainable use of fisheries resources, marine protected areas, which cover an area of 30,579.42 sq. km, have been delineated. They account for 47% of the territorial waters in Taiwan. o Conservation and Management of Shark Resources  To ensure sustainable use of shark resources, and to meet the requirements of shark conservation and management, the government has been actively promoting the measure of “shark’s fins naturally attached”, and publicize regulations on imports of shark’s fins, requiring fishing vessels and importers to observe. http://www.fa.gov.tw/en/FisheriesoROC/content.aspx?id=5&chk=4b287405-ead6-4244- ae05-0b0c67edad48&param=pn%3D1
  • 12. What Malaysia Have Done Ministry of Agriculture and Agro-based Industry (MOA) and the Department of Fisheries Malaysia (DOF) had decided to ban trawling. Marine police detained the Vietnamese fishermen for illegally fishing in Malaysian waters at Pulau Tinggi, Mersing.
  • 13.  WWF is working with partners in Malaysia to develop a marine conservation plan in 3 areas: 1) The east coast of Sabah, Borneo in a part of the Sulu-Sulawesi marine eco region and the Coral Triangle. 2) The Strait of Malacca on the west coast of Peninsular Malaysia, which forms the southern part of the Andaman Sea. 3) The South China Sea on Peninsular Malaysia’s east coast.
  • 15. 1. Energy security: to support carbon sequestration, they needs support for developing energy resources, particularly liquid natural gas and renewable energy and research. 2. Food security: to improve management of wild-catch fisheries, they needs a research to support a booming aquaculture industry, as well as data and tools. 3. Biodiversity conservation and ecosystem health: to predict impacts of development on marine biodiversity, they needs environmental baselines, effective indicators of ecosystem health to guides national marine environmental monitoring, and tools. 4. Dealing with changing climate: needs to understand and have a skill in prediction of the impacts of sea level rise, increasing sea temperature and ocean acidification and the role of the ocean as a carbon sink.
  • 17. Working with Governments • The lack of regulations and specific policy, and the fact that fishing has been an industry tied to the history of humans and civilization, many groups, like the World Wildlife Fund, are helping countries learn to prepare adequate and effective management protocols. Helping Developing Countries • Because fishing is a crucial industry in many poor and developing nations, conservation efforts are focusing on helping these areas set-up procedures to ensure sustainability in the long run. Educating Retailers • Another way that conservationists are trying to change the problem of overfishing is by working with retailers to educate them on ways to purchase their seafood from sustainable fisheries.
  • 18. Reducing Subsidies • Many governments subsidize the fishing industry with subsidies, in an effort to keep the industry thriving. The problem with this, is that it incentivizes fishermen to continue to expand, which means that subsidies only end up contributing to the problem of overfishing. More Protected Marine Areas • Setting up more protected areas in the ocean is an effort to help reduce the effects of overfishing on some of the world’s most incredible reefs and marine structures.
  • 19. Potential Un-ethical Problems and How to Overcome it DO’s DON’Ts  Eat Less Fish - Reducing seafood consumption can help to lessen the impact on our oceans.  Avoid top predators like sharks, swordfish and Bluefin tuna.  Know your fish facts - Become familiar with sustainable choices and species of concern.  Carry the Seafood Watch card in your wallet and use it.  Buy Local – When possible purchase seafood from local fishing communities. Fishing sustainably is hard work. Support fishermen taking bold steps to conserve our fish while maintaining their livelihood.  Unsustainable Fishing - This involves using nets, fishing methods and other equipment that catch too much fish to a degree that they are endangered.  Overcapacity - All over the world, many fishing industries have huge vessels, equipment and technology that they can deploy deep into the oceans.  Economic and Food Needs – As the humans have multiplied, so the need for food and fish has also multiplied. This, together with economic ambitions of fisheries have forced them to catch more fish.
  • 20. FRESHWATER?? WHAT IS IT?? It can be in form of liquid, gaseous or solid state “FRESH” does not mean it is drinkable Water that has a low concentration of salts https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Fresh_water
  • 21. TYPE OF FRESHWATER Ponds and lakes Streams and rivers Wetlands http://study.com/academy/lesson/freshwater-biomes-climate-locations-plants-animals.html
  • 22. Importance of Freshwater Supply water for drinking ECONOMIC GROWTH - Manufacturing ECOSYSTEM SERVICES - Transport FOOD CHAINS - Fishes - Growing crops ENERGY GENERATION Help to prevent erosion Dispose of waste Provide natural protection from flooding https://www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/area-of-work/protecting-our-rivers-lakes-and-freshwater
  • 23. WHAT IS THE ISSUE?? Do not have access to clean and sufficient drinking water
  • 24. OVERDEVELOPMENT POLLUTED RUNOFF INCREASING OF HUMAN POPULATION WHY FRESHWATER IS THREATENED?
  • 25. CONSEQUENCES OF FRESHWATER ISSUES LACK OF ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER INCREASED OF GLOBAL CONFLICT FOOD SHORTAGES ENERGY SHORTAGES ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN http://www.seametrics.com/blog/water-shortage-consequences/
  • 26. LACK OF ACCESS TO CLEAN WATER Due to bad economics or poor infrastructure The result of political instability, ethnic conflicts Increased flooding problems http://www.un.org/en/sections/issues-depth/water/ https://thewaterproject.org/why-water/poverty http://www.fao.org/docrep/004/AB776E/ab776e02.htm
  • 27. INCREASE OF GLOBAL CONFLICT Freshwater resources are often shared by two or more countries. It may lead to more international conflicts as freshwater becomes more scarce. http://www.seametrics.com/blog/water-shortage-consequences/
  • 28. FOOD SHORTAGES It causes the drying rivers & damaged habitats. Bring the damage to freshwater ecosystems Overdevelopment cause the flooding & drought https://www.wwf.org.uk/what-we-do/area-of-work/protecting-our-rivers-lakes-and-freshwater
  • 29. ENERGY SHORTAGES INCREASING OF HUMAN POPULATION THUS INCREASE THE DEVELOPMENT TO COMFORT OUR LIFE MORE DEVELOPMENT, MORE POLLUTION OCCURED GLOBAL WARMING MAKE OUR FRESHWATER DRY UP NO SUFFICIENT WATER TO CREATE ENERGY https://www.theguardian.com/environment/2015/mar/08/how-water-shortages-lead-food-crises-conflicts
  • 30. ECONOMIC SLOWDOWN INSUFFICIENT CLEAN WATER CREATE DISEASES, FOOD SHORTAGES FOOD CHAIN UNINTERRUPTED SPREADING OF DISEASES GOVERNMENT NEED TO SPEND AN AMOUNT TO SOLVE THIS PROBLEM http://www.independent.co.uk/news/business/news/water- shortage-to-hinder-worlds-economic-growth-7834944.html
  • 31. SAVING WATER USAGE CLEAN TECHNOLOGY, JOBS & INNOVATION NATIONAL PARKS, PROTECTED AREAS & ECOSYSTEM PROTECTING WATERSHEDS SUSTAINABLE STRATEGY
  • 32. MALAYSIA’S FRESHWATER PROGRAMMECONSERVINGRIVERBASINS Through an approaches such Integrated River Basin Management(IRBM), we can maintain and restore the freshwater habitat and ecological process. SUSTAINABLEWATERUSE Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) help us to focus on sustainable water use policies and practices that contribute to freshwater habitat conservation. CONSERVINGFRESHWATER HABITATS We are focus on improved protection and management of priority freshwater habitats. http://www.wwf.org.my/about_wwf/what_we_do/freshwater_main/
  • 33. THE CONSERVING FRESHWATER IN NORTH AMERICA WATER RESOURCES INFRASTRUCTURE – Improve the operations at dam to more closely mimic seasonal river conditions to enhance ecosystem health. WATER FUNDS – The financial help toward conservation of key lands upstream that filter and regulate water supply. RISK REDUCTION & RESILIENCE – Natural solution such as sand dunes, marshes and reefs to reduce flood risk. WATER MARKET –It is mechanism where communities invest conservation management practices. AGRICULTURE – Use science-based approach to help farmers to feed growing population as well as ensuring clean and abundant water supplies. https://www.nature.org/ourinitiatives/habitats/riverslakes/north-americas-freshwater.xml
  • 34. CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION PERSON • NO AWARENESS ON WATER CONSUMPTION • SELF ATTITUDE COMMUNITY • URBAN LIFESTYLE • POPULATION GROWTH • NO CAMPAIGN GOVERNMENT • NO STRICT LAWS ARE APPLIED • MAY SPEND MANY COST TO DO SUSTAINABLE ACTIVITIES • FOCUS MORE ON DEVELOPMENT PLANS FOR NATIONAL IMAGE
  • 35. DO’S DON’TS - SAVE DAILY WATER USAGE - GREYWATER REUSE SYSTEM - COLLECT RAINWATER AND REUSE IT TO WATER THE GARDEN - USE ENERGY SAVE APPLIANCES - DISPOSE WASTE WISELY - PLANS FOR GREEN TECHNOLOGY -TAKE LONG SHOWERS - DISPOSE CHEMICAL WASTE TO RIVERS - DEVELOPMENT NEAR THE WATER RESOURCES - LET THE WATER RUN WHILE BRUSHING TEETH OR WASHING http://www.dummies.com/education/science/environmental-science/enviro science-how-to-conserve-fresh-water/ http://wwf.panda.org/how_you_can_help/live_green/save_water/
  • 37. Terrestrial biodiversity can be defined as the variety of life forms on the land surface of the Earth.
  • 38. TYPE OF TERRESTRIAL ECOSYSTEMS ■ TAIGA – COLD – HARSH CLIMATE – LOW RATE OF PRECIPITATION (SNOW AND RAIN) – SHORT GROWING SEASON ■ TUNDRA o Earth's Coldest o Treeless Regions o -12 To -6 Degrees Celsius o The Summer Growing Season Is Just 50 To 60 Days, When The Sun Shines 24 Hours A Day.
  • 39. ■ DECIDUOUS FORESTS o temperate broad-leaf forests are dominated by trees that lose their leaves each year. o The average temperature of the forest is about 10°C o The four seasons are easily recognizable and each lasts about 3 months. ■ GRASSLAND  Also known as prairies, pampas, steppes, and savannas.  Made mostly of grasses  Do not receive enough rainfall to grow trees  Twenty-five percent of the Earth is covered by the grassland
  • 40. ■ TROPICAL RAIN FORESTS  Made up of four layers: o emergent o upper canopy o understory o forest floor  Trees grow far apart and tall  Branches reaching above the canopy ■ DESSERT  Forms due to the low level of rainfall it receives each year.  Cover about 20% of the earth.  Very hot at daytime, they can get very cold at night.  The driest desert on Earth receives on average 1 centimeter of rainfall every 5 to 20 years.
  • 42. •To make more land available for housing and urbanization WHAT CAUSES OF DEFORESTATION To create room for cattle ranching To harvest timber to create commercial items
  • 43. WHAT CAUSES OF WEATER HAVOC Greenhouse gases Type of gases High temperature
  • 44. WHAT CAUSES OF GLOBAL WARMING
  • 45. THE EFFECT WHEN THIS HAPPENING EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURE DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM DIRTIER AIR HIGHER WILDLIFE EXTINCTION RATE
  • 46. CLOSE BUILDING EASILY TRAP SOLAR RADIATION INCREASES OF URBANIZATION FOR COMFORT LEVEL OVER POPULATED CAN MAKE ONE FOCUS POINT OF HEAT TRAP EXTREMELY HIGH TEMPERATURE
  • 47. DISTURB CARBON SYSTEM TOO MANY CARBON GAS AT ATMOSPHER E STILL DOES’T HAVE ADVANCE TECHNOLO GY TO NEUTRAL THE SITUATION INSUFFICIENT TREE TO ABSORB THE GASES
  • 48. DIRTIER AIR EXCESSIVELY INDUSTRIES FIRE UP THE FOREST FOR AGRICULTURE MASSIVE USE OF VEHICLE THERE ARE TOO MANY DOMESTIC WASTE TO HANDLE
  • 49. ANIMAL NEED TO FIGHT FOR THEIR LIFE SUCH AS FOR FOOD HUMAN SEE THEM AS LUXURY ITEM LOST THEIR HABITAT TO STAY SAFE
  • 51. MALAYSIA’S TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY PROGRAMME Public awareness for biodiversity conservation • Biological Diversity (CBD) recognizes in Article 13 the need to create awareness and educate the public. Public awareness is one of the four components formed under BBEC with the objective of establishing models to change behavior of the target groups towards biodiversity conservation. Seminar to heighten Biodiversity conservation awareness in the State • It set out to share experiences and knowledge of WWF-Malaysia on environmental conservation issues • The gazettement of the proposed will significantly contribute towards habitat protection. The Role of Youth in the Conservation of Biodiversity • They are energetic, technology-savvy, constantly evolving, oriented to problem-solving and often propagate active consumerism. • advocates for reduction in footprints and improved quality of life across sectors and industries is essential for the future.
  • 52. South West Australia Ecoregion Conservation Plan - plan utilizes a data-rich, explicit planning process that is informed by robust expert advice. Building ecosystem resilience in a changing climate - maintaining the extent of habitat; creating nature reserves or conservation management agreements on public and private land; organizing complementary sustainable land and sea management practices; and implementing targeted species-specific conservation. Establish a national long-term biodiversity monitoring and reporting system -Monitoring changes to biodiversity and the environment over time will also help us to understand how to intervene to build broader landscape resilience. AUSTRALIA'S BIODIVERSITY CONSERVATION STRATEGY
  • 53. CHALLENGE FOR IMPLEMENTATION HUMAN • LACK OF AWERENESS ABOUT LOVING OUR TERRESTRIAL BIODIVERSITY • SELF BEHAVIOUR COMMUNITY • RAPID POPULATION GROWTH • WANT LUXURY AND URBAN LIFESTYLE GOVERNMENT • NEED TO SPEND A LOT OF MONEY WHEN TO START THIS IMPLEMENTATION • NO STRICT LAW AND ACT
  • 54. - PLANT SIMPLE FLOWER OR PLANT IN OUR YARD - DON’T SIMPLY CUT DOWN TREE AT OUR BACKYARD - REPLANT ANY TREE’S SEED THAT EASY TO GROW - CHANGE OUR LIFESTYLE TO SIMPLICITY NOT LUXURY - DON’T SUPPORT ANY ILLEGAL ACTIVITIES FOR OUR LAND - START LOVE OUR EARTH - FIRE UP OUR BACKYARD FOR SMALL GARDEN - DISPOSE OUR DAILY DOMESTIC WASTE INTO WOOD - SWEEP OUT OUR FOREST FOR URBANIZATION - DON’T FEEL SORRY FOR OUR EARTH DO’S DON’TS
  • 55. Introduction to Rainforest Plant  Rainforests are the heart of biodiversity among the world's ecosystems. Plants is the habitat of a site, providing structure, shelter and food that contributing to overall biodiversity.  There are many types of plants including: Flowering plant Gymnosperms Bryophytes Scadoxus Cinnobarinus Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92
  • 56. The statistic of deforestation in the world • Nowadays, our rainforest are threatened due to human activities. The irresponsible person had done a lot destruction to the rainforest aiming for high profit without thinking the consequences. • In Malaysia, especially in Borneo and also peninsular land, suffers from a high rate of deforestation. The major reasons for deforestation in Malaysia are for oil palm plantation, logging and mining, forest fire and also tourism. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/major-reasons-deforestation-malaysia-78510.html
  • 57. Effect of Deforestation  Affecting the habitat of animals and plants As we know 80% of animal and plants live in the forest and it will not survive and no where to-live if we are continuing destroys their homes.  Extreme temperature The forest act like the canopy, which blocks the sun’s rays during the day and holds in heat at night. If we continue to disrupt the forest this will contribute in increasing temperature and global warming.  Less oxygen produced Less oxygen produced that will harm the animals and human being because we need the oxygen to live.
  • 58.  Loss food sources The animals that eat plants will loss their sources of the food and will interrupt the food chain.  Impacting pharmaceutical industry We will lose some potential drugs that can be extracted from rainforest that will be used for fighting and curing multiple diseases.
  • 59. Other harmful effect:  Release of greenhouse gas emissions According to Tony Johnson, 30 percent of global greenhouse-gas emissions each year is due to the loss of forests and causes the increase of global warming.  Disrupted water cycle Forests transport large quantities of water into the atmosphere via plant transpiration. This replenishes the clouds and instigates rain that maintains the forests. When deforestation occurs, precious rain is lost from the area, flowing away as river water and causing permanent drying.  Increased soil erosion Due to deforestation it will increase the probability of landslide to be happened like we can see in the development area there is a case of landslide. https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Biodiversity_loss
  • 60. Solution in Conserving The Plant Biodiversity Done in Malaysia  In Malaysia, the World Wide Fund for Nature’s (WWF) had taking the initiative starting in 2015 for overcoming the deforestation that focus in Sabah and Sarawak. They are cooperating with Sabah and Sarawak state governments because there are 80% of the rainforest in Malaysian Borneo had destroyed due to logging activities. Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah. Retrieved from http://www.wwf.org.my/media_and_information/updates__former_newsroom_main_/?uNewsID=19485
  • 61. The initiatives that been implemented including:  Enhancing protected areas, conservation spatial planning, responsible forestry and forest certification which could reduce deforestation rate and create a balance between development and conservation.  Introduce Systematic Conservation Planning that produce maps showing areas for priority conservation.  Sarawak must ensure that the Totally Protected Areas and Permanent Forest Estates are managed properly and sustainably  Gazetting new areas as protection forest reserves in November 2014  Provides technical support to forest reserves undergoing certification for responsible forest management following the Forest Stewardship Council (FSC) standards.  Assisting Sabah Government towards Reducing Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation (REDD+) so that the avoidance of deforestation, sustainable forest management and forest restoration achieved by the government and other forest license holders can be financially rewarded.
  • 62. Solution in Conserving The Plant Biodiversity Done in Brazil In Brazil, they are success in reducing the deforestation. Data from 2009–2010 showed that Brazil’s area of deforestation, which averaged 19,508 square kilometers (km2) per year in 1996 until 2005 had succeed to drop by 67 percent, to just 6,451 km2. By using a formula for converting deforested area to CO2 emissions based on the work of the research institute IMAZON, estimated a reduction in Brazil’s global warming pollution of nearly 1 billion tons. Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
  • 63. How Brazil do it?  Both state and federal levels expanded its network of indigenous reserves and protected areas.  The government have introduce the strong enforcement of logging laws, including seizures of illegal timber, closing of illegal sawmills, and jailing of the perpetrators (including government officials who had been taking bribes to look the other way)  Launching The Zero Deforestation campaign  Brazil’s citizens played a critical role in pushing their government to go further and in exerting pressure for change on the businesses that are the main agents of deforestation  Brazilian NGO’s campaign for soybean and beef industries should not sell products raised on deforested land  Research institutes such as IPAM and IMAZON have been important in monitoring progress and showing how ranchers, farmers, and loggers can increase their productivity in ways that make deforestation unnecessary. Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop-deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU
  • 64. The Challenges  Need large amount of money for setting up the agency and an independent institution for monitoring emissions from forests  It is difficult in reducing the deforestation while growing up the economy  Special interests and corruption among the responsible person  Lack of coordination from government  Loose of law enforcement  Mindset of people
  • 65. Other suggestion in conserving plant biodiversity Plant a tree Go paperless Applying 3R : reduce, reuse and recycle Buy sustainably certified wood products
  • 66. Do and Don’t DO DON’T Practice 3R’s concept (reduce, reuse and recycle) starting at home Assuming 3R’s is not important Minimizing waste Buying a lot of unnecessary thing and harm to environment Minimize the used of paper because nowadays a lot of development of technology can be used in replacing paper e.g. WhatsApp Application Using paper as source of communication Buy sustainably certified wood products Use furniture without checking the certified wood products Avoiding open burning because it can cause big fire to nearest forest if not controlled properly Doing the open burning Enforce the law against the illegal logging and mining buy giving the appropriate penalties Tolerable with illegal logging and mining i.e. corruption
  • 67.  Biodiversity makes lives more credible and desirable. There are too many species arise on our earth.  Based on specialist, there are about 10 million to 80 million species arise on earth but only manage to attain about 1.4 million species so far. Source: Pranab Pal D,2016
  • 68. Loss of biodiversity of animals is continuing and became more serious nowadays. Population of human, strong competition of consumerism and urbanization are common aspect to be considered in enhancing environmental problems and to verify the potential of life on earth.
  • 69.  The crime (illegal wildlife trade) became worst from times to times. People rushed hunting or seizing of wild animals.  It can be considered as a threat to animals population as it can affect biodiversity not even to wildlife but also plants. Then, ecosystem will be bothered when species in danger.
  • 70. Causes of poaching:  Bush meat: usually animal that rarely be found (mammals or birds). This kind of animals is protected under law. The poachers hunt for consumption and even for profit.  Poverty: usually done by rural poachers that seeks for a better life by violating law and nature.  Wealth: wildlife is part of high demand product. Their skins, trunks, ivory and etc. can make a quality product and even some people used them as symbols of status and wealth.
  • 71. NO SPECIES POACHING CASES NO. OF ANIMALS POACHED SEIZURE CASES REPORTED QUANTITY OF SEIZED ITEMS 1 Deer 34 48 32 16 skins,169 kg meat,8 antlers, 5 heads and 3 legs 2 Elephant 18 18 20 39 tusks, 5tushes,31 kg Ivory and 2 Ivory pieces 3 Peacock 30 116 2 Paws and feathers 4 Rhinoceros 22 22 1 One horn 5 Wild boar 11 10 12 6 kg meat, 1 skull and1 bone Source: Down to Earth Table 1: Poaching and seizure of wild animals in India, 2014.
  • 72.  Increasing in human population effect biodiversity in many ways. For instance, the need of residence development will cause the need of new dam for electricity propose thus cause destruction of flora and fauna.  Loss of forest by means due to deforestation for any development purposes has been widespread up until now, yet give impact to distribution of biodiversity of fauna and flora. When the forest damage, the wildlife species is in danger because their habitat is disturbed.
  • 73. Country: SOUTH AFRICA Source: brandsouthafrica.com Establish the uniform national system that will employ the same standard around the country. Provide for the formal registration of all captive breeding facilities, nurseries, scientific institutions, sanctuaries and rehabilitation facilities. Only hunters that registered with recognized body got permit. No tolerance towards poaching. Firm penalties (fine and imprisonment up to 5 years). For a private land (borders national or provincial protected area), hunting also not allowed except got permission from landowner and board authority, other than environmental MEC or minister approve it. Promote tourism.
  • 74. Country: MALAYSIA Enhance laws on biodiversity management. • People need to have permit or licence to do activities related to wildlife FRIM conduct research for forest development Established National Park to save wildlife in preserve area.
  • 75. What can Malaysia do? Informing All Society Protected Area Strong Institution • Help maximize the benefits of conserve rainforest for animals sake. • It is much expensive to restore the ecosystem rather than protecting the existing. • Chose the best place where all ecosystem can be placed in one place. It need to be well designed and effectively managed. • Include enforcement measures and considered impact on biodiversity. • Take the issues related to rainforest’s animal into national level. • Provide incentives to sustain rainforest’s animal.
  • 76. COST  Lack of budget laid for sustainability of animal biodiversity. HUMAN TOLERANCE  Some might be support that the wildlife has right to exist but some might oppose it. Most of wildlife provide economic and ecological services that human valued.  Carnivores shows a huge reduction over times. It is due to no tolerance towards them. Human hunt for their skins, trunks and many more that will cause harm to them and at the same time, these carnivores looses their preys (herbivores) also due to human greed. CLIMATE CHANGE  Climate change can gives impact to certain species, causing them in danger.  Continuing global warming will affect in change of rainfall pattern. It can cause lost in habitat if forest cannot be maintained. LAWS AND REGULATION  Lack serious action towards poachers.
  • 77. DO’S  Redesign habitat and corridors for wildlife suitable with their flexibility.  On going improvise management.  Enhance law and regulation related to wildlife. Gives a serious penalties towards poachers; no warning needed.  Promote tourism so that sustainability of wildlife guaranteed.  Raising public awareness DON’TS ꓫ Deforestation will lead to lost of animal’s habitat. ꓫ Has exotic species as pets ꓫ Support product from animal’s part. ꓫ Tolerate poaching.
  • 78. For a healthy economic growth and together with ecosystem’s stability, biodiversity is necessary because everything we did on this earth is related to biodiversity which means biodiversity and live humans on this earth are depends on each other. Sustainable development consists of maintain the whole balance, valued the environment and prevent any fatigue of natural resources. We must take action in sustaining the biodiversity of our earth for future generation. CONCLUSION
  • 79. Internet 1. Protecting South Africa’s wildlife retrieved on October 18,2017 from https://www.brandsouthafrica.com/governance/sustainable/conservation-030506 2. Biodiversity & Human Well-being retrieved on October 20,2017 from https://www.greenfacts.org/en/biodiversity/ 3. Jianying (2015) ‘Achievements of Taiwan’s Marine Protected Areas’’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from https://www.fa.gov.tw/en/WorldOceansDay/content.aspx?id=3&chk=e18b2aa9-f67e-4a67-84d1-4367f00160b9&param=pn%3D1 4. Jianying (2015) ‘Fisheries of the Republic of China(Taiwan)’. Retrieved on October 20, 2017 from http://www.fa.gov.tw/en/FisheriesoROC/content.aspx?id=5&chk=4b287405-ead6-4244-ae05-0b0c67edad48&param=pn%3D1 5. Hellwig, Christian (2015, June 29). Deforestation impacting pharmaceutical industry. Retrieved from http://globalriskinsights.com/2015/06/deforestation-impacting-pharmaceutical-industry/ 6. (2015, May 12). Reducing deforestation in Malaysia’s Bornean states of Sarawak & Sabah,. Retrieved from http://www.wwf.org.my/media_and_information/updates__former_newsroom_main_/?uNewsID=19485 7. (2011, Feb). Brazil's Success in Reducing Deforestation. Retrieved from http://www.ucsusa.org/global_warming/solutions/stop- deforestation/brazils-reduction-deforestation.html#.WelUu1uCzIU 8. Plant Biodiversity. Retrieved from https://www.forestry.gov.uk/fr/urgc-7eec92 9. http://homeguides.sfgate.com/major-reasons-deforestation-malaysia-78510.html 10. Deforestation. Retrieved from https://www.nationalgeographic.com/environment/global-warming/deforestation/ 11. 10 ways to conserve biodiversity. Retrieve from https://greentumble.com/10-ways-to-conserve-biodiversity/ Journal 1. Pranab Pal D (2016) Managing Biodiversity with Emphasis on Sustainable Development, J Ecosys Ecograph S5:008. 2. Sustainable Wildlife Management CPW and Biodiversity, Wildlife FAO.