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Chapter 3

Values, Attitudes,
and Job Satisfaction
ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR
S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S
E L E VTWELFTH EDITION T I O N
E N T H E D I

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc.
All rights reserved.

WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS

PowerPoint Presentation
by Charlie Cook
VALUES
VALUES
 Values are those things that really matter to each of
us ... the ideas and beliefs we hold as special. Caring
for others, for example, is a value; so is the freedom
to express our opinions.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–2
 Values are deeply held beliefs about what is good,
right, and appropriate.
 Values are deep-seated and remain constant over
time.
 We accumulate our values from childhood based on
teachings and observations of our parents, teachers,
religious leaders, and other influential and powerful
people.
 Example: Jennifer felt stressed out and didn't know
what to do when her boss implied she should lie to a
client; honesty is one of Jennifer's most deeply held
values.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–3
VALUE SYSTEM
A HIERARCHY BASED ON A RANKING OF AN
INDIVIDUAL’S VALUE IN TERMS OF THEIR INTENSITY

4
VALUE SYSTEM
VALUE SYSTEM
Given below is a list of values, you are required to rank
them on a scale of 1-5 where 1 is the most important and
5 is the lowest important value as appear to you.
Punctuality
Self respect
Honesty
Cleanliness
Love
Assertiveness
Freedom
Happiness
Equality
_____________________
5
DO VALUES CHANGE???
•“NO”…They are relatively permanent
•They are formed in our earlier years of life

VALUES INFLUENCE OUR ATTITUDES
AND BEHAVIORS
DIFFERENCE IN VALUE SYSTEM
DETERMINES DIFFERENCES IN
ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR
6
3

Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Work Values
Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Work Values
Intrinsic Values
 Interesting work
 Challenging work
 Learning new
things
 Making important
contributions
 Responsibility and
autonomy
 Being creative

Extrinsic Values
 High pay
 Job security
 Job benefits
 Status in wider
community
 Social contacts
 Time with family
 Time for hobbies
Types of values
Types of values
 Milton Rokeach Value Survey
– Terminal values: desirable states of existence; the
goals which a person would like to achieve in his life.
for e.g.. Family security
– Instrumental values: preferable modes of behavior or
means of achieving one’s terminal values.
– For e.g.. Ambitious, hardworking.

8
Rokeach Value Survey
Rokeach Value Survey
 Terminal
– A comfortable life
– An exciting life
– A sense of
accomplishment
– A world at peace
– A world of beauty
– Equality
– Family security
– Freedom
– Happiness
– Inner harmony
– Love

 Instrumental
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–
–

Ambitious
Broad minded
Capable
Cheerful
Clean
Courageous
Forgiving
Helpful
Honest
Imaginative
Independent

9
Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures
Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures
– Hofstede surveyed more than 1116000 IBM employees
in 40 countries about their work related values.
– He found that managers and employees vary on five
value dimensions of national culture.

10
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK


1.
2.
3.
4.
5.

He surveyed in 40 countries (IBM employees)
Values across cultures (globalization)
Power distance – power is unequally distributed in
institutions
Individualism vs. Collectivism – individual act
rather than group
Achievement vs nurturing– assertiveness,
materialistic or relationships, concern for others.
Uncertainty avoidance – structured or
unstructured situations.
Long vs short term orientation – look to future or
past/present.
11
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK
HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK







China & West Africa scored high on PD
US scored low on PD
Asian countries high on collectivism.
Germany and Hong Kong high on achievement.
France and Russia high on UA
China had long-term whereas US had shortterm orientations.

12
ATTITUDES
ATTITUDES
 Attitudes are usually defined as a nature or tendency
to respond positively or negatively towards a certain
thing (idea, object, person, situation). They
encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions
and beliefs and are based upon our experiences

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–13
Attitudes
Attitudes

Attitudes
Evaluative
statements or
opinions
concerning
objects,
people, or
events.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

Cognitive component

The opinion or belief segment
of an attitude.

Affective Component

The emotional or feeling segment
of an attitude.

Behavioral Component

An intention to behave in a certain
way toward someone or something.

3–14
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance
Cognitive Dissonance
Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes
or between behavior and attitudes.
This is the feeling of uncomfortable tension which
comes from holding two conflicting thoughts in the
mind at the same time.
Desire to reduce dissonance
Desire to reduce dissonance
• •Importance of elements creating dissonance
Importance of elements creating dissonance
• •Degree of individual influence over elements
Degree of individual influence over elements
• •Rewards involved in dissonance
Rewards involved in dissonance
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–15
Examples of Cognitive Dissonance
Examples of Cognitive Dissonance
 Smoking is often postulated as an example of
cognitive dissonance because it is widely accepted
that cigarettes cause lung cancer, yet virtually
everyone wants to live a long and healthy life. In
terms of the theory, the desire to live a long life is
dissonant with the activity of doing something that will
most likely shorten one’s life.
 You tell your children to brush their teeth twice a day
but you don’t .
 You know cheating on your income tax is wrong but
you fudge the numbers every year.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–16
Self-Perception Theory
Self-Perception Theory
Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense
out of an action that has already occurred.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–17
Types of Attitudes
Types of Attitudes
Job Satisfaction
A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an
individual holds toward his or her job.
Job Involvement
Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and
considering performance important to self-worth.
Organizational Commitment
Identifying with a particular organization and its
goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the
organization.
© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–18
Types of Attitudes
Types of Attitudes
Perceived Organizational Support (POS)
Degree to which employees feel the organization cares
about their well-being.
Employee Engagement
An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and
enthusiasm for the organization.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–19
An Application: Attitude Surveys
An Application: Attitude Surveys
Attitude Surveys
Eliciting responses from employees through
questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs,
work groups, supervisors, and the organization.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–20
Sample Attitude Survey
Sample Attitude Survey

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–21
Attitudes and Workforce Diversity
Attitudes and Workforce Diversity
 Training activities that can reshape employee
attitudes concerning diversity:
– Participating in diversity training that provides for selfassessment and group discussions.
– Volunteer work in community and social serve centers
with individuals of diverse backgrounds.
– Exploring print and visual media that tell and portray
diversity issues.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–22
Job Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction
 Measuring Job Satisfaction
– Single global rating
– Summation score

 How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs?
– Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002
– Decline attributed to:
• Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter
deadlines
• Less control over work

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–23
How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction
How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction
Exit

Voice

Behavior directed toward
leaving the organization.

Active and constructive
attempts to improve
conditions.

Loyalty

Neglect

Passively waiting for
conditions to improve.

Allowing conditions to
worsen.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–24
Responses to Job Dissatisfaction
Responses to Job Dissatisfaction

Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues,” Journal
of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprinted with permission.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

E X H I B I T 3–5
E X H I B I T 3–5
3–25
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee
The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee
Performance
Performance
 Satisfaction and Productivity
– Satisfied workers are more productive.
– Worker productivity is higher in organizations with
more satisfied workers.

 Satisfaction and Absenteeism
– Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.

 Satisfaction and Turnover
– Satisfied employees are less likely to quit.
– Organizations take actions to retain high performers
and to weed out lower performers.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–26
Job Satisfaction and OCB
Job Satisfaction and OCB
 Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship
Behavior (OCB)
– Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are
trusting of the organization are more willing to engage
in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of
their job.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–27
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction
 Satisfied employees increase customer
satisfaction because:
– They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive.
– They are less likely to turnover which helps build longterm customer relationships.
– They are experienced.

 Dissatisfied customers increase employee job
dissatisfaction.

© 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved.

3–28

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attitude and job satisfaction

  • 1. Chapter 3 Values, Attitudes, and Job Satisfaction ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR S T E P H E N P. R O B B I N S E L E VTWELFTH EDITION T I O N E N T H E D I © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. WWW.PRENHALL.COM/ROBBINS PowerPoint Presentation by Charlie Cook
  • 2. VALUES VALUES  Values are those things that really matter to each of us ... the ideas and beliefs we hold as special. Caring for others, for example, is a value; so is the freedom to express our opinions. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–2
  • 3.  Values are deeply held beliefs about what is good, right, and appropriate.  Values are deep-seated and remain constant over time.  We accumulate our values from childhood based on teachings and observations of our parents, teachers, religious leaders, and other influential and powerful people.  Example: Jennifer felt stressed out and didn't know what to do when her boss implied she should lie to a client; honesty is one of Jennifer's most deeply held values. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–3
  • 4. VALUE SYSTEM A HIERARCHY BASED ON A RANKING OF AN INDIVIDUAL’S VALUE IN TERMS OF THEIR INTENSITY 4
  • 5. VALUE SYSTEM VALUE SYSTEM Given below is a list of values, you are required to rank them on a scale of 1-5 where 1 is the most important and 5 is the lowest important value as appear to you. Punctuality Self respect Honesty Cleanliness Love Assertiveness Freedom Happiness Equality _____________________ 5
  • 6. DO VALUES CHANGE??? •“NO”…They are relatively permanent •They are formed in our earlier years of life VALUES INFLUENCE OUR ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIORS DIFFERENCE IN VALUE SYSTEM DETERMINES DIFFERENCES IN ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOR 6
  • 7. 3 Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Work Values Intrinsic vs. Extrinsic Work Values Intrinsic Values  Interesting work  Challenging work  Learning new things  Making important contributions  Responsibility and autonomy  Being creative Extrinsic Values  High pay  Job security  Job benefits  Status in wider community  Social contacts  Time with family  Time for hobbies
  • 8. Types of values Types of values  Milton Rokeach Value Survey – Terminal values: desirable states of existence; the goals which a person would like to achieve in his life. for e.g.. Family security – Instrumental values: preferable modes of behavior or means of achieving one’s terminal values. – For e.g.. Ambitious, hardworking. 8
  • 9. Rokeach Value Survey Rokeach Value Survey  Terminal – A comfortable life – An exciting life – A sense of accomplishment – A world at peace – A world of beauty – Equality – Family security – Freedom – Happiness – Inner harmony – Love  Instrumental – – – – – – – – – – – Ambitious Broad minded Capable Cheerful Clean Courageous Forgiving Helpful Honest Imaginative Independent 9
  • 10. Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures Hofstede’s framework for assessing cultures – Hofstede surveyed more than 1116000 IBM employees in 40 countries about their work related values. – He found that managers and employees vary on five value dimensions of national culture. 10
  • 11. HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK   1. 2. 3. 4. 5. He surveyed in 40 countries (IBM employees) Values across cultures (globalization) Power distance – power is unequally distributed in institutions Individualism vs. Collectivism – individual act rather than group Achievement vs nurturing– assertiveness, materialistic or relationships, concern for others. Uncertainty avoidance – structured or unstructured situations. Long vs short term orientation – look to future or past/present. 11
  • 12. HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK HOFSTEDE’S FRAMEWORK       China & West Africa scored high on PD US scored low on PD Asian countries high on collectivism. Germany and Hong Kong high on achievement. France and Russia high on UA China had long-term whereas US had shortterm orientations. 12
  • 13. ATTITUDES ATTITUDES  Attitudes are usually defined as a nature or tendency to respond positively or negatively towards a certain thing (idea, object, person, situation). They encompass, or are closely related to, our opinions and beliefs and are based upon our experiences © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–13
  • 14. Attitudes Attitudes Attitudes Evaluative statements or opinions concerning objects, people, or events. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. Cognitive component The opinion or belief segment of an attitude. Affective Component The emotional or feeling segment of an attitude. Behavioral Component An intention to behave in a certain way toward someone or something. 3–14
  • 15. The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance The Theory of Cognitive Dissonance Cognitive Dissonance Any incompatibility between two or more attitudes or between behavior and attitudes. This is the feeling of uncomfortable tension which comes from holding two conflicting thoughts in the mind at the same time. Desire to reduce dissonance Desire to reduce dissonance • •Importance of elements creating dissonance Importance of elements creating dissonance • •Degree of individual influence over elements Degree of individual influence over elements • •Rewards involved in dissonance Rewards involved in dissonance © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–15
  • 16. Examples of Cognitive Dissonance Examples of Cognitive Dissonance  Smoking is often postulated as an example of cognitive dissonance because it is widely accepted that cigarettes cause lung cancer, yet virtually everyone wants to live a long and healthy life. In terms of the theory, the desire to live a long life is dissonant with the activity of doing something that will most likely shorten one’s life.  You tell your children to brush their teeth twice a day but you don’t .  You know cheating on your income tax is wrong but you fudge the numbers every year. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–16
  • 17. Self-Perception Theory Self-Perception Theory Attitudes are used after the fact to make sense out of an action that has already occurred. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–17
  • 18. Types of Attitudes Types of Attitudes Job Satisfaction A collection of positive and/or negative feelings that an individual holds toward his or her job. Job Involvement Identifying with the job, actively participating in it, and considering performance important to self-worth. Organizational Commitment Identifying with a particular organization and its goals, and wishing to maintain membership in the organization. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–18
  • 19. Types of Attitudes Types of Attitudes Perceived Organizational Support (POS) Degree to which employees feel the organization cares about their well-being. Employee Engagement An individual’s involvement with, satisfaction with, and enthusiasm for the organization. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–19
  • 20. An Application: Attitude Surveys An Application: Attitude Surveys Attitude Surveys Eliciting responses from employees through questionnaires about how they feel about their jobs, work groups, supervisors, and the organization. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–20
  • 21. Sample Attitude Survey Sample Attitude Survey © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–21
  • 22. Attitudes and Workforce Diversity Attitudes and Workforce Diversity  Training activities that can reshape employee attitudes concerning diversity: – Participating in diversity training that provides for selfassessment and group discussions. – Volunteer work in community and social serve centers with individuals of diverse backgrounds. – Exploring print and visual media that tell and portray diversity issues. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–22
  • 23. Job Satisfaction Job Satisfaction  Measuring Job Satisfaction – Single global rating – Summation score  How Satisfied Are People in Their Jobs? – Job satisfaction declined to 50.4% in 2002 – Decline attributed to: • Pressures to increase productivity and meet tighter deadlines • Less control over work © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–23
  • 24. How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction How Employees Can Express Dissatisfaction Exit Voice Behavior directed toward leaving the organization. Active and constructive attempts to improve conditions. Loyalty Neglect Passively waiting for conditions to improve. Allowing conditions to worsen. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–24
  • 25. Responses to Job Dissatisfaction Responses to Job Dissatisfaction Source: C. Rusbult and D. Lowery, “When Bureaucrats Get the Blues,” Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 15, no. 1, 1985:83. Reprinted with permission. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. E X H I B I T 3–5 E X H I B I T 3–5 3–25
  • 26. The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee The Effect of Job Satisfaction on Employee Performance Performance  Satisfaction and Productivity – Satisfied workers are more productive. – Worker productivity is higher in organizations with more satisfied workers.  Satisfaction and Absenteeism – Satisfied employees have fewer avoidable absences.  Satisfaction and Turnover – Satisfied employees are less likely to quit. – Organizations take actions to retain high performers and to weed out lower performers. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–26
  • 27. Job Satisfaction and OCB Job Satisfaction and OCB  Satisfaction and Organizational Citizenship Behavior (OCB) – Satisfied employees who feel fairly treated by and are trusting of the organization are more willing to engage in behaviors that go beyond the normal expectations of their job. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–27
  • 28. Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction Job Satisfaction and Customer Satisfaction  Satisfied employees increase customer satisfaction because: – They are more friendly, upbeat, and responsive. – They are less likely to turnover which helps build longterm customer relationships. – They are experienced.  Dissatisfied customers increase employee job dissatisfaction. © 2005 Prentice Hall Inc. All rights reserved. 3–28

Editor's Notes

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