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ARTICLE PUBLICATION
REVIEW AND RESEARCH
 Presenter : Miss. Shivani J. Patil
 M.Pharm1year(PQA)
 Sem: 2nd
 Roll no.: 05
 Date: 19th June 2021
 Guide : Mrs.Archana Dhole(Assistant
Professor )
Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy
Kasegaon,Sangli.
Content
 What is Research and Review Article?
 Difference
 Impact factor
 Research sites and Scientific Journal Publishers
 Review Article Publication
 Elements of a review article
 Preparing a review article in 18 steps
 Research Article Publication
 Structure of a research paper
 Twenty Steps to Writing a Research Article
2
What is Research and Review Article?
Research Article
o A research article is a primary
source...that is, it reports the methods
and results of an original study
performed by the authors. The kind of
study may vary (it could have been an
experiment, survey, interview, etc.), but
in all cases, raw data have been
collected and analyzed by the authors,
and conclusions drawn from the results
of that analysis.
Review Article
o A review article is a secondary source...it
is written about other articles, and does
not report original research of its own.
Review articles are very important, as
they draw upon the articles that they
review to suggest new research
directions, to strengthen support for
existing theories and/or identify
patterns among existing research
studies. For student researchers, review
articles provide a great overview of the
existing literature on a topic.
3
Difference
 Research Article
Experiment Analysis
Result interpretation
Components:
Abstract
Introduction
Material/Method
Result
Discussion
Conclusion
 Review Article
Compilation Analysis
Component:
Abstract
Background/Introduction
Discussion
Conclusion
4
5
Impact factor
• The impact factor (IF) is frequently used as an indicator of the
importance of a journal to its field. It was first introduced by
Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific
Information. The IF of a journal is not associated to the factors
like quality of peer review process and quality of content of the
journal, but is a measure that reflects the average number of
citations to articles published in journals, books, thesis, project
reports, newspapers, conference/seminar proceedings,
documents published in internet, notes, and any other
approved documents (by Indian Council of Medical Research
or similar body).
• Impact factor is commonly used to evaluate the relative
importance of a journal within its field and to measure the
frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has
been cited in a particular time period. Journal which publishes
more review articles will get highest IFs. Journals with higher
IFs believed to be more important than those with lower ones.
6
Research sites and Scientific Journal
Publishers
7
Review Article Publication
 What is a review article?
o A critical, constructive analysis of
the literature in a specific field
through summary, classification,
analysis, comparison.
o A scientific text relying on previously
published literature or data.
o New data from the author’s
experiments are not presented.
 What is the function of a review
article?
• To organize literature
• To evaluate literature
• To identify patterns and trends in the
literature
• To synthesize literature
• To identify research gaps and
recommend new research areas
8
 Which types of review articles exist?
1. Narrative review: Selected studies are compared and summarized on the basis of the author’s experience,
existing theories and models. Results are based on a qualitative rather than a quantitative level.
2. Best evidence review: A focus on selected studies is combined with systematic methods of study-
selection and result exploration.
3. Systematic review: Findings from various individual studies are analyzed statistically by strict procedures.
Meta-Analyses are used to pool the results of individual studies.
9
 Who is the audience of review articles?
-Experts in specific research areas
-Students or novice researchers
-Decision makers
 How long is a review article?
• Review articles vary considerably in length. Narrative reviews may range
between 8,000 and 40,000 words (references and everything else included).
• Systematic reviews are usually shorter with less than 10,000 words.
10
Elements of a review article
Title: between eight to 12 words
-Helping readers to decide whether they should read the
text or not
List of authors: Declare intellectual ownership of the
work
- provide contact information
Abstract: Informs about the main objectives and result of
the review article
-usually 200 to 250 words
Introduction: Provides information about the context,
indicates the motivation for the review, defines the focus, the
research question and explains the text structure
- Between 10% and 20% of the core text
Body: Main Part of the Review Article
- Methodological approaches
- Models or theories
- Extent of support for a given thesis
- Studies that agree with another versus studies that disagree
- Chronological order
- Geographical location
- 70 to 90% of the core text
Conclusions
- Answer the research question set in the introduction
- 5 to 10% of the core text References
- Shows interested readers how to find the literature mentioned in
the text.
- A range between 50-100 references
11
Preparing a review article in 18 steps
 1. Narrow the topic, define a few research questions or hypotheses
 2. Search for literature sources, refine topic and research questions during the search
 3. Read, evaluate, classify and make notes
 4. Redefine the focus and the research questions, define the take-home message
 5. Compose a preliminary title
 6. Find a structuring principle for the article (e.g. Chronological, subject matter,
experimental procedure)
 7. Prepare an outline, find headings for the sections in the text body
 8. Plan the content of each paragraph in the different sections
12
13
Research Article Publication
o From an old French word,
“sercher” - to seek or search
prefix “re” again - Research
o It is defined as “intensive search
with the purpose of becoming
certain”. It is a systematic
investigation into reality to gain
knowledge.
 Types of Research articles
-Book review
-Case report
-Clinical study
-Commentaries
-Conference materials
-Data notes
-Datasets
-Letters & Short Reports
-Posters & Slides
-Registered reports
-Research article
-Review article
-Software tool articles
14
Structure of a research paper
15
Section Purpose of section
Abstract To briefly introduce the reader to the aims of the study, the
methodology, results and findings.
Introduction
and/or thesis
statement
To state a clear overall purpose for the study, often framed in
a discussion of the need the research is satisfying.
To define the research question(s) of the study.
To give a very brief background of relevant theory and
practice for your topic
Literature Review To summarize what conclusions have been reached in the
research literature and whether different writers agree or not.
To highlight main issue and controversies around the problem.
Methodology To demonstrate that you are aware of the research methods
used to study this topic.
To explain and justify the method of data collection and
analysis.
16
Section Purpose of Section
Results To present the findings of your research in an orderly manner, using heading
planned in your methodology or headings arising from patterns found in the
research.
Discussion To comment on the trends/findings and show your understanding of what your
data suggests.
To highlight anything unexpected that came up.
Conclusion To sum up your findings and highlight the significance of the outcomes of your
study.
To discuss the limitations of your study and indicate where further research is
needed.
Reference To list alphabetically all the reference materials that have been cited in the text of
the report.
Appendices To present relevant details such as letters to participants and organizations.
To present details of questionnaires, surveys and other relevant instrument that you
developed for the purpose of the study.
To present relevant documents, e.g. Reports/policy/ historical documents.
17
Twenty Steps to Writing a Research Article
 1. Determine the authors.
 2. Start writing before the experiments are complete.
 3. Decide it is time to publish.
 4. Draft a title & abstract.
 5. (Re)examine the list of authors.
 6. Determine the basic format.
 7. Select the journal.
 8. Stock the sections of your paper.
 9. Construct the tables, figures, and legends
 10. Outline the paper.
18
 11. Write the first draft.
 12. Revise the manuscript.
 13. Check the references.
 14. Write the final title and abstract.
 15. Reread the journal's Instructions to Authors.
 16. Prepare the final illustrations.
 17. Get feedback on your manuscript and then revise your manuscript again.
 18. Submit the manuscript to the editor.
 19. Deal with reviewers' comments.
 20. Check the proofs.
19
THANK YOU
20

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Article publication

  • 1. ARTICLE PUBLICATION REVIEW AND RESEARCH  Presenter : Miss. Shivani J. Patil  M.Pharm1year(PQA)  Sem: 2nd  Roll no.: 05  Date: 19th June 2021  Guide : Mrs.Archana Dhole(Assistant Professor ) Rajarambapu College of Pharmacy Kasegaon,Sangli.
  • 2. Content  What is Research and Review Article?  Difference  Impact factor  Research sites and Scientific Journal Publishers  Review Article Publication  Elements of a review article  Preparing a review article in 18 steps  Research Article Publication  Structure of a research paper  Twenty Steps to Writing a Research Article 2
  • 3. What is Research and Review Article? Research Article o A research article is a primary source...that is, it reports the methods and results of an original study performed by the authors. The kind of study may vary (it could have been an experiment, survey, interview, etc.), but in all cases, raw data have been collected and analyzed by the authors, and conclusions drawn from the results of that analysis. Review Article o A review article is a secondary source...it is written about other articles, and does not report original research of its own. Review articles are very important, as they draw upon the articles that they review to suggest new research directions, to strengthen support for existing theories and/or identify patterns among existing research studies. For student researchers, review articles provide a great overview of the existing literature on a topic. 3
  • 4. Difference  Research Article Experiment Analysis Result interpretation Components: Abstract Introduction Material/Method Result Discussion Conclusion  Review Article Compilation Analysis Component: Abstract Background/Introduction Discussion Conclusion 4
  • 5. 5
  • 6. Impact factor • The impact factor (IF) is frequently used as an indicator of the importance of a journal to its field. It was first introduced by Eugene Garfield, the founder of the Institute for Scientific Information. The IF of a journal is not associated to the factors like quality of peer review process and quality of content of the journal, but is a measure that reflects the average number of citations to articles published in journals, books, thesis, project reports, newspapers, conference/seminar proceedings, documents published in internet, notes, and any other approved documents (by Indian Council of Medical Research or similar body). • Impact factor is commonly used to evaluate the relative importance of a journal within its field and to measure the frequency with which the “average article” in a journal has been cited in a particular time period. Journal which publishes more review articles will get highest IFs. Journals with higher IFs believed to be more important than those with lower ones. 6
  • 7. Research sites and Scientific Journal Publishers 7
  • 8. Review Article Publication  What is a review article? o A critical, constructive analysis of the literature in a specific field through summary, classification, analysis, comparison. o A scientific text relying on previously published literature or data. o New data from the author’s experiments are not presented.  What is the function of a review article? • To organize literature • To evaluate literature • To identify patterns and trends in the literature • To synthesize literature • To identify research gaps and recommend new research areas 8
  • 9.  Which types of review articles exist? 1. Narrative review: Selected studies are compared and summarized on the basis of the author’s experience, existing theories and models. Results are based on a qualitative rather than a quantitative level. 2. Best evidence review: A focus on selected studies is combined with systematic methods of study- selection and result exploration. 3. Systematic review: Findings from various individual studies are analyzed statistically by strict procedures. Meta-Analyses are used to pool the results of individual studies. 9
  • 10.  Who is the audience of review articles? -Experts in specific research areas -Students or novice researchers -Decision makers  How long is a review article? • Review articles vary considerably in length. Narrative reviews may range between 8,000 and 40,000 words (references and everything else included). • Systematic reviews are usually shorter with less than 10,000 words. 10
  • 11. Elements of a review article Title: between eight to 12 words -Helping readers to decide whether they should read the text or not List of authors: Declare intellectual ownership of the work - provide contact information Abstract: Informs about the main objectives and result of the review article -usually 200 to 250 words Introduction: Provides information about the context, indicates the motivation for the review, defines the focus, the research question and explains the text structure - Between 10% and 20% of the core text Body: Main Part of the Review Article - Methodological approaches - Models or theories - Extent of support for a given thesis - Studies that agree with another versus studies that disagree - Chronological order - Geographical location - 70 to 90% of the core text Conclusions - Answer the research question set in the introduction - 5 to 10% of the core text References - Shows interested readers how to find the literature mentioned in the text. - A range between 50-100 references 11
  • 12. Preparing a review article in 18 steps  1. Narrow the topic, define a few research questions or hypotheses  2. Search for literature sources, refine topic and research questions during the search  3. Read, evaluate, classify and make notes  4. Redefine the focus and the research questions, define the take-home message  5. Compose a preliminary title  6. Find a structuring principle for the article (e.g. Chronological, subject matter, experimental procedure)  7. Prepare an outline, find headings for the sections in the text body  8. Plan the content of each paragraph in the different sections 12
  • 13. 13
  • 14. Research Article Publication o From an old French word, “sercher” - to seek or search prefix “re” again - Research o It is defined as “intensive search with the purpose of becoming certain”. It is a systematic investigation into reality to gain knowledge.  Types of Research articles -Book review -Case report -Clinical study -Commentaries -Conference materials -Data notes -Datasets -Letters & Short Reports -Posters & Slides -Registered reports -Research article -Review article -Software tool articles 14
  • 15. Structure of a research paper 15
  • 16. Section Purpose of section Abstract To briefly introduce the reader to the aims of the study, the methodology, results and findings. Introduction and/or thesis statement To state a clear overall purpose for the study, often framed in a discussion of the need the research is satisfying. To define the research question(s) of the study. To give a very brief background of relevant theory and practice for your topic Literature Review To summarize what conclusions have been reached in the research literature and whether different writers agree or not. To highlight main issue and controversies around the problem. Methodology To demonstrate that you are aware of the research methods used to study this topic. To explain and justify the method of data collection and analysis. 16
  • 17. Section Purpose of Section Results To present the findings of your research in an orderly manner, using heading planned in your methodology or headings arising from patterns found in the research. Discussion To comment on the trends/findings and show your understanding of what your data suggests. To highlight anything unexpected that came up. Conclusion To sum up your findings and highlight the significance of the outcomes of your study. To discuss the limitations of your study and indicate where further research is needed. Reference To list alphabetically all the reference materials that have been cited in the text of the report. Appendices To present relevant details such as letters to participants and organizations. To present details of questionnaires, surveys and other relevant instrument that you developed for the purpose of the study. To present relevant documents, e.g. Reports/policy/ historical documents. 17
  • 18. Twenty Steps to Writing a Research Article  1. Determine the authors.  2. Start writing before the experiments are complete.  3. Decide it is time to publish.  4. Draft a title & abstract.  5. (Re)examine the list of authors.  6. Determine the basic format.  7. Select the journal.  8. Stock the sections of your paper.  9. Construct the tables, figures, and legends  10. Outline the paper. 18
  • 19.  11. Write the first draft.  12. Revise the manuscript.  13. Check the references.  14. Write the final title and abstract.  15. Reread the journal's Instructions to Authors.  16. Prepare the final illustrations.  17. Get feedback on your manuscript and then revise your manuscript again.  18. Submit the manuscript to the editor.  19. Deal with reviewers' comments.  20. Check the proofs. 19