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MODULE 1
Art as a Humanistic Discipline
Lesson 1.1. Understanding Humanities
Lesson 1.2. The Humanities in Western Civilization
Lesson 1.3. The Humanities and the Filipino Personhood (Pagkatao)
Lesson 1.4. The Filipino Concept ofArt
2
Chapter Overview
In the age of Instagram and Facebook, it is very easy to come across a work of
art which is made, remade, or reused to fit a certain purpose or value. You must
have pressed that “like” or “love” button as you deem a graphic post so relatable.
YouTube offers lots of tutorials and techniques for painting, calligraphy,
watercolor and others; lots of young artists have been exposed to a wide range of
art techniques because of them. Art and information is now within our reach.
There are so many sources available to learn from.
The downside of this quick information is that it is very scattered. We do not
know which to prioritize and are unsure if we are getting the right information.
Art Appreciation on the other hand is a discipline offered in an academic to
direct our often ambivalent feelings toward art which is a good starting point:
YOU.
3
4
Originally, the term "humanity" implied the distinguishing between human
beings and those considered to be less than human, whether that mean dogs,
goldfish, or the literal "less than humans" known as the barbarians and slaves.
But with the dawning of what we now refer to as the Middle Ages, an interest in
the divine arose and man began looking at what was greater than himself. And
with this recollection came the understanding that if some humans were
considered subhuman, then what must humans appear as to God? And thus a
new definition of "humanitas" began infiltrating the vernacular, one that implied
our certain mortality rather than superiority over one another. This new
definition and conception lead to what we now call "humanism" which
Panofsky describes as maintaining our rationality and freedom while still
keeping in mind our own fallibility and frailty. Thus, responsibility for ourselves
and tolerance to others.
5
With the rise of humanism in the Middle Ages, it is no
wonder that new artistic styles emerged everywhere and played
off one another versus the soon to come Renaissance which
radically shifts to looking at the past as something to be
reconstructed. The humanists learned and grew from what they
could study of the past but didn't emulate it. As Panofsky says
so beautifully, "For, if human existence could be thought of as a
means rather than an end, how much less could the records of
human activity be considered as value in themselves.”
1. Survey the Place of the Humanities in the History of Western and Eastern
Civilization.
2. Distinguish the Humanities and the Sciences as Fields of Learning.
REFERENCES
Readings
Panofsky, E. (1955). The History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Australia:
Penguin Books.
Dhakhwa, S. & Enriquez, S. (2008). The Relevance of Confucian Philosophy to Modern Concepts of Leadership and Followership
(2008). All Volumes (2001-2008). 5.http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/5
CANVAS Network. Module 1 - Introductions and Definitions. WHAT IS ART?
https://learn.canvas.net/courses/24/pages/m1-what-is-art?module_item_id=44378
Study.com. Christian Humanism: Definition & Role in the Renaissance. Chapter 1, Lesson 14.
https://study.com/academy/lesson/christian-humanism-definition-role-in-the-
renaissance.html#:~:text=Christian%20Humanism%20was%20a%20Renaissance,helped%20encourage%20the%20Protestant%2
0Reformation.
Video
Who Am I. (Dec. 4, 2010). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBcqria2wmg
What was crucifixion like? (April 15, 2017). https://youtu.be/V0gNIL5GAdE
The audacity of Christian art: the problem with Christ | National Gallery.
https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/introduction-cultures-religions-apah/christianity-
apah/v/christian-art-national-gallery
Lesson 1.1. Understanding Humanities
6
Among all these pictures, which do you think gives the right
description of the crucifixion of Christ? Explain your answer?
7
8
The Renaissance & Humanism
The word 'renaissance' literally means rebirth. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, Europe
experienced a rebirth of Greco-Roman culture, which had died out centuries before. Historians
call this time period of rebirth, the Renaissance. This Renaissance included a renewed interest
in Greco-Roman texts, a rekindled love of learning, an increased interest in understanding the
natural world, and the philosophy of humanism.
Humanism is an optimistic outlook emphasizing the goodness and success of humanity.
Before the Renaissance, Christian Europeans often viewed humanity as sinful creatures who
needed to be constantly mindful of their souls. During this new period of rebirth, however,
there was much more emphasis on the goodness of God's creation and the talents and skills God
had granted humanity.
9
The Northern Renaissance & Christian Humanism
The Renaissance started in Italy, which had always been very aware of its Greco-Roman heritage.
As the movement migrated north into places such as England, Germany, and Scandinavia, however,
some of the Greco-Roman aspects were downplayed. Instead, there was much more emphasis on the
understanding of Christianity, particularly early Christianity. What happened in the north is known as
the Northern Renaissance, and its version of humanism became known as Christian Humanism.
In Christianity, Jesus is understood to have both mortal and divine aspects to his being. Before the
Renaissance, Christian teachings focused primarily on the spiritual and divine aspects of their belief:
Jesus as divine, miracles, salvation, damnation, and so on. During the Northern Renaissance, however,
there was much more focus on Jesus the mortal man, including his teachings, relationships, and
experiences culminating with his execution via crucifixion. This ultimately affected many different
aspects of religious life in northern Europe.
One of the results of this focus on Jesus's mortal aspects was artwork that emphasized the
physical and emotional pain associated with the crucifixion. Previously, images of his death were
primarily about salvation through sacrifice, and artists depicted Jesus peacefully slumped over, as if
he was sleeping. Artists influenced by Christian Humanism, however, often depicted Jesus tightly
twisted in agony. Those witnessing his death are shown as wrought with grief rather than reflecting on
the joy of salvation.
How would you define ‘art’? For many people art is a specific thing; a painting, sculpture or
photograph, a dance, a poem or a play. It is all of these things, and more. They are mediums of
artistic expression. Webster’s New Collegiate dictionary defines art as “The conscious use of skill
and creative imagination especially in the production of aesthetic objects.” Yet art is much more
than a medium, or words on a page. It is the expression of our experience.
Art is uniquely human and tied directly to culture. It takes the ordinary and makes it
extraordinary. It asks questions about who we are, what we value, the meaning of beauty and the
human condition. As an expressive medium it allows us to experience sublime joy, deep sorrow,
confusion and clarity. It tests our strengths, vulnerabilities and resolve. It gives voice to ideas
and feelings, connects us to the past, reflects the present and anticipates the future. Along these
lines, art history, combined with anthropology and literature, are three main sources in
observing, recording and interpreting our human past. Visual art is a rich and complex subject
whose definition is in flux as the culture around it changes. Because of this, how we define art is
in essence a question of agreement. In this respect, we can look again to the dictionary’s
definition for an understanding of exactly what to look for when we proclaim something as ‘art’.
10
FRAMEWORKS AND PERSPECTIVES
Sciences HUMANITIES
Art
Creation
Artist
Practice
History
FIELDS OF LEARNING
Language Philosophy
ART
Our frail and fallible human bodies leave behind
frail and fallible records of our frail and fallible
lives oddly turning our inescapable mortality into
a kind of immortality for subsequent mortals to
humanistically or scientifically observe. Andso,
the duality we face regarding the definition of
"humanity" still remains.
The humanities actually compliment
the sciences and vice versa. It's only
that the exactness of science is a
mastery and the depth of the
humanities is wisdom.
KEY
CONCEPTS
11
ART
APPRECIATION
Spectator
Theory
THE
THE TWO GENERAL
FIELDS OF LEARNING
THE
HUMANITIES
SCIENCES
Deals with
natural,
physical
phenomena
Deals with
human
phenomena
12
SUBJECT-
KNOWER
PARADIGM FOR LEARNING
IN THE SCIENCES
OBJECT-
KNOWN
“Thescientistlearnsabout things in the world.”
SCIENTIFIC METHOD
13
PARADIGM FOR LEARNING IN THE
HUMANITIES
“Thehumanist learnsabout the self.”
SUBJECT-KNOWER = OBJECT-KNOWN
REFLEXIVE
METHOD
14
“Who am I?”
THE BASIC
QUESTION IN
THE HUMANITIES
https://www.
youtube.co
m
/watch?v=m
Bcqria2wmg
15
For various reasons cultural, political, economic, and ideological that the
norm of self-knowledge has come and gone with the tides through Western
history. Even if we had been constantly enjoined to achieve self-knowledge
for the 2,300 years since the time Socrates spoke, just as Sigmund Freud
said about civilization; that civilization is constantly being created anew and
everyone being born has to work their way up to being civilized being; so,
also the project of achieving self-knowledge is a project for every single new
member of our species. No one can be given it at birth. It’s not an
achievement you get for free like a high IQ or a prominent chin. Continuing
to beat that drum, to remind people of the importance of that, is something
we’ll always be doing.
SOCRATES
469-399 BC
“Knowthyself.”
“Withdraw into yourself truth dwells in the inner man.” AUGUSTINE,
WISDOM
THINKERS WHOSE THOUGHTS WERE THE BASIS
OF METHOD IN THE HUMANITIES
‘Know Thyself’ was carved into stone at
the entrance to Apollo’s temple at Delphi
in Greece, according to legend. Scholars,
philosophers, and civilizations have
debated this question for a long time.
Why have we not been able to find the
answer?
1
6
THE
SCIENCES
THE
HUMANITIES
KNOWLEDGE WISDOM
The scientist
becomes a
LEARNED
MAN.
The
humanist
becomes a
WISE MAN.
1
7
THALES OF MILETUS
(620-546 BC)
A Philosopher renowned as one of the legendary Seven
Wise Men, or Sophist, of antiquity. He is remembered
primarily for his cosmology based on water as the essence
of all matter, with Earth a flat disk floating on a vast sea.
“Ascientisttendsto knoweverything about the world
that heforgetsto knowanything about himself.”
The most outstanding aspects of Thales’s heritage
are: The search for knowledge for its own sake; the
development of the scientific method; the adoption of
practical methods and their development into general
principles; his curiosity and conjectural approach to the
questions of natural phenomena – In the sixth century
B.C.E., Thales asked the question, ‘What is the basic
material of the cosmos?’ The answer is yet to be
discovered.
1
8
A wise man once said,
“If you can revive the ancient and use it to understand the modern,
then you are worthy to be a teacher” (2:11, Marquis Zhang Analects
Version).
Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) was born a couple of centuries before
Socrates’ teachings on ethics and logic, and half a millennium before the
start of our modern calendar and the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. He
established a school with the explicit purpose of educating the next
generation for political leadership. He was the first great thinker of the
independent intellectual class, and is regarded as China’s first self-
conscious philosopher who can be historically verified. He is further
recognized as China’s first teacher, and his ideas have travelled beyond
its borders to influence Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and now Western
civilizations.
The philosophy of Confucius does not purport to lay out a formula
of how everyone should live. It is merely the way in which he, as a
particular person, chose to live his life.
“The Great Sage”-Wise Man of the
East
19
What is the basic answer to this
question?
“I am a human
being.”
Who am I? “Humanities”
20
REFERENCES
Readings
Panofsky, E. (1955). The History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline. Meaning in the
Visual Arts. Penguin Books.
Videos
Morelli, L. (March 7, 2014). TEDEd: Is there a difference between art and craft?
https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tVdw60eCnJI.
1. Examine the History of Art as a HumanisticDiscipline.
Lesson 1.2. The Humanities in Western Civilization
21
How many moral ideas can you
get from these pictures?
22
Have you ever watched something being made: a time-lapse of a building construction, a short
video on how to bake muffins, a potter spinning his wheel and pulling up day into the shape of a
vessel? There is something satisfying in seeing these processes and how things are created. One
can have a clue of the skill and set, materials, and methods required to get the task done. You call
it and art work.
The arts are usually considered as part of the humanities. These include visual arts such as
painting and sculpture, as well as performing arts such as theatre and dance, and literature. Other
humanities such as language are sometimes considered to be part of the arts, for example as the
language arts.
The study of humanities in western civilization can be traced back to ancient Greece, where
the humanities formed the basis of education for all citizens. In ancient Rome, there developed the
notion of the seven liberal arts; these included grammar, rhetoric, logic, music, geometry,
arithmetic, and astronomy.
23
The Relationship of Arts and Humanities
What comes to your mind when you hear the word humanities?
When you hear the word "humanities," what is the first thing that comes to mind? "Human
nature, people, relationships, understanding others.“
When you say Humanities, those are branches of knowledge that concern themselves with
human beings and their culture or with analytic and critical methods of inquiry derived from an
appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself.
Is humanities and arts are same?
Arts and humanities are considered as two of the oldest fields of knowledge available to man.
While art is seen as a more all-inclusive field, humanities, on the other hand, takes into
consideration a diverse and oftentimes unrelated set of disciplines from literature to political
history.
KEY
CONCEPTS
2
4
25
What is the importance of arts and humanities?
The humanities and the arts are central to all human cultures throughout time. Their study
can facilitate deeper intercultural understanding and lay the groundwork for a civically engaged
life. They can also prepare you to think critically, act creatively, and succeed in a rapidly
changing world.
Both interpret the human experience through words or non-verbal forms of expression. It's
true that the arts have more to do with the act of creation itself, whether through performance or
the physical production of works, while the humanities have to do more with research and critical
analysis
Why art is called as humanities?
The arts are usually considered as part of the humanities. These include visual arts such as
painting and sculpture, as well as performing arts such as theatre and dance, and literature. Other
humanities such as language are sometimes considered to be part of the arts, for example as the
language arts.
How the arts and humanities affect everyday life?
The humanities have practical applications for everyday life. They benefit people by
helping them to think about and to consider life's surprises and challenges before they happen
and by giving strength when they do happen. The humanities help us to make informed
decisions. The humanities help us answer big questions
How does art and humanities function in society?
Arts and humanities research is useful because it gives societies the capacity to do more
good things and improve the quality of life for more of its population.
26
LATIN
humanitas
ENGLISH
“humanity”
humanitas
barbaritas
divinitas
People in the state of
culture in civilized society
Savages in the state of
nature for survival
Gods in the state of
perfection in heaven
ToPanofsky,heconsiders“Artasa Humanistic Discipline”
Let us take a closer look on the meaning of
“HUMANITIES”
Classified in three state:
2
7
THE PLACE OF HUMANITIES IN
THE HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION
MEDIEVAL
RENAISSANCE
ANCIENT COSMOCENTRIC VIEW
PROTAGORAS: Man is the measure of all things.
GEOCENTRISM: Man is at the center of the universe.
MODERN
POSTMODERN
28
800 BC
300 AD
1400
1600
THEOCENTRIC VIEW
SCHOLASTICISM: Man is created in the image of God
Man is at the center of creation.
ANTHROPOCENTRIC VIEW
HUMANISM: Nothing is more wonderful than
man.
SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOCENTRIC VIEW
Man is a part of nature.
ECLECTIC VIEW
Man is a piece of everything.
HUMANITIES
HUMANITIES
HUMANITIES
ANCIENT IMAGE OF
COSMOCENTRIC MAN:
29
GEOCENTRIC THEORY
Earth (Man) is the center
of the universe.
Ptolemy
(100-170 AD)
Almagest
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
MEDIEVAL IMAGE
OF THEOCENTRIC MAN
Man is created
by God.
Escorial Beatus,
Illuminated Manuscript,
10th Century 30
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
RENAISSANCE IMAGE OF
MAN: ANTROPOCENTRIC
MAN:
Measure of all
things
Leonardo da Vinci
Vitruvian Man, 1490
31
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
Michelangelo, The Creation of Man
(Sistine Chapel Painting, 1512)
RENAISSANCE IMAGE OF
ANTHROPOCENTRIC MAN
The image of man is the
image of God. Man is the
measure of God.
3
2
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
Copernicus, On the
Revolution of Celestial
Bodies, 1542
33
HELIOCENTRIC THEORY:
Removed man from the
center of the universe
and suggested the view
of man was special in the
universe
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
The Evolution of Man
MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC-
TECHNOCENTRIC MAN
Man is a part of nature.
34
Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Turf, 1642
MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOCENTRIC MAN
The scientist is detached observer of the objectified man.
3
5
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
MODERN IMAGE OF
SCIENTIFIC-
TECHNOCENTRIC MAN
Man is dehumanized during
the industrial age.
Legaspi
Gadgets
1947
3
6
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
POSTMODERN IMAGE OF
ECLECTIC MAN
Man is a piece of everything.
3
7
Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different
periods of human existence.
Medio Cruz, Poleteismo,
from Kulo Exhibit 2011
INSTALLATION ART
HISTORY
Human events happening in the world
LANGUAGE
Written and oral forms of human communication
PHILOSOPHY
Human reason concerning reality
ART
Admiration (ART APPRECIATION) of human-made objects
Human creativity (ART CREATION) by which these objects
are made
HUMANISTIC DISCIPLINES is define:
3
8
ENGLISH is
called
“art”
LATIN is
called
“ars”
Defines as skillful production
or performance
ETYMOLOGY of the word ART
MINOR ART
Stone Cutter, Carpenter
LIBERAL ART
SERVILE ART
ARTIST
ARTISAN CRAFT
MAJOR ART
Architect, Sculptor
FINE ART
Professional &
Academic Artist
(The study of the sources and development of words)
ART
3
9
WESTERN CONCEPT ART
ACADEMIC Only schooled people are artists
Meant for the higher social class
Liberal art and servile art, high and
low art, major art and minor art or
craft, fine art and practical art, folk
art, indigenous art, popular art
ELITIST
HIERARCHICAL
40
MAJOR ART
 Made by artists and
 primarily concerned
with the form of
beauty
WESTERN
CLASSIFICATION OF THE ARTS
41
MINOR ART OR CRAFT
 Made by artisans
 Concerned with functionality
and usefulness of human-
made objects (artifacts)
THE 7 MAJOR ARTS
IN WESTERN CIVILIZATION
PAINTING
SCULPTURE
ARCHITECTURE
MUSIC
DANCE
DRAMA
LITERATURE
Visual
Performing
Linguistic
42
Ceramics
Weaving
Sewing
Handicraft
Carpentry
Masonry Stone
Cutting
Gardening
Cooking
MINOR ARTS: CRAFT
They were considered as
makers of:
43
Michelangelo Painting
in the Ceiling of
Sistine Chapel
1508-1512
Michelangelo took the
credit and was recognized
as the artist who made
this art and not the artisans
who helped him during the
time it was created
Example of Artist and Artisans:
4
4
Readings
Covar, P.(1992)
De Leon, F. (2015)
Guillermo, B. (2016)
Videos
Usapang Pinoy EPISODE
https://youtu.be/pV6Q9J61AfI
2: Ang Pagkakakilanlan ng Pagkataong Pilipino.
Usapang Pinoy: EPISODE 1 [Kahalagahan, Pinagmulan at Daloy ng Pagkataong Pilipino].
https://youtu.be/60rPA2xErrA
1. Relate the Western Concept of Humanities with the Filipino Notion of
“pagkatao.”
2. Compare and Contrast the Concepts of Art According to Western and
Filipino Thought.
REFERENCES
Lesson 1.3. The Humanities and the Filipino Personhood (Pagkatao)
45
Question: Based on the picture illustrations, how do you explain
“Madali ang maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.” 46
Ayon kay Covar (1992), “hangarin ng disiplinang antropolohiya na pag-aralan ang
likas na tao, kasama na rito ang pagdalumat (conceive/deep thought) ng pagkataong
Pilipino. Di gaya ng siyensya na may pretensyong panukat na unibersal.
Pagkatao at Katauhan
Ayon pa rin kay Covar, “May kasabihan ang mga Pilipino na: “Madali ang maging
tao; mahirap magpakatao.” Ang pagiging tao ay isang prosesong bayolohikal. Ang
pagpapakatao ay naaayon naman sa prosesong kultural. Ang salitang “tao” ay
pangngalan. Ito ay tumatanggap ng iba’t-ibang panlapi upang makapagsaad ng iba’t-
ibang kahulugan. Halimbawa: maka-tao, t-um-ao, tau-han. Ang ka-tau-han ay
nangangahulugan ng “kabasalan ng diwang taglay ng salitang-ugat,” i.e., tao. Sa
Ingles, ang salin ng katauhan ay “humanity.” Ayon kay Miranda, “humanhood.” Dahilan
dito, ang salitang “pagkatao” ay angkop na konsepto bilang “personhood” o pagiging
taong Pilipino. Ayon kay Santiago at Tiangco, ang pagka- “ay tumutukoy sa kalikasan
ng tao, hayop o bagay.” Ganito ang gamit ng pagka- sa pariralang “pagkataong
Pilipino,” i.e., Pilipinong tao.” 47
“HUMANITIES”
?
LATIN
humanitas
ENGLISH
“humanities”
FILIPINO
“pagpapakatao”
Mula sa “pagkatao”
“tao”
KEY
CONCEPTS
48
Biological:
Born as a human being
Act of being human
“personality”
Cultural:
Becoming a human being
Process of becoming human
“personhood”
KATAUHAN PAGKATAO
“Madaling maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.”
“P
AGP
AP
AKA
T
AO”
The process by which one
becomes a human being
COVAR’SFILIPINOANTHROPOLOGY
49
become a Filipino?
FILIPINO
PERSONHOOD How does a human being
PAGKATAO
can be likened into
a jar like the
Manunggul Jar,
890-710 BC, Tabon
Cave, Palawan
50
THE JAR AND THE
FILIPINO PERSONHOOD
LABAS
ulo
dibdib
LOOB
isip
damdamin
LALIM
kaluluwa budhi
Both came
from clay
51
LABAS NG PAGKATAO
Katawan (Physical)
kulay ng balat (maputi, maitim)
tindig (matangkad, andak)
ilong (matangos, pango)
dibdib (malapad, malaki)
LOOB NG PAGKATAO
Kalooban (Intellectual,
Emotional and Moral)
isip (matalino) ugali, asal
(mabuti)
LALIM NG PAGKATAO
Kaluluwa (Espiritual)
anito (banal)
52
NON-DUALISTIC RELATION OF
TERMS
LABAS
malapad ng noo
salubong ang kilay
malagkit ang tingin
maduming bibig
LOOB
matalino matapang
o galit umiibig
masamang magsalita
LALIM
malinis ang
kaluluwa
matuwid ang
budhi 53
NON-DUALISTIC RELATION IN
FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY
54
LABAS
hipo
pigil
dinig
tawa
saya
sarap
LOOB
dama
timpi
ulinig
tuwa
ligaya
ginhawa
THE“HUMANITIES”
IN FILIPINO CONCEPT
“P
AGP
AP
AKA
T
AO”
The process how a
human being
becomes a Filipino
FILIPINO
In the study of Humanities, as Pagpapakatao,
the students would discover and realize their
own identity as a Filipino.
ART
5
5
.
Filipe del Leon Jr. (2011)
“Definingthe Filipino throughthe Arts”
CULTURAL IDENTITY
“Theworldview andvalues,beliefssystems,
knowledge, skills and practices, core
principles andideassharedbya society”
FILIPINO
“Culturalidentity isa sine qua non for
becomingactive in the world…a sourceof social
empowerment. Rob a people of their
identity and they become passive, lost,
indolent,
uncreative and unproductive.” 56
Pre-Colonial Period
“The first objective of a colonizing power is to erase the
cultural memory of the conquered people, to induce a
collective amnesia about their past and supplant it with
the culture of the colonizers. In this lie the roots of
Filipino derivativeness and inferiority complex vis-a-vis
the West.”
(Before 1500’s)
Colonial Period
(1500-1950)
Post-Colonial Period
(1950 onwards) 57
Had our own cultural identity
Our identity destroyed by colonizers:
Westernization of Filipino Culture making us
alienated from our own
Reclamation, affirmation and definition of our
identify in our own terms
1.Alienation from Community
2.Alienation from Our Sources of Cultural Energy: Thinking
in Borrowed Forms and the Economics of Dependency
3.Alienation from Our Race: The Doña Victorina Syndrome:
4.Alienation from the Indigenous: Denigrating the Local
5.Alienation from the Land
6.Alienation from Being Filipino
7.Alienation from Sustainable Living
FORMS OF ALIENATION CAUSED BY
WESTERNIZATION OF FILIPINO CULTURE
WESTERN
CULTURE
(Standard)
FILIPINO
CULTURE
(Subordinated)
5
8
Some Recommendations for Developing a
Filipino and Humanistic Perspective
1.Heightening social consciousness and sense of responsibility to
the nation.
2.Promoting people participation, local genius, and cultural
diversity.
3.Promoting the local but thinking national or global: human
communities, not the state, are the ultimate actors in the
development process
4.Integrating the arts to social and cultural phenomena as lucid
mirrors of social consciousness.
59
WESTERN
CULTURE
(Standard)
FILIPINO
CULTURE
(Subordinated)
THE COMMUNAL CHARACTER OF PHILIPPINE
TRADITIONAL CULTURES AS REFLECTED IN THE ARTS
60
1.Integration of the arts with other values and functions
2.Unity of the arts
3.Art is integrated with everyday life and not regarded as a separate
activity.
4.Equality of opportunity for participation in the artistic and creative
process.
5.Flexibility of material, technical, and formal requirements
6.Use of available resources for artistic creation
7.Emphasis on the creative process rather than the finished
product
8.Simultaneity of conception and realization
FILIPINO
ARTS
BECOMING FILIPINO THROUGH THE ARTS:
The Process of Pagpapakatao
“Thearts canprovide usthe mostvivid images
of social relations and cultural values. They
are perhaps the most lucid symbolsof a
people’squality of beingor consciousness.
Contemplating the arts is like reflecting on
the psychic template of an artist or a cultural
community.” 61
REFERENCES
Readings
Covar, P. (1992)
De Leon, F. (2015)
Videos
Xiao Time. (2014). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3i8muLe9vss
Damian Domingo: Primer Pintor Filipino (2010). https://youtu.be/m1sPyGbz6T8
Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/MUeZuGfUUuo?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5
Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/rMSRrn1p_V4?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5
Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/kW6DU9IOe74?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5
TUKLAS: Sining Saysay - Philippine History in Art. (2018).https://youtu.be/ZN75VyLipIU
Preserving the Uniqueness of Philippine Culture. (2018).https://youtu.be/z1gfrrevD1A
1. Discover the Filipino Identity through the Arts.
2. Apply the Filipino Sense of Art in the Appreciation ofArt.
Lesson 1.4. The Filipino Concept ofArt
6
2
Amidst natural disasters, Filipinos are strong-
spirited people who continue to brave each
storm hand in hand. Whatever situation we are
in, we rise as one nation. Filipino Pride, as they
say, is "May angas. May yabang."
Ginebra San Miguel, also once
known as La Tondeña
Distillers, Inc. has become,
through the years, an iconic
fixture in the Filipino’s culture
of celebration, camaraderie
and tenacity.
Proudly Pinoy
We are a nation of possibilities. Filipinos are
generally innovative, strategic and imaginative.
Together with our innate adaptability, we can
adjust to any situation, make use of resources at
hand, and create something from nothing. 63
The phrase “Only in the Philippines” can be read in various ways – as an expression of pride in
what we feel are activities, attitudes, and aspirations that are uniquely Filipino; yet also as an
expression of frustration and exasperation about systems and situations that we know are corrupt,
unjust, or simply not good enough.
The answers have come in all shapes and colors. They come in the vibrant hues of parols that
point to our fascinating way of celebrating Christmas – over four months, starting in September; in the
curious ways we turn our plates when somebody leaves the table before one is finished with his or her
meal; in the image of a boxer as national hero who could, if imagination and votes meet, be the
country’s next president.
Good or bad, major or minor, these images collectively afford us a glimpse into the richness and
diversity of our culture. They also assure us that pride and frustration are not mutually exclusive
feelings toward our country and ourselves. Rather, they are two sides of the same coin; and both are
necessary elements to motivate us in steering our nation into a brighter, peaceful, and just future.
“ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINES”
6
4
Western
Concept
ART
Academic
Elitist
Hierarchical
ART
Filipino
Concept
Only schooled people are artists
Meant for the higher social class
High vs
major art vs
fine vs
low art craft
practical art folk
indigenous
Has no such Western
distinctions
KEY
CONCEPTS
6
5
Son of Chinese immigrants converted to
Christianity, but thought to be a noble Spanish
descent by the Spaniards so that they
commissioned him to paint
Engaged by a merchant to paint, in miniaturismo
style, albums of people wearing their daily costumes
Had a vision of making art more accessible to
the Filipinos (Indios)
Founded the first Art School in the
Philippines Escuela Dibujo y Pintura in
Tondo Manila in 1821
His patron was Sociedad Economica de
los Amigos del Pais
Professor and Director of the Philippine
Art Academy. The academy was closed
after his death producing Filipino artists
trained in Western artistic tradition
DAMIAN
DOMINGO
(1796-1834)
FATHER OF PHILIPPINE
PAINTING
EXAMPLES OF RENOWN FILIPINO ARTISTS
6
6
Domingo, Tipos del Pais, Water color of Filipinos in native costumes
6
7
JUAN LUNA (1857-1899)
Bachelorof Arts Degree, Ateneo Municipal de
Manila. Enrolled in Academy of Fine Arts, Manila
Went to Europe in 1877, and studied in Escuela de
Bellas Artes de San Fernando
Won gold medal in Exposicion Nacional de Bellas
Artes in 1884 for Spoliarium
Commissioned by Spanish government to do paintings
like La Batalla de Lepanto and El Pacto de Sangre
Arrested for murdering his wife and mother-in-
law, but was acquitted on grounds of crime of
passion.
ACADEMIC
WESTERNIZED
FILIPINO
PAINTER
6
8
Juan Luna, Spoliarium, 1884, Gold
Medal, Exposicion Nacional
NEOCLASSICAL
STYLE
Felix R. Hidalgo,
Las Virgines Cristiana
espuestas al
population, 1884,
Silver Medal,
Exposicion Nacional
6
9
RIZAL
’S
SPEECH
“…. In the history of mankind there are names which in themselves
signify an achievement…. To such belong the names of Luna and
Hidalgo: their splendor illuminates two extremes of the globe-the
Orient and the Occident, Spain and the Philippines. As I utter them, I
seem to see two
luminous arches that rise from either region to blend there on
high…to unite two peoples with eternal bonds; two peoples whom
the seas and space vainly separate; two peoples among whom do
not germinate the seeds of disunion blindly sown by men and their
despotism. Luna and Hidalgo are the pride of Spain as of the
Philippines- though born in the Philippines, they might have been
born in Spain, for genius has no country; genius bursts forth
everywhere….”
Winning the exposition had proven that Filipinos were equal with the
Spaniards, so that the Filipinos deserve the recognition of other
people in the world with equal dignity and respect.
70
Luna, España y
Filipinas
1886
One positive way of looking at Filipino
identity in the arts is to see Philippine Art as
integrated in Western Art, and these two
traditions are uniting and harmonizing with
one another.
Philippine Western Art
Art
71
Tolentino
Bonifacio
Monument
1933
NEOCLASSICISM
Amorsolo, Planting Rice
ROMANTIC REALISM
RENAISSANCE ART
IMPRESSIONISM
Manansala,
Marketscene
TRANSPARENT
CUBISM
Lamaroza Ecology
Series 1978
72
SURREALISM
Joya
Karate
ACTION
PAINTING
ABSTRACT
EXPRESSIONISM
Gus Albor,
Upward
Duality
73
COLOR FIELD
PAINTING
Tinalak,Tiboli Art
Examples of Filipino Indigenous Arts Embedded in our Culture
Basey, Art of Colorful Mats from
Samar-Leyte
Pastillas, Wrapper Art of
Pampanga and Bulacan
Vinta, Badjao Art
Sarimanok Design, Maranao
Art
Okir, Maranao Art
74
Torogan, Maranao Art Maranao Brassware Art Burnay Jars of Ilocos
PASIKING, Ifugao Native
Backpack
Ling Ling O,
Art of the Cordillera
Group 75
Bulul, Igorot Art
COLORFUL ARTS
made of capiz
shells with twikling
light design
PAHIYAS, ART OF LUCBAN
QUEZON
Taka Art of Paete,
Laguna
JEEPNEY
ART
THE COLORFUL ART
OF THE
THE COLORFUL ART OF TRICYCLE
DESIGN 76
PHILIPPINE
COLORFUL PHILIPPINE ICE
CREAM CART
Laji of the Ivatan is literature and
music
Pasyon is literature, and pabasa is
music
Senakulo is a theater
art
7
7
“dayaw”
Binisaya
word that
means
good,
valuable,
superior or
beautiful
Video
1.3
78
https://youtu.be/
MU
eZuGfUUuo?list
=P LEU-
B_4w9FJNJ5Id
RPIt U-
U4jl9E_2XN5
https://youtu.be/
rM
SRrn1p_V4?list
=PL EU-
B_4w9FJNJ5Id
RPIt U-
U4jl9E_2XN5
https://youtu.be/
kW
6DU9IOe74?list
=P LEU-
B_4w9FJNJ5Id
RPIt U-
U4jl9E_2XN5
https://yo
ut
u.be/ZN
75
VyLipIU
https://yo
ut
u.be/z1g
frr
evD1A
“The principle of cultural identity does not mean that
cultures cannot be criticized. If all cultures on earth are to
survive, most of them have to change some of their beliefs
and practices in order to become compatible with one
another” (Felipe, 2011).
The Philippine culture has to be dynamic in its relation with
other cultures in the world. By harmonizing the Western and
the Filipino concepts of at and its practice, a truly Philippine
identity in the arts would emerge out of the shared cultural
universe, not only of our own people, but of the humanity as a
whole
FILIPINO IDENTITY WESTERN
79

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Art as a humanistic discipline.pptx

  • 1. 1
  • 2. MODULE 1 Art as a Humanistic Discipline Lesson 1.1. Understanding Humanities Lesson 1.2. The Humanities in Western Civilization Lesson 1.3. The Humanities and the Filipino Personhood (Pagkatao) Lesson 1.4. The Filipino Concept ofArt 2
  • 3. Chapter Overview In the age of Instagram and Facebook, it is very easy to come across a work of art which is made, remade, or reused to fit a certain purpose or value. You must have pressed that “like” or “love” button as you deem a graphic post so relatable. YouTube offers lots of tutorials and techniques for painting, calligraphy, watercolor and others; lots of young artists have been exposed to a wide range of art techniques because of them. Art and information is now within our reach. There are so many sources available to learn from. The downside of this quick information is that it is very scattered. We do not know which to prioritize and are unsure if we are getting the right information. Art Appreciation on the other hand is a discipline offered in an academic to direct our often ambivalent feelings toward art which is a good starting point: YOU. 3
  • 4. 4 Originally, the term "humanity" implied the distinguishing between human beings and those considered to be less than human, whether that mean dogs, goldfish, or the literal "less than humans" known as the barbarians and slaves. But with the dawning of what we now refer to as the Middle Ages, an interest in the divine arose and man began looking at what was greater than himself. And with this recollection came the understanding that if some humans were considered subhuman, then what must humans appear as to God? And thus a new definition of "humanitas" began infiltrating the vernacular, one that implied our certain mortality rather than superiority over one another. This new definition and conception lead to what we now call "humanism" which Panofsky describes as maintaining our rationality and freedom while still keeping in mind our own fallibility and frailty. Thus, responsibility for ourselves and tolerance to others.
  • 5. 5 With the rise of humanism in the Middle Ages, it is no wonder that new artistic styles emerged everywhere and played off one another versus the soon to come Renaissance which radically shifts to looking at the past as something to be reconstructed. The humanists learned and grew from what they could study of the past but didn't emulate it. As Panofsky says so beautifully, "For, if human existence could be thought of as a means rather than an end, how much less could the records of human activity be considered as value in themselves.”
  • 6. 1. Survey the Place of the Humanities in the History of Western and Eastern Civilization. 2. Distinguish the Humanities and the Sciences as Fields of Learning. REFERENCES Readings Panofsky, E. (1955). The History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Australia: Penguin Books. Dhakhwa, S. & Enriquez, S. (2008). The Relevance of Confucian Philosophy to Modern Concepts of Leadership and Followership (2008). All Volumes (2001-2008). 5.http://digitalcommons.unf.edu/ojii_volumes/5 CANVAS Network. Module 1 - Introductions and Definitions. WHAT IS ART? https://learn.canvas.net/courses/24/pages/m1-what-is-art?module_item_id=44378 Study.com. Christian Humanism: Definition & Role in the Renaissance. Chapter 1, Lesson 14. https://study.com/academy/lesson/christian-humanism-definition-role-in-the- renaissance.html#:~:text=Christian%20Humanism%20was%20a%20Renaissance,helped%20encourage%20the%20Protestant%2 0Reformation. Video Who Am I. (Dec. 4, 2010). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mBcqria2wmg What was crucifixion like? (April 15, 2017). https://youtu.be/V0gNIL5GAdE The audacity of Christian art: the problem with Christ | National Gallery. https://www.khanacademy.org/humanities/ap-art-history/introduction-cultures-religions-apah/christianity- apah/v/christian-art-national-gallery Lesson 1.1. Understanding Humanities 6
  • 7. Among all these pictures, which do you think gives the right description of the crucifixion of Christ? Explain your answer? 7
  • 8. 8 The Renaissance & Humanism The word 'renaissance' literally means rebirth. Between the 14th and 16th centuries, Europe experienced a rebirth of Greco-Roman culture, which had died out centuries before. Historians call this time period of rebirth, the Renaissance. This Renaissance included a renewed interest in Greco-Roman texts, a rekindled love of learning, an increased interest in understanding the natural world, and the philosophy of humanism. Humanism is an optimistic outlook emphasizing the goodness and success of humanity. Before the Renaissance, Christian Europeans often viewed humanity as sinful creatures who needed to be constantly mindful of their souls. During this new period of rebirth, however, there was much more emphasis on the goodness of God's creation and the talents and skills God had granted humanity.
  • 9. 9 The Northern Renaissance & Christian Humanism The Renaissance started in Italy, which had always been very aware of its Greco-Roman heritage. As the movement migrated north into places such as England, Germany, and Scandinavia, however, some of the Greco-Roman aspects were downplayed. Instead, there was much more emphasis on the understanding of Christianity, particularly early Christianity. What happened in the north is known as the Northern Renaissance, and its version of humanism became known as Christian Humanism. In Christianity, Jesus is understood to have both mortal and divine aspects to his being. Before the Renaissance, Christian teachings focused primarily on the spiritual and divine aspects of their belief: Jesus as divine, miracles, salvation, damnation, and so on. During the Northern Renaissance, however, there was much more focus on Jesus the mortal man, including his teachings, relationships, and experiences culminating with his execution via crucifixion. This ultimately affected many different aspects of religious life in northern Europe. One of the results of this focus on Jesus's mortal aspects was artwork that emphasized the physical and emotional pain associated with the crucifixion. Previously, images of his death were primarily about salvation through sacrifice, and artists depicted Jesus peacefully slumped over, as if he was sleeping. Artists influenced by Christian Humanism, however, often depicted Jesus tightly twisted in agony. Those witnessing his death are shown as wrought with grief rather than reflecting on the joy of salvation.
  • 10. How would you define ‘art’? For many people art is a specific thing; a painting, sculpture or photograph, a dance, a poem or a play. It is all of these things, and more. They are mediums of artistic expression. Webster’s New Collegiate dictionary defines art as “The conscious use of skill and creative imagination especially in the production of aesthetic objects.” Yet art is much more than a medium, or words on a page. It is the expression of our experience. Art is uniquely human and tied directly to culture. It takes the ordinary and makes it extraordinary. It asks questions about who we are, what we value, the meaning of beauty and the human condition. As an expressive medium it allows us to experience sublime joy, deep sorrow, confusion and clarity. It tests our strengths, vulnerabilities and resolve. It gives voice to ideas and feelings, connects us to the past, reflects the present and anticipates the future. Along these lines, art history, combined with anthropology and literature, are three main sources in observing, recording and interpreting our human past. Visual art is a rich and complex subject whose definition is in flux as the culture around it changes. Because of this, how we define art is in essence a question of agreement. In this respect, we can look again to the dictionary’s definition for an understanding of exactly what to look for when we proclaim something as ‘art’. 10
  • 11. FRAMEWORKS AND PERSPECTIVES Sciences HUMANITIES Art Creation Artist Practice History FIELDS OF LEARNING Language Philosophy ART Our frail and fallible human bodies leave behind frail and fallible records of our frail and fallible lives oddly turning our inescapable mortality into a kind of immortality for subsequent mortals to humanistically or scientifically observe. Andso, the duality we face regarding the definition of "humanity" still remains. The humanities actually compliment the sciences and vice versa. It's only that the exactness of science is a mastery and the depth of the humanities is wisdom. KEY CONCEPTS 11 ART APPRECIATION Spectator Theory
  • 12. THE THE TWO GENERAL FIELDS OF LEARNING THE HUMANITIES SCIENCES Deals with natural, physical phenomena Deals with human phenomena 12
  • 13. SUBJECT- KNOWER PARADIGM FOR LEARNING IN THE SCIENCES OBJECT- KNOWN “Thescientistlearnsabout things in the world.” SCIENTIFIC METHOD 13
  • 14. PARADIGM FOR LEARNING IN THE HUMANITIES “Thehumanist learnsabout the self.” SUBJECT-KNOWER = OBJECT-KNOWN REFLEXIVE METHOD 14
  • 15. “Who am I?” THE BASIC QUESTION IN THE HUMANITIES https://www. youtube.co m /watch?v=m Bcqria2wmg 15
  • 16. For various reasons cultural, political, economic, and ideological that the norm of self-knowledge has come and gone with the tides through Western history. Even if we had been constantly enjoined to achieve self-knowledge for the 2,300 years since the time Socrates spoke, just as Sigmund Freud said about civilization; that civilization is constantly being created anew and everyone being born has to work their way up to being civilized being; so, also the project of achieving self-knowledge is a project for every single new member of our species. No one can be given it at birth. It’s not an achievement you get for free like a high IQ or a prominent chin. Continuing to beat that drum, to remind people of the importance of that, is something we’ll always be doing. SOCRATES 469-399 BC “Knowthyself.” “Withdraw into yourself truth dwells in the inner man.” AUGUSTINE, WISDOM THINKERS WHOSE THOUGHTS WERE THE BASIS OF METHOD IN THE HUMANITIES ‘Know Thyself’ was carved into stone at the entrance to Apollo’s temple at Delphi in Greece, according to legend. Scholars, philosophers, and civilizations have debated this question for a long time. Why have we not been able to find the answer? 1 6
  • 17. THE SCIENCES THE HUMANITIES KNOWLEDGE WISDOM The scientist becomes a LEARNED MAN. The humanist becomes a WISE MAN. 1 7
  • 18. THALES OF MILETUS (620-546 BC) A Philosopher renowned as one of the legendary Seven Wise Men, or Sophist, of antiquity. He is remembered primarily for his cosmology based on water as the essence of all matter, with Earth a flat disk floating on a vast sea. “Ascientisttendsto knoweverything about the world that heforgetsto knowanything about himself.” The most outstanding aspects of Thales’s heritage are: The search for knowledge for its own sake; the development of the scientific method; the adoption of practical methods and their development into general principles; his curiosity and conjectural approach to the questions of natural phenomena – In the sixth century B.C.E., Thales asked the question, ‘What is the basic material of the cosmos?’ The answer is yet to be discovered. 1 8
  • 19. A wise man once said, “If you can revive the ancient and use it to understand the modern, then you are worthy to be a teacher” (2:11, Marquis Zhang Analects Version). Confucius (551-479 B.C.E.) was born a couple of centuries before Socrates’ teachings on ethics and logic, and half a millennium before the start of our modern calendar and the birth of Jesus of Nazareth. He established a school with the explicit purpose of educating the next generation for political leadership. He was the first great thinker of the independent intellectual class, and is regarded as China’s first self- conscious philosopher who can be historically verified. He is further recognized as China’s first teacher, and his ideas have travelled beyond its borders to influence Japan, Korea, Vietnam, and now Western civilizations. The philosophy of Confucius does not purport to lay out a formula of how everyone should live. It is merely the way in which he, as a particular person, chose to live his life. “The Great Sage”-Wise Man of the East 19
  • 20. What is the basic answer to this question? “I am a human being.” Who am I? “Humanities” 20
  • 21. REFERENCES Readings Panofsky, E. (1955). The History of Art as a Humanistic Discipline. Meaning in the Visual Arts. Penguin Books. Videos Morelli, L. (March 7, 2014). TEDEd: Is there a difference between art and craft? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tVdw60eCnJI. 1. Examine the History of Art as a HumanisticDiscipline. Lesson 1.2. The Humanities in Western Civilization 21
  • 22. How many moral ideas can you get from these pictures? 22
  • 23. Have you ever watched something being made: a time-lapse of a building construction, a short video on how to bake muffins, a potter spinning his wheel and pulling up day into the shape of a vessel? There is something satisfying in seeing these processes and how things are created. One can have a clue of the skill and set, materials, and methods required to get the task done. You call it and art work. The arts are usually considered as part of the humanities. These include visual arts such as painting and sculpture, as well as performing arts such as theatre and dance, and literature. Other humanities such as language are sometimes considered to be part of the arts, for example as the language arts. The study of humanities in western civilization can be traced back to ancient Greece, where the humanities formed the basis of education for all citizens. In ancient Rome, there developed the notion of the seven liberal arts; these included grammar, rhetoric, logic, music, geometry, arithmetic, and astronomy. 23
  • 24. The Relationship of Arts and Humanities What comes to your mind when you hear the word humanities? When you hear the word "humanities," what is the first thing that comes to mind? "Human nature, people, relationships, understanding others.“ When you say Humanities, those are branches of knowledge that concern themselves with human beings and their culture or with analytic and critical methods of inquiry derived from an appreciation of human values and of the unique ability of the human spirit to express itself. Is humanities and arts are same? Arts and humanities are considered as two of the oldest fields of knowledge available to man. While art is seen as a more all-inclusive field, humanities, on the other hand, takes into consideration a diverse and oftentimes unrelated set of disciplines from literature to political history. KEY CONCEPTS 2 4
  • 25. 25 What is the importance of arts and humanities? The humanities and the arts are central to all human cultures throughout time. Their study can facilitate deeper intercultural understanding and lay the groundwork for a civically engaged life. They can also prepare you to think critically, act creatively, and succeed in a rapidly changing world. Both interpret the human experience through words or non-verbal forms of expression. It's true that the arts have more to do with the act of creation itself, whether through performance or the physical production of works, while the humanities have to do more with research and critical analysis Why art is called as humanities? The arts are usually considered as part of the humanities. These include visual arts such as painting and sculpture, as well as performing arts such as theatre and dance, and literature. Other humanities such as language are sometimes considered to be part of the arts, for example as the language arts.
  • 26. How the arts and humanities affect everyday life? The humanities have practical applications for everyday life. They benefit people by helping them to think about and to consider life's surprises and challenges before they happen and by giving strength when they do happen. The humanities help us to make informed decisions. The humanities help us answer big questions How does art and humanities function in society? Arts and humanities research is useful because it gives societies the capacity to do more good things and improve the quality of life for more of its population. 26
  • 27. LATIN humanitas ENGLISH “humanity” humanitas barbaritas divinitas People in the state of culture in civilized society Savages in the state of nature for survival Gods in the state of perfection in heaven ToPanofsky,heconsiders“Artasa Humanistic Discipline” Let us take a closer look on the meaning of “HUMANITIES” Classified in three state: 2 7
  • 28. THE PLACE OF HUMANITIES IN THE HISTORY OF WESTERN CIVILIZATION MEDIEVAL RENAISSANCE ANCIENT COSMOCENTRIC VIEW PROTAGORAS: Man is the measure of all things. GEOCENTRISM: Man is at the center of the universe. MODERN POSTMODERN 28 800 BC 300 AD 1400 1600 THEOCENTRIC VIEW SCHOLASTICISM: Man is created in the image of God Man is at the center of creation. ANTHROPOCENTRIC VIEW HUMANISM: Nothing is more wonderful than man. SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOCENTRIC VIEW Man is a part of nature. ECLECTIC VIEW Man is a piece of everything. HUMANITIES HUMANITIES HUMANITIES
  • 29. ANCIENT IMAGE OF COSMOCENTRIC MAN: 29 GEOCENTRIC THEORY Earth (Man) is the center of the universe. Ptolemy (100-170 AD) Almagest Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence.
  • 30. MEDIEVAL IMAGE OF THEOCENTRIC MAN Man is created by God. Escorial Beatus, Illuminated Manuscript, 10th Century 30 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence.
  • 31. RENAISSANCE IMAGE OF MAN: ANTROPOCENTRIC MAN: Measure of all things Leonardo da Vinci Vitruvian Man, 1490 31 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence.
  • 32. Michelangelo, The Creation of Man (Sistine Chapel Painting, 1512) RENAISSANCE IMAGE OF ANTHROPOCENTRIC MAN The image of man is the image of God. Man is the measure of God. 3 2 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence.
  • 33. Copernicus, On the Revolution of Celestial Bodies, 1542 33 HELIOCENTRIC THEORY: Removed man from the center of the universe and suggested the view of man was special in the universe Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence.
  • 34. The Evolution of Man MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC- TECHNOCENTRIC MAN Man is a part of nature. 34
  • 35. Rembrandt, The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Turf, 1642 MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC-TECHNOCENTRIC MAN The scientist is detached observer of the objectified man. 3 5 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence.
  • 36. MODERN IMAGE OF SCIENTIFIC- TECHNOCENTRIC MAN Man is dehumanized during the industrial age. Legaspi Gadgets 1947 3 6 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence.
  • 37. POSTMODERN IMAGE OF ECLECTIC MAN Man is a piece of everything. 3 7 Expressions of their beliefs through arts varies from different periods of human existence. Medio Cruz, Poleteismo, from Kulo Exhibit 2011 INSTALLATION ART
  • 38. HISTORY Human events happening in the world LANGUAGE Written and oral forms of human communication PHILOSOPHY Human reason concerning reality ART Admiration (ART APPRECIATION) of human-made objects Human creativity (ART CREATION) by which these objects are made HUMANISTIC DISCIPLINES is define: 3 8
  • 39. ENGLISH is called “art” LATIN is called “ars” Defines as skillful production or performance ETYMOLOGY of the word ART MINOR ART Stone Cutter, Carpenter LIBERAL ART SERVILE ART ARTIST ARTISAN CRAFT MAJOR ART Architect, Sculptor FINE ART Professional & Academic Artist (The study of the sources and development of words) ART 3 9
  • 40. WESTERN CONCEPT ART ACADEMIC Only schooled people are artists Meant for the higher social class Liberal art and servile art, high and low art, major art and minor art or craft, fine art and practical art, folk art, indigenous art, popular art ELITIST HIERARCHICAL 40
  • 41. MAJOR ART  Made by artists and  primarily concerned with the form of beauty WESTERN CLASSIFICATION OF THE ARTS 41 MINOR ART OR CRAFT  Made by artisans  Concerned with functionality and usefulness of human- made objects (artifacts)
  • 42. THE 7 MAJOR ARTS IN WESTERN CIVILIZATION PAINTING SCULPTURE ARCHITECTURE MUSIC DANCE DRAMA LITERATURE Visual Performing Linguistic 42
  • 44. Michelangelo Painting in the Ceiling of Sistine Chapel 1508-1512 Michelangelo took the credit and was recognized as the artist who made this art and not the artisans who helped him during the time it was created Example of Artist and Artisans: 4 4
  • 45. Readings Covar, P.(1992) De Leon, F. (2015) Guillermo, B. (2016) Videos Usapang Pinoy EPISODE https://youtu.be/pV6Q9J61AfI 2: Ang Pagkakakilanlan ng Pagkataong Pilipino. Usapang Pinoy: EPISODE 1 [Kahalagahan, Pinagmulan at Daloy ng Pagkataong Pilipino]. https://youtu.be/60rPA2xErrA 1. Relate the Western Concept of Humanities with the Filipino Notion of “pagkatao.” 2. Compare and Contrast the Concepts of Art According to Western and Filipino Thought. REFERENCES Lesson 1.3. The Humanities and the Filipino Personhood (Pagkatao) 45
  • 46. Question: Based on the picture illustrations, how do you explain “Madali ang maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.” 46
  • 47. Ayon kay Covar (1992), “hangarin ng disiplinang antropolohiya na pag-aralan ang likas na tao, kasama na rito ang pagdalumat (conceive/deep thought) ng pagkataong Pilipino. Di gaya ng siyensya na may pretensyong panukat na unibersal. Pagkatao at Katauhan Ayon pa rin kay Covar, “May kasabihan ang mga Pilipino na: “Madali ang maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.” Ang pagiging tao ay isang prosesong bayolohikal. Ang pagpapakatao ay naaayon naman sa prosesong kultural. Ang salitang “tao” ay pangngalan. Ito ay tumatanggap ng iba’t-ibang panlapi upang makapagsaad ng iba’t- ibang kahulugan. Halimbawa: maka-tao, t-um-ao, tau-han. Ang ka-tau-han ay nangangahulugan ng “kabasalan ng diwang taglay ng salitang-ugat,” i.e., tao. Sa Ingles, ang salin ng katauhan ay “humanity.” Ayon kay Miranda, “humanhood.” Dahilan dito, ang salitang “pagkatao” ay angkop na konsepto bilang “personhood” o pagiging taong Pilipino. Ayon kay Santiago at Tiangco, ang pagka- “ay tumutukoy sa kalikasan ng tao, hayop o bagay.” Ganito ang gamit ng pagka- sa pariralang “pagkataong Pilipino,” i.e., Pilipinong tao.” 47
  • 49. Biological: Born as a human being Act of being human “personality” Cultural: Becoming a human being Process of becoming human “personhood” KATAUHAN PAGKATAO “Madaling maging tao; mahirap magpakatao.” “P AGP AP AKA T AO” The process by which one becomes a human being COVAR’SFILIPINOANTHROPOLOGY 49
  • 50. become a Filipino? FILIPINO PERSONHOOD How does a human being PAGKATAO can be likened into a jar like the Manunggul Jar, 890-710 BC, Tabon Cave, Palawan 50
  • 51. THE JAR AND THE FILIPINO PERSONHOOD LABAS ulo dibdib LOOB isip damdamin LALIM kaluluwa budhi Both came from clay 51
  • 52. LABAS NG PAGKATAO Katawan (Physical) kulay ng balat (maputi, maitim) tindig (matangkad, andak) ilong (matangos, pango) dibdib (malapad, malaki) LOOB NG PAGKATAO Kalooban (Intellectual, Emotional and Moral) isip (matalino) ugali, asal (mabuti) LALIM NG PAGKATAO Kaluluwa (Espiritual) anito (banal) 52
  • 53. NON-DUALISTIC RELATION OF TERMS LABAS malapad ng noo salubong ang kilay malagkit ang tingin maduming bibig LOOB matalino matapang o galit umiibig masamang magsalita LALIM malinis ang kaluluwa matuwid ang budhi 53
  • 54. NON-DUALISTIC RELATION IN FILIPINO PSYCHOLOGY 54 LABAS hipo pigil dinig tawa saya sarap LOOB dama timpi ulinig tuwa ligaya ginhawa
  • 55. THE“HUMANITIES” IN FILIPINO CONCEPT “P AGP AP AKA T AO” The process how a human being becomes a Filipino FILIPINO In the study of Humanities, as Pagpapakatao, the students would discover and realize their own identity as a Filipino. ART 5 5
  • 56. . Filipe del Leon Jr. (2011) “Definingthe Filipino throughthe Arts” CULTURAL IDENTITY “Theworldview andvalues,beliefssystems, knowledge, skills and practices, core principles andideassharedbya society” FILIPINO “Culturalidentity isa sine qua non for becomingactive in the world…a sourceof social empowerment. Rob a people of their identity and they become passive, lost, indolent, uncreative and unproductive.” 56
  • 57. Pre-Colonial Period “The first objective of a colonizing power is to erase the cultural memory of the conquered people, to induce a collective amnesia about their past and supplant it with the culture of the colonizers. In this lie the roots of Filipino derivativeness and inferiority complex vis-a-vis the West.” (Before 1500’s) Colonial Period (1500-1950) Post-Colonial Period (1950 onwards) 57 Had our own cultural identity Our identity destroyed by colonizers: Westernization of Filipino Culture making us alienated from our own Reclamation, affirmation and definition of our identify in our own terms
  • 58. 1.Alienation from Community 2.Alienation from Our Sources of Cultural Energy: Thinking in Borrowed Forms and the Economics of Dependency 3.Alienation from Our Race: The Doña Victorina Syndrome: 4.Alienation from the Indigenous: Denigrating the Local 5.Alienation from the Land 6.Alienation from Being Filipino 7.Alienation from Sustainable Living FORMS OF ALIENATION CAUSED BY WESTERNIZATION OF FILIPINO CULTURE WESTERN CULTURE (Standard) FILIPINO CULTURE (Subordinated) 5 8
  • 59. Some Recommendations for Developing a Filipino and Humanistic Perspective 1.Heightening social consciousness and sense of responsibility to the nation. 2.Promoting people participation, local genius, and cultural diversity. 3.Promoting the local but thinking national or global: human communities, not the state, are the ultimate actors in the development process 4.Integrating the arts to social and cultural phenomena as lucid mirrors of social consciousness. 59 WESTERN CULTURE (Standard) FILIPINO CULTURE (Subordinated)
  • 60. THE COMMUNAL CHARACTER OF PHILIPPINE TRADITIONAL CULTURES AS REFLECTED IN THE ARTS 60 1.Integration of the arts with other values and functions 2.Unity of the arts 3.Art is integrated with everyday life and not regarded as a separate activity. 4.Equality of opportunity for participation in the artistic and creative process. 5.Flexibility of material, technical, and formal requirements 6.Use of available resources for artistic creation 7.Emphasis on the creative process rather than the finished product 8.Simultaneity of conception and realization
  • 61. FILIPINO ARTS BECOMING FILIPINO THROUGH THE ARTS: The Process of Pagpapakatao “Thearts canprovide usthe mostvivid images of social relations and cultural values. They are perhaps the most lucid symbolsof a people’squality of beingor consciousness. Contemplating the arts is like reflecting on the psychic template of an artist or a cultural community.” 61
  • 62. REFERENCES Readings Covar, P. (1992) De Leon, F. (2015) Videos Xiao Time. (2014). https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3i8muLe9vss Damian Domingo: Primer Pintor Filipino (2010). https://youtu.be/m1sPyGbz6T8 Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/MUeZuGfUUuo?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5 Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/rMSRrn1p_V4?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5 Dayaw. (2015). https://youtu.be/kW6DU9IOe74?list=PLEU-B_4w9FJNJ5IdRPItU-U4jl9E_2XN5 TUKLAS: Sining Saysay - Philippine History in Art. (2018).https://youtu.be/ZN75VyLipIU Preserving the Uniqueness of Philippine Culture. (2018).https://youtu.be/z1gfrrevD1A 1. Discover the Filipino Identity through the Arts. 2. Apply the Filipino Sense of Art in the Appreciation ofArt. Lesson 1.4. The Filipino Concept ofArt 6 2
  • 63. Amidst natural disasters, Filipinos are strong- spirited people who continue to brave each storm hand in hand. Whatever situation we are in, we rise as one nation. Filipino Pride, as they say, is "May angas. May yabang." Ginebra San Miguel, also once known as La Tondeña Distillers, Inc. has become, through the years, an iconic fixture in the Filipino’s culture of celebration, camaraderie and tenacity. Proudly Pinoy We are a nation of possibilities. Filipinos are generally innovative, strategic and imaginative. Together with our innate adaptability, we can adjust to any situation, make use of resources at hand, and create something from nothing. 63
  • 64. The phrase “Only in the Philippines” can be read in various ways – as an expression of pride in what we feel are activities, attitudes, and aspirations that are uniquely Filipino; yet also as an expression of frustration and exasperation about systems and situations that we know are corrupt, unjust, or simply not good enough. The answers have come in all shapes and colors. They come in the vibrant hues of parols that point to our fascinating way of celebrating Christmas – over four months, starting in September; in the curious ways we turn our plates when somebody leaves the table before one is finished with his or her meal; in the image of a boxer as national hero who could, if imagination and votes meet, be the country’s next president. Good or bad, major or minor, these images collectively afford us a glimpse into the richness and diversity of our culture. They also assure us that pride and frustration are not mutually exclusive feelings toward our country and ourselves. Rather, they are two sides of the same coin; and both are necessary elements to motivate us in steering our nation into a brighter, peaceful, and just future. “ONLY IN THE PHILIPPINES” 6 4
  • 65. Western Concept ART Academic Elitist Hierarchical ART Filipino Concept Only schooled people are artists Meant for the higher social class High vs major art vs fine vs low art craft practical art folk indigenous Has no such Western distinctions KEY CONCEPTS 6 5
  • 66. Son of Chinese immigrants converted to Christianity, but thought to be a noble Spanish descent by the Spaniards so that they commissioned him to paint Engaged by a merchant to paint, in miniaturismo style, albums of people wearing their daily costumes Had a vision of making art more accessible to the Filipinos (Indios) Founded the first Art School in the Philippines Escuela Dibujo y Pintura in Tondo Manila in 1821 His patron was Sociedad Economica de los Amigos del Pais Professor and Director of the Philippine Art Academy. The academy was closed after his death producing Filipino artists trained in Western artistic tradition DAMIAN DOMINGO (1796-1834) FATHER OF PHILIPPINE PAINTING EXAMPLES OF RENOWN FILIPINO ARTISTS 6 6
  • 67. Domingo, Tipos del Pais, Water color of Filipinos in native costumes 6 7
  • 68. JUAN LUNA (1857-1899) Bachelorof Arts Degree, Ateneo Municipal de Manila. Enrolled in Academy of Fine Arts, Manila Went to Europe in 1877, and studied in Escuela de Bellas Artes de San Fernando Won gold medal in Exposicion Nacional de Bellas Artes in 1884 for Spoliarium Commissioned by Spanish government to do paintings like La Batalla de Lepanto and El Pacto de Sangre Arrested for murdering his wife and mother-in- law, but was acquitted on grounds of crime of passion. ACADEMIC WESTERNIZED FILIPINO PAINTER 6 8
  • 69. Juan Luna, Spoliarium, 1884, Gold Medal, Exposicion Nacional NEOCLASSICAL STYLE Felix R. Hidalgo, Las Virgines Cristiana espuestas al population, 1884, Silver Medal, Exposicion Nacional 6 9
  • 70. RIZAL ’S SPEECH “…. In the history of mankind there are names which in themselves signify an achievement…. To such belong the names of Luna and Hidalgo: their splendor illuminates two extremes of the globe-the Orient and the Occident, Spain and the Philippines. As I utter them, I seem to see two luminous arches that rise from either region to blend there on high…to unite two peoples with eternal bonds; two peoples whom the seas and space vainly separate; two peoples among whom do not germinate the seeds of disunion blindly sown by men and their despotism. Luna and Hidalgo are the pride of Spain as of the Philippines- though born in the Philippines, they might have been born in Spain, for genius has no country; genius bursts forth everywhere….” Winning the exposition had proven that Filipinos were equal with the Spaniards, so that the Filipinos deserve the recognition of other people in the world with equal dignity and respect. 70
  • 71. Luna, España y Filipinas 1886 One positive way of looking at Filipino identity in the arts is to see Philippine Art as integrated in Western Art, and these two traditions are uniting and harmonizing with one another. Philippine Western Art Art 71
  • 72. Tolentino Bonifacio Monument 1933 NEOCLASSICISM Amorsolo, Planting Rice ROMANTIC REALISM RENAISSANCE ART IMPRESSIONISM Manansala, Marketscene TRANSPARENT CUBISM Lamaroza Ecology Series 1978 72 SURREALISM
  • 74. Tinalak,Tiboli Art Examples of Filipino Indigenous Arts Embedded in our Culture Basey, Art of Colorful Mats from Samar-Leyte Pastillas, Wrapper Art of Pampanga and Bulacan Vinta, Badjao Art Sarimanok Design, Maranao Art Okir, Maranao Art 74
  • 75. Torogan, Maranao Art Maranao Brassware Art Burnay Jars of Ilocos PASIKING, Ifugao Native Backpack Ling Ling O, Art of the Cordillera Group 75 Bulul, Igorot Art
  • 76. COLORFUL ARTS made of capiz shells with twikling light design PAHIYAS, ART OF LUCBAN QUEZON Taka Art of Paete, Laguna JEEPNEY ART THE COLORFUL ART OF THE THE COLORFUL ART OF TRICYCLE DESIGN 76 PHILIPPINE
  • 77. COLORFUL PHILIPPINE ICE CREAM CART Laji of the Ivatan is literature and music Pasyon is literature, and pabasa is music Senakulo is a theater art 7 7
  • 78. “dayaw” Binisaya word that means good, valuable, superior or beautiful Video 1.3 78 https://youtu.be/ MU eZuGfUUuo?list =P LEU- B_4w9FJNJ5Id RPIt U- U4jl9E_2XN5 https://youtu.be/ rM SRrn1p_V4?list =PL EU- B_4w9FJNJ5Id RPIt U- U4jl9E_2XN5 https://youtu.be/ kW 6DU9IOe74?list =P LEU- B_4w9FJNJ5Id RPIt U- U4jl9E_2XN5 https://yo ut u.be/ZN 75 VyLipIU https://yo ut u.be/z1g frr evD1A
  • 79. “The principle of cultural identity does not mean that cultures cannot be criticized. If all cultures on earth are to survive, most of them have to change some of their beliefs and practices in order to become compatible with one another” (Felipe, 2011). The Philippine culture has to be dynamic in its relation with other cultures in the world. By harmonizing the Western and the Filipino concepts of at and its practice, a truly Philippine identity in the arts would emerge out of the shared cultural universe, not only of our own people, but of the humanity as a whole FILIPINO IDENTITY WESTERN 79