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AceWiki: Controlled English in a
Semantic Wiki
Tobias Kuhn
University of Zurich
Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2
20 November 2008
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 2
AceWiki
 AceWiki is a new kind of semantic wiki
 Goals:
 Good usability (even for completely untrained
people)
 High expressivity (OWL and beyond)
 Approach:
 Articles are written in controlled English
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 3
Attempto Controlled English (ACE)
 Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled
natural language, concretely a subset of English
 Can be translated automatically and
unambiguously into various logical notations, e.g.
first-order logic, OWL, SWRL
 Supports a relatively large subset of natural
English:
 Proper names, nouns, verbs, adjectives, singular/plural,
relative phrases, anaphoric references, existential and
universal quantifiers, negation, conditional sentences,
question, and much more...
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 4
AceWiki: Screenshot
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 5
AceWiki: Words
 Proper names stand for individuals, e.g.
Switzerland, Bob Dylan
 Nouns stand for classes, e.g. country,
person
 Transitive verbs, of-constructs, and
transitive adjectives stand for binary
relations, e.g. owns, contains, part of,
friend of, located in, used for
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 6
AceWiki: Reasoning
 ACE is more expressive than OWL
 Since AceWiki currently uses an OWL reasoner, not
all ACE statement can be used for the reasoning:
 The reasoner is used for consistency checking,
individual classification, class hierarchy extraction,
and query answering
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 7
AceWiki: Consistency Check
 Each time a new sentence is added, AceWiki
checks whether it contradicts the current ontology
 If there is a contradiction then the sentence is
displayed in red font and not added to the ontology
(i.e. not used for reasoning)
 No reasoning without consistency!
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 8
Queries in AceWiki
 In AceWiki, articles can contain inline queries
expressed as ACE questions
 Some examples:
 Such questions are answered automatically by the
reasoner:
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 9
AceWiki: Predictive Editor
 ACE sentences are easy to understand, but writing
statements in ACE is more complicated because
the language restrictions have to be considered
 AceWiki provides a predictive editor that helps the
users to create syntactically correct sentences
 The predictive editor “looks ahead” and shows
word-by-word all possible continuations of a partial
ACE sentence
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 10
AceWiki: Editor
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 11
AceWiki: Technical Details
 AceWiki is currently in its alpha stage
 The reasoner Pellet is used (version 1.5.2)
 The ontology can be exported in OWL 2 format
 AceWiki is written in Java using the Echo Web
Framework making use of modern AJAX technologies
 Some important features are still missing: history/undo
facility, user management, ontology import, ...
 AceWiki and the ACE parser are available under the
LGPL license
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 12
AceWiki: Evaluation
 A usability experiment has been performed in order
to find out how easy or complicated it is to use
AceWiki
 The participants were asked to add general and
verifiable knowledge to the wiki
 No instructions how to deal with AceWiki
 80% of the created sentences were correct and
sensible
 61% of the correct sentences were complex (i.e.
contained a negation or an implication)
Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 13
That's all, folks!
 Thank you for your attention!
 More information can be found on the AceWiki
website:
 http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki/

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AceWiki: Controlled English in a Semantic Wiki

  • 1. AceWiki: Controlled English in a Semantic Wiki Tobias Kuhn University of Zurich Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2 20 November 2008
  • 2. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 2 AceWiki  AceWiki is a new kind of semantic wiki  Goals:  Good usability (even for completely untrained people)  High expressivity (OWL and beyond)  Approach:  Articles are written in controlled English
  • 3. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 3 Attempto Controlled English (ACE)  Attempto Controlled English (ACE) is a controlled natural language, concretely a subset of English  Can be translated automatically and unambiguously into various logical notations, e.g. first-order logic, OWL, SWRL  Supports a relatively large subset of natural English:  Proper names, nouns, verbs, adjectives, singular/plural, relative phrases, anaphoric references, existential and universal quantifiers, negation, conditional sentences, question, and much more...
  • 4. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 4 AceWiki: Screenshot
  • 5. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 5 AceWiki: Words  Proper names stand for individuals, e.g. Switzerland, Bob Dylan  Nouns stand for classes, e.g. country, person  Transitive verbs, of-constructs, and transitive adjectives stand for binary relations, e.g. owns, contains, part of, friend of, located in, used for
  • 6. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 6 AceWiki: Reasoning  ACE is more expressive than OWL  Since AceWiki currently uses an OWL reasoner, not all ACE statement can be used for the reasoning:  The reasoner is used for consistency checking, individual classification, class hierarchy extraction, and query answering
  • 7. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 7 AceWiki: Consistency Check  Each time a new sentence is added, AceWiki checks whether it contradicts the current ontology  If there is a contradiction then the sentence is displayed in red font and not added to the ontology (i.e. not used for reasoning)  No reasoning without consistency!
  • 8. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 8 Queries in AceWiki  In AceWiki, articles can contain inline queries expressed as ACE questions  Some examples:  Such questions are answered automatically by the reasoner:
  • 9. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 9 AceWiki: Predictive Editor  ACE sentences are easy to understand, but writing statements in ACE is more complicated because the language restrictions have to be considered  AceWiki provides a predictive editor that helps the users to create syntactically correct sentences  The predictive editor “looks ahead” and shows word-by-word all possible continuations of a partial ACE sentence
  • 10. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 10 AceWiki: Editor
  • 11. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 11 AceWiki: Technical Details  AceWiki is currently in its alpha stage  The reasoner Pellet is used (version 1.5.2)  The ontology can be exported in OWL 2 format  AceWiki is written in Java using the Echo Web Framework making use of modern AJAX technologies  Some important features are still missing: history/undo facility, user management, ontology import, ...  AceWiki and the ACE parser are available under the LGPL license
  • 12. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 12 AceWiki: Evaluation  A usability experiment has been performed in order to find out how easy or complicated it is to use AceWiki  The participants were asked to add general and verifiable knowledge to the wiki  No instructions how to deal with AceWiki  80% of the created sentences were correct and sensible  61% of the correct sentences were complex (i.e. contained a negation or an implication)
  • 13. Tobias Kuhn, Semantic Wiki mini series, Session 2, 20 November 2008 13 That's all, folks!  Thank you for your attention!  More information can be found on the AceWiki website:  http://attempto.ifi.uzh.ch/acewiki/