SlideShare a Scribd company logo
1 of 6
Download to read offline
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470
www.ijtsrd.com
254
IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017
Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com
A Review of Friction Stirs Welding
Danail Abdullah
Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia, Malaysia
ABSTRACT
Through this paper an attempt is made to study and
review a special welding technology of friction stir
welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining process.
Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a recent advanced
technique, invented by The Welding Institute (TWI)
in 1991, that utilizes a non consumable rotating
welding tool to generate frictional heat and plastic
deformation at the welding location; thereby,
affecting the formation of a joint while the material is
in the solid state. In particular, FSW can be used to
join high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys and
other high temperature metallic alloys that are
difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding
method. FSW is considered to be the most significant
development in metal joining process in a decade The
comprehensive body of knowledge that has built up
with respect to the friction stir welding (FSW) of
aluminum alloys. This study addresses the current
state of understanding and development of the FSW
process. The principles of weld formation, welding
parameters, design principles, including metal flow
and thermal history, before discussing how process
parameters affect the weld microstructure.
KEYWORDS
Friction stir welding, metal flow, process parameters,
mechanical properties, Microstructure.
I. INTRODUCTION
The welding of aluminum and its alloys has always
represented a great challenge for researchers and
technologists. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new
welding process that has produced low-cost and high-
quality joints of aluminum alloys. For carrying out
research work in any area, the first and an important
phase are to review the available literature on the
selected topic and the research problem can be
formulated with clear objectives. In order to formulate
the present research problem along with the
methodology that could be adopted for accomplishing
this research work, the selective review of the relevant
literature surveyed is presented briefly. It is worth
mentioning The Tanta University, Egypt is one of the
first university and research centers that has worked in
the field of friction stir welding pipes of aluminum
alloys since 2013.
Thomas (1997) focuses on this study the relatively
new joining technology, friction stir welding (FSW).
Friction stir welding can be used to join most
aluminium alloys and surface oxide presents no
difficulty to the process. On the basis of this study it
was recommend that number of light weight materials
suitable for the automotive, rail, marine and aerospace
transportation industries can be fabricated by FSW.
Ying et al., (1999) used FSW to join the plates of
2024 Al and 6060 Al having thickness of 0.6 cm each.
The tool rotation speed was varied between 400 to
1200 rpm. Dislocation spirals and loops are observed
in the 2024 Al intercalation regions within the weld
zones at higher speeds (>800 rpm). Micro hardness
profiles follow microstructural variations which result
in a 40% reduction in the 6061 Al workpiece micro
hardness and a 50% reduction in the 2024 Al
workpiece micro hardness just outside the FSW zone.
Sutton et al., (2002) prepared the weld joints of 7 mm
thickness using 2024-T351 aluminium rolled sheet
material by Friction stir welding. Metallurgical,
hardness and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray
measurements were performed. The tests
demonstrated a segregated, banded, microstructure
consisting of alternating hard particles. Since the band
spacing is directly correlated with the welding tool
advance per revolution, the results indicated that the
opportunity exists to manipulate the friction stir weld
process parameters in order to modify the weld
microstructure and improve a range of material
properties, including fracture resistance.
Lee et al., (2003) welded A356 alloys sheets using
friction-stir-welding to observe the effect of
mechanical properties at the weld zone by varying the
welding speeds. The microstructures of the weld zone
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470
www.ijtsrd.com
255
IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017
Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com
are composed of SZ (stir zone), TMAZ (thermo-
mechanical affected zone) and BM (base metal). The
microstructure of the SZ is very different from that of
the BM. But the microstructure of TMAZ, where the
original grains were greatly deformed, is
characterized by dispersed eutectic Si particles
aligned along the rotational direction of the welding
tool. The mechanical properties of the weld zone are
greatly improved in comparison to that of the BM.
Mustafa and Adem (2004) prepared the weld joints
of Al 1080 alloy using five different stirrers, one of
them square cross-sectioned and the rest were
cylindrical with 0.85, 1.10, 1.40 and 2.1 mm screw
pitch. The stirrers pitched 1.40 and 2.0 mm acted like
a drill rather than a stirrer and compelled the weld
metal outward in the form of chips. Bonding could be
affected with square cross section stirrer but poor
mechanical and metallographic properties were
observed. The specimen welded with cross-section
stirrer has 60 N/mm2 Tensile Strength and the
fracture took place within the weld metal. This type of
stir sweeps a large amount of metal from the
plasticized zone and results in an inhomogeneous
structure. But the specimen welded using 0.85 and
1.10 mm pitched stirrers, have 110 N/mm2 UTS. The
higher strength of the weld metal can be attributed to
heat generation during stirring.
Ahmed. M. El-Kassas et al. (2015) in this study
effect to the mechanical properties in order to
demonstrate the feasibility of friction stir welding for
joining Al 6061 aluminum pipes with different
thickness 2 to 4mm, rotational speeds 485 to 1400
RPM and a traverse speed 4 to 10 mm/min was
applied. This work focuses on two methods such as
artificial neural networks(ANN) using software
(Pythia) and response surface methodology (RSM) to
predict the tensile strength, the percentage of
elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061
aluminum alloy. An artificial neural network (ANN)
model was developed for the analysis of the friction
stir welding parameters of Al 6061aluminum pipe.
Response surface methodology (RSM) also developed
and the values obtained for the response Tensile
strengths, the percentage of elongation and hardness
are compared with measured values.
Chena et al., (2006) used friction stir welding (FSW)
for 2219-O and 2219-T6 aluminium alloy to
investigate the effects of the base material conditions
on the FSW characteristics. The experimental results
indicated that the base material condition has a
significant effect on weld morphologies, weld defects,
and mechanical properties of joints. The strength
efficiency of 2219-O joints is found to be 100%,
while that of 2219-T6 joints is only up to 82%.
A M Khourshid and I. Sabry(2013) in this study
effect Friction stir welding for pipes on Al 6063
alloy. The tool rotation 485 to 1400 rpm with a
traverse speed 4 mm/min was applied. The
Mechanical properties of welded joints were
investigated using different mechanical tests including
destructive test. Based on the stir welding experiments
conducted in this The resultant microstructure was
characterized using optical microscopy.
Hirata et al., (2007) developed the relationship
between the microstructure of stir zone and the
mechanical properties of FS-welded 5083 aluminium
alloy. The microstructures of the stir zones consisted
of fine equiaxed grains at various FSW conditions.
The grain size of the stir zone decreased with the
decrease in friction heat flow during FSW. The results
shown that the micro structure and mechanical
properties of the FS-welded 5083 Al alloy joints were
improved by the refinement of grain size of the stir
zone.
Cabibbo et al., (2007) investigated the microstructure
and mechanical properties of a friction stir welded
6056-T6 aluminium alloy plates. The microstructure
revealed different grain morphologies in the thermo-
mechanically affected zones, in proximity of the weld
nugget. The advancing side had fairly elongated, bent
grains, whilst the broader retreating side had more
elongated, narrower grains. Tensile tests showed yield
and ultimate strength slightly lower across the weld as
compared to the parent material. Reduction in
ductility of the weld region was also observed.
Kumara and Kailas (2008) investigated the
influence of axial load and the effect of position of the
interface with respect to the tool axis on tensile
strength of the friction stir welded joint of aluminium
alloy 7020-T6. The axial load is continuously varied
by linearly increasing the interference between the
tool shoulder and the surface of the base material. It is
found that there is an optimal axial load, above which
the weld is defect-free, with joint efficiency of 84%.
Lombard et al., (2008) in this research work present
a systematic approach to optimizing FSW process
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470
www.ijtsrd.com
256
IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017
Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com
parameters (tool rotational speed and feed rate).
Eleven experiments were conducted by varying the
tool rotational speed and welding speed. The tensile
strength of the joint was increased from 289 to 313
MPa by varying the tool rotational speed from 400
rpm to 200 rpm at the constant welding speed of 85
mm/min. The tensile strength of the joint increased
from 254 MPa to 315 MPa by varying the tool
rotational speed from 635 rpm to 254 rpm at the
constant welding speed 135 mm/min. The work
indicates that the tool rotational speed is the key
parameter governing the tensile strength.
Ibraheem sabry et al., (2017) Aluminum can't
successfully be arc welded in an air environment, due
to the affinity for oxygen. If fusion welded in normal
atmosphere oxidization readily happens and this
outcome in both slag inclusion and porosity in the
weld, greatly reducing its mechanical properties. To
overcome these problems one of the most common
ways of welding aluminum has been to a suggestion
the friction stir welding. To work in this area needs to
do a tremendous amount of experience and this thesis
has provided general Specification of the process of
friction stir welding pipes using three methods
regression analysis (RA),Response surface
methodology(RSM) and artificial neural networks
(ANN) to infer the mechanical properties has this
Specification so for the thickness of 2 to 4 mm,
depending on the rotational speed from 485 to
1800(RPM) travel speed from 4 to 10 (mm/min to
work comparative between three method ( (RA),
(RSM) and (ANN)) through total error.
Rajakumar et al., (2011) explored the influence of
process and tool parameters on tensile strength
properties of AA7075-T6 joints produced by friction
stir welding. Tensile strength of the joints were
evaluated and correlated with the microstructure,
micro hardness of weld nugget. From this
investigation it is found that the joint fabricated at a
tool rotational speed of 1400 rpm, welding speed of
60 mm/min, axial force of 8 kN, using the tool with
15 mm shoulder diameter, 5 mm pin diameter, 45
HRC tool hardness yielded higher strength properties
compared to other joints.
Chen et al., (2005) investigated that, the tensile
strength of the FSW joints of 2219-O aluminium alloy
significantly improved by the PWHT process. The
tensile properties of the joints welded at different
welding speeds, before and after the heat treatment
were evaluated. The results indicate that the heat-
treated joints possess a higher tensile strength and a
lower elongation than the as-welded joints. The as
welded joints fracture in the base material zone, while
the heat-treated joints fracture in the weld zone (WZ).
This implies that the PWHT process has a significant
effect on the fracture locations of the joints.
Elangovana and Balasubramanian (2008) reported
that the influences of various post-weld heat treatment
procedures on tensile properties of friction stir-welded
AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Solution treatment,
an artificial aging treatment and a combination of both
were given to the welded joints. Mechanical
properties such as yield strength, tensile strength,
elongation and joint efficiency were evaluated. A
simple artificial aging treatment was found to be more
beneficial than other post weld treatment methods
Singh et al., (2011) reported the effect of post weld
heat treatment (T6) on the microstructure and
mechanical properties of friction stir welded 7039
aluminium alloy joints. FSW parameters were
optimized by making welds at constant rotary speed
of 635 rpm and welding speed of 8 and 12 mm/min. It
was observed that the thermo-mechanically affected
zone (TMAZ) showed coarser grains than that of
nugget zone. As welded joint has highest joint
efficiency (92.1%). Post weld heat treatment lowers
yield strength, ultimate tensile strength but improves
percentage elongation.
Wang et al., (2008) reported the effect of welding
processes (FSW and TIG) on the fatigue properties of
5052 aluminium-welded joints was analyzed based on
fatigue testing. The results show that the fatigue
properties of FSW welded joints are better than those
of TIG welded joints.
Cabello et al., (2008) made a comparative study on
microstructural and mechanical characteristics of
fusion welds (TIG) and solid-state welds (FSW) of
Al–4.5 Mg–0.26 Sc heat-treatable aluminium alloy.
The corresponding mechanical properties are
evaluated through micro hardness measurements and
tensile tests. The effect of a post-weld heat treatment
on both microstructure and mechanical properties is
further examined. The results suggest that hardening
precipitates are comparatively more affected by the
TIG than by the FSW process. This results in a
substantial reduction of mechanical properties of TIG
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470
www.ijtsrd.com
257
IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017
Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com
welds that can be partially recovered through a post-
weld heat treatment.
Zhao et al., (2010) welded Al–Mg–Sc alloy plates by
FSW and TIG welding. The effect of welding
processes on mechanical and metallurgical properties
of welded joints was analyzed. The results shown that
the mechanical properties of FSW welded joint are
much better than those of TIG welded joint.
Moreover, tensile strength and yield strength of FSW
joint are 19% and 31% higher than those of TIG joint,
respectively. Due to the low welding temperature
during FSW process and the excellent thermal
stability of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, the cold working
microstructures can be well preserved.
Zhen et al., (2011) made a comparative study of the
mechanical and metallurgical properties of Al-Mg-
Mn-Sc-Zr alloy weld joints prepared by FSW and TIG
welding. The strength of FSW and TIG welded joints
decreased as compared to the base metal but strength
of FSW welded joints higher than the TIG welded
joints. The loss of substructure strengthening and a
very little loss of precipitation strengthening of
Al3(Sc, Zr) cause the decreased strength of FSW
welded joint. But for the TIG welded joint, the
disappearance of both the strain hardening and most
precipitation strengthening effect of Al3(Sc, Zr)
particles contributed to its softening. At the same
time, the grains in weld nugget zone of FSW welded
joints were finer than those in the molten zone of TIG
welded joints
Lakshminarayanan and Balasubramanian (2008)
applied Taguchi approach to determine the most
influential control factors which will yield better
tensile strength of the joints of friction stir welded
RDE-40 aluminium alloy. Through the Taguchi
parametric design approach, the optimum levels of
process parameters (tool rotational speed, traverse
speed and axial force) were determined. The results
indicate that the rotational speed, welding speed and
axial force are the significant parameters in deciding
the tensile strength of the joint.
Sarsilmaz and Çaydaş (2008) applied the full
factorial experimental design to study the effect of
friction-stir welding (FSW) parameters such as
spindle rotational speed, traverse speed, and stirrer
geometry on mechanical properties of AA 1050/AA
5083 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and
hardness of welded joints were determined for this
purpose. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and main
effect plot were used to determine the significant
parameters and set the optimal level for each
parameter. A linear regression equation was derived
to predict each output characteristic.
Ibraheem Sabry (2017) discusses the cost analysis of
pipe friction stir welding spicily aluminum 6061.cost
estimation were performed on pipe with different
thickness 2 to 4 mm. rotational speeds 485 to 1800
RPM and a travel speed 4 to 10 mm/min. The each
cost component of joining Al 6061 aluminum pipe
welding was each component cost (Labor cost, Power
cost, Machine cost and Tooling cost) has been closely
analyzed and major cost components have been
included in the cost model. We used these cost models
to predict the cost of friction stir welded pipe joints.
Initial results show that the rotational speed, material
thickness and travel speed increased due to increase
the total cost.
Ibraheem Sabry (2017) In this Work, a
comprehensive practical study in total cost estimation
of welded Aluminum 6061 pipes using three different
types of welds, Metal Inert Gas (MIG), Tungsten Inert
Gas (TIG) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW) . The cost
component of joining Al 6061 aluminum pipe
welding was each component cost (labor cost, Power
cost, Ma-chine cost, shield gas cost(MIG,TIG), filler
metal cost(MIG,TIG) and Tool cost(FSW)) has been
closely analyzed and major cost components have
been included in the cost model. We used these cost
models to predict the cost of Metal Inert Gas (MIG),
Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and friction stir welded pipe
joints. Initial results show that MIG and TIG welding
were less cost effective compared to FS welding, but
it is possible that the cost of reduced friction stirs
welding with quantitative prediction.
CONCLUSIONS
Still friction stir welding needs more research and
study through the influence of the thickness of the
metal, as well as the work of standardization of
friction stir welding .
REFERENCES
[1] Misra and Kate N. Nagaraj,”Security in Wireless
Ad Hoc Networks”, in Book The Handbook of
Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks (Chapter 30), CRC
Press LLC, 2003.
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470
www.ijtsrd.com
258
IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017
Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com
[2] Thomas, W.M., Nicholas, E.D., Needham, J.C.,
Murch, M.G., Templesmith, P. and Dawes, C.J.
(1992). Improvements relating to friction
welding. European Patent Specification 0 615
480 (PCT/GB92/02203).
[3] The Welding Institute, Cambridge, 27 Nov. 1992.
M. Sutton, B. Yang, A. Reynolds, and R. Taylor.
“Microstructural studies of Fiction stir welds in
2024-T3 aluminum”. Materials Science and
Engineering A 323 (2002) pp. 160-166.
[4] Lee WB, Yeon YM, Jung SB "Evaluation of the
microstructure and mechanical properties of
fiction stir welded 6005 aluminum alloy",Mater
Sci Technol(2003).
[5] A.M., El-Kassas, A. M. Khourshid and I. Sabry,
“Optimization of friction stir welding parameters
for joining Aluminum pipes using regression
analysis”. International Journal of Civil,
Mechanical and Energy Science (IJAMES).2016
[6] Mustafa Kemal Kulekci experimental comparison
of mig and friction stir welding processes for en
aw-6061-t6 (aL mG1sI cU) aluminum alloy, The
Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering,
Volume 35, Number 1B2010, pp 321-328.
[7] Chen, G., P. Yang, G.W. Kattawar, and M.I.
Mishchenko, 2006: Scattering phase functions of
horizontally oriented hexagonal ice crystals. J.
Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 100, 91-102,
doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2005.11.029.
[8] Ibraheem Sabry, Ahmed. M. El-Kassas “Total
Error Analysis Role of Predicting Mechanical
Properties by Friction Stir Welded Aluminum
pipes “International journal of advanced
production and industrial engineering(IJAPIE),
Vol. 2, No. 1, 2017.
[9] Hirata, H., Hinoda, Y., Nakajima, K., Kawamoto,
K., Kikuno, N., Kawakami, K., Yamamura, S.,
Ueno, K., Majid, S., and Saini, S. (2009). Wnt
antagonist gene DKK2 is epigenetically silenced
and inhibits renal cancer progression through
apoptotic and cell cycle pathways. Clin Cancer
Res. 15, 5678-5687.
[10]Cabibbo M., Mc Queenb H. J., Evangelista E.,
Spigarelli S., Paola M. D., Falchero A., (2007),
“Micros tructure and mechanical property studies
of AA6056 friction stir welded plate”, Materials
Science and Engineering A, 460 – 461, pp. 86 –
94.
[11]K. Kumar, Satish V. Kailas" The role of friction
stir welding tool on material flow and weld
formation" Materials Science and Engineering A
485 (2008) 367–374 Received 30 January 2007;
received in revised form 30 July 2007; accepted 8
August 2007
[12] Lombard H, Hattingh D G, Steuwer A, James M
N 2008 Optimising FSW process parameters to
minimize defects and maximise fatigue life in
5083-H321 aluminium alloy, Eng. Fracture
Mech. 75: 341–354
[13]A.M.Khourshid, I.Sabry “analysis, and design of
Friction stir welding” International Journal of
mechanical engineering and robotics research,
Vol. 2, No. 3, 2013.
[14]Rajkumar, S., Muralidharan, C.,
Balasubramanian ,V., "Optimization of the
friction stir- welding process and the tool
parameters to attain a maximum tensile strength
of the AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy". J Eng
Manuf,2010,pp.1175–91.
[15]C.M. Chen, R. Kovacevic ,Finite element
modeling of friction stir welding—thermal and
thermomechanical analysis, International Journal
of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003)
1319– 1326, Received 12 May 2003; accepted
10 June 2003
[16]Elangovan K. , Balasubramanian V. , Babu b S. ,
Predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded
AA6061 aluminium alloy joints by a
mathematical model, Materials and Design 30
(2009) 188 – 193
[17]Singh et. al. (2013), ―Experimental
Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Joints
Fabricated by FSW Of Aluminum Alloys 5083
And 6063 With Round And Square Tool Pin
Profiles, International Conference on
Advancements and Futuristic Trends in
Mechanical and Materials Engineering (October
3 -6, 2013).
[18]Wang, D. A., Chao, C. W., Lin, P. C. & Uan, J.
Y., 2010. Mechanical characterization of friction
stir spot microwelds. Journal of Materials
Processing Technology, Volume 210, p. 1942–
1948
[19]A.Cabello et.al., Comparision of TIG welded and
friction stir welded Al-4.5Mg-0.26Sc alloy
Journal of Materials processing Tech nology
vol.197, 2008, pp337-343.
[20]Y.H. Zhao, S.B. Lin, Lin Wu, F.X. QuThe
influence of pin geometry on bonding and
mechanical properties in friction stir weld 2014
Al alloy
International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470
www.ijtsrd.com
259
IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017
Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com
[21]Yong zhao et.al.(2014),Microstructure and
mechanical properties of Friction stir welded
MG- 2Nd- 0.3Zn- 0.4Zr
Mgalloy,ASMinternational JMEPEG 2 3:4136-
4142.
[22]Lakshminarayanan, A.K., Balasubramanian, V.
Tensile and Impact Toughness Properties of Gas
Tungsten Arc Welded and Friction Stir Welded
Interstitial Free Steel Joints 2010, Journal of
Materials Engineering and Performance , pp.8
(Available online).
[23]Sarsilmaz F, ÇaydaşU, Hasçalik A, Tanriover L
(2010a). The joint properties of dissimilar
aluminum plates joined by friction stir welding.
Int. J. Mat. Res., 101: 692-699.
[24]Jian Qing Su et al, Microstructural evolu tion
during ESW/FSP of high strength aluminum
alloys, Material science and Engineering vol.A
405, 2005, pp277-286.
[25]Ibraheem Sabry, Ahmed M El-Kassas " Cost
estimation of Pipe friction stirs Welding
"International Journal of Advance Research and
Innovation, Volume 5, Issue 1 (2017) 19-23
[26] Ahmed M. El-Kassas and Ibraheem Sabry" A
Comparison between FSW, MIG and TIG based
non Total Cost Estimation for Aluminum Pipes"
European Journal of Advances in Engineering
and Technology, 2017, 4 (3): 158-163

More Related Content

What's hot

Development of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneous
Development of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneousDevelopment of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneous
Development of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneous
IAEME Publication
 
Friction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloys
Friction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloysFriction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloys
Friction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloys
eSAT Journals
 
Surface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processing
Surface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processingSurface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processing
Surface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processing
mohammed noor
 

What's hot (20)

PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR PROCESSING ALONG WITH REINFORCEMENT OF COMPOSITIO...
PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR PROCESSING ALONG WITH REINFORCEMENT OF COMPOSITIO...PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR PROCESSING ALONG WITH REINFORCEMENT OF COMPOSITIO...
PARAMETERS OF FRICTION STIR PROCESSING ALONG WITH REINFORCEMENT OF COMPOSITIO...
 
Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded...
Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded...Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded...
Effect Of Process Parameters On Mechanical Properties Of Friction Stir.Welded...
 
N45017781
N45017781N45017781
N45017781
 
Development of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneous
Development of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneousDevelopment of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneous
Development of grnn based tool for hardness measurement of homogeneous
 
Study and Analysis of the Fatigue Behaviour of Friction Stir Butt Welded Dis...
Study and Analysis of the Fatigue Behaviour of  Friction Stir Butt Welded Dis...Study and Analysis of the Fatigue Behaviour of  Friction Stir Butt Welded Dis...
Study and Analysis of the Fatigue Behaviour of Friction Stir Butt Welded Dis...
 
Friction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloys
Friction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloysFriction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloys
Friction stir welding of aluminium 5086 alloys
 
30120140504019
3012014050401930120140504019
30120140504019
 
Optimization of friction stir welding process parameter using taguchi method ...
Optimization of friction stir welding process parameter using taguchi method ...Optimization of friction stir welding process parameter using taguchi method ...
Optimization of friction stir welding process parameter using taguchi method ...
 
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A356 BASED COMPO...
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A356 BASED  COMPO...EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A356 BASED  COMPO...
EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION AND MATERIAL CHARACTERIZATION OF A356 BASED COMPO...
 
Microhardness of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium-6063
Microhardness of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium-6063Microhardness of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium-6063
Microhardness of Friction Stir Processed Aluminium-6063
 
FRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS - A REVIEW
FRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS - A REVIEWFRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS - A REVIEW
FRICTION STIR WELDING OF ALUMINIUM ALLOYS - A REVIEW
 
Investigation and analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties of aa11...
Investigation and analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties of aa11...Investigation and analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties of aa11...
Investigation and analysis of metallurgical and mechanical properties of aa11...
 
A Review Paper On Effect Of Varying Welding Heat Inputs On Microstructure, M...
A Review Paper On Effect Of Varying Welding Heat Inputs On  Microstructure, M...A Review Paper On Effect Of Varying Welding Heat Inputs On  Microstructure, M...
A Review Paper On Effect Of Varying Welding Heat Inputs On Microstructure, M...
 
Experimental Investigations of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) on Al 6061 : A Cas...
Experimental Investigations of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) on Al 6061 : A Cas...Experimental Investigations of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) on Al 6061 : A Cas...
Experimental Investigations of Friction Stir Welding (FSW) on Al 6061 : A Cas...
 
Experimental Investigation of Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminum Aa6061 Alloy ...
Experimental Investigation of Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminum Aa6061 Alloy ...Experimental Investigation of Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminum Aa6061 Alloy ...
Experimental Investigation of Friction Stir Welding Of Aluminum Aa6061 Alloy ...
 
Surface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processing
Surface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processingSurface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processing
Surface hybrid nanocomposites via friction stir processing
 
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and ScienceResearch Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
Research Inventy : International Journal of Engineering and Science
 
IRJET - Effect of Groove Angle on Tensile Strength and Micro-hardness of AISI...
IRJET - Effect of Groove Angle on Tensile Strength and Micro-hardness of AISI...IRJET - Effect of Groove Angle on Tensile Strength and Micro-hardness of AISI...
IRJET - Effect of Groove Angle on Tensile Strength and Micro-hardness of AISI...
 
A review paper on friction stir welding
A review paper on friction stir weldingA review paper on friction stir welding
A review paper on friction stir welding
 
Mechanism of Fracture in Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy
Mechanism of Fracture in Friction Stir Processed Aluminium AlloyMechanism of Fracture in Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy
Mechanism of Fracture in Friction Stir Processed Aluminium Alloy
 

Similar to A Review of Friction Stirs Welding

DOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGG
DOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGGDOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGG
DOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGG
John Ajish
 

Similar to A Review of Friction Stirs Welding (20)

A Review on Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir...
A Review on Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir...A Review on Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir...
A Review on Effect of Process Parameters on Tensile Strength of Friction Stir...
 
Ahmed ibrahim razooqi -- study the microstructure and mechanical properties ...
Ahmed ibrahim razooqi  -- study the microstructure and mechanical properties ...Ahmed ibrahim razooqi  -- study the microstructure and mechanical properties ...
Ahmed ibrahim razooqi -- study the microstructure and mechanical properties ...
 
Friction Stir Welding
Friction Stir WeldingFriction Stir Welding
Friction Stir Welding
 
15136-17380-1-PB.pdf
15136-17380-1-PB.pdf15136-17380-1-PB.pdf
15136-17380-1-PB.pdf
 
A STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH
A STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH A STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH
A STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH
 
A STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH
A STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTHA STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH
A STUDY OF EFFECT PROCESS PARAMETERS ON TENSILE STRENGTH
 
A REVIEW ON SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
A REVIEW ON SUBMERGED ARC WELDINGA REVIEW ON SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
A REVIEW ON SUBMERGED ARC WELDING
 
DOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGG
DOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGGDOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGG
DOGAODHGOHDODOOanffaHSFOHGHASOGHSOGHGHAOGHOGHAOGG
 
Effect of Process Parameters and Nano particles on Friction Stir Welding of D...
Effect of Process Parameters and Nano particles on Friction Stir Welding of D...Effect of Process Parameters and Nano particles on Friction Stir Welding of D...
Effect of Process Parameters and Nano particles on Friction Stir Welding of D...
 
EFFECTS OF QUENCHANTS ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF SINGLE-VEE BUTT WELDED JOINT OF M...
EFFECTS OF QUENCHANTS ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF SINGLE-VEE BUTT WELDED JOINT OF M...EFFECTS OF QUENCHANTS ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF SINGLE-VEE BUTT WELDED JOINT OF M...
EFFECTS OF QUENCHANTS ON IMPACT STRENGTH OF SINGLE-VEE BUTT WELDED JOINT OF M...
 
Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...
Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...
Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...
 
Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...
Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...
Characterization and mechanical behaviour of similar and dissimilar parts joi...
 
EFFECT OF FORGE FORCE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR METAL FRICTION W...
EFFECT OF FORGE FORCE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR METAL FRICTION W...EFFECT OF FORGE FORCE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR METAL FRICTION W...
EFFECT OF FORGE FORCE ON MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF DISSIMILAR METAL FRICTION W...
 
W01226143147
W01226143147W01226143147
W01226143147
 
Study of Pitting Corrosion Behavior of FSW weldments of AA6101- T6 Aluminium ...
Study of Pitting Corrosion Behavior of FSW weldments of AA6101- T6 Aluminium ...Study of Pitting Corrosion Behavior of FSW weldments of AA6101- T6 Aluminium ...
Study of Pitting Corrosion Behavior of FSW weldments of AA6101- T6 Aluminium ...
 
A1303070106
A1303070106A1303070106
A1303070106
 
IRJET- Investigation on Dissimilar Metal Welding of Stainless Steel 316 L and...
IRJET- Investigation on Dissimilar Metal Welding of Stainless Steel 316 L and...IRJET- Investigation on Dissimilar Metal Welding of Stainless Steel 316 L and...
IRJET- Investigation on Dissimilar Metal Welding of Stainless Steel 316 L and...
 
Experimental Investigation of Tensile Strength and Deflection Characteristics...
Experimental Investigation of Tensile Strength and Deflection Characteristics...Experimental Investigation of Tensile Strength and Deflection Characteristics...
Experimental Investigation of Tensile Strength and Deflection Characteristics...
 
A REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING OF ALUMINUM COMPONENTS US...
A REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING OF ALUMINUM COMPONENTS US...A REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING OF ALUMINUM COMPONENTS US...
A REVIEW ON OPTIMIZATION OF RESISTANCE SPOT WELDING OF ALUMINUM COMPONENTS US...
 
Ijari a statistical-analysisofcorrosionrateandmechanicalpropertiesofmetal
Ijari a statistical-analysisofcorrosionrateandmechanicalpropertiesofmetalIjari a statistical-analysisofcorrosionrateandmechanicalpropertiesofmetal
Ijari a statistical-analysisofcorrosionrateandmechanicalpropertiesofmetal
 

More from ijtsrd

‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation
‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation
‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation
ijtsrd
 
Dynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and Prospects
Dynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and ProspectsDynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and Prospects
Dynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and Prospects
ijtsrd
 
Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...
Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...
Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...
ijtsrd
 
The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...
The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...
The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...
ijtsrd
 
Problems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A Study
Problems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A StudyProblems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A Study
Problems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A Study
ijtsrd
 
Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...
Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...
Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...
ijtsrd
 
A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...
A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...
A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...
ijtsrd
 
The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...
The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...
The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...
ijtsrd
 
Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...
Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...
Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...
ijtsrd
 
Sustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. Sadiku
Sustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. SadikuSustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. Sadiku
Sustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. Sadiku
ijtsrd
 
Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...
Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...
Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...
ijtsrd
 
Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...
Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...
Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...
ijtsrd
 
Activating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment Map
Activating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment MapActivating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment Map
Activating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment Map
ijtsrd
 
Educational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger Society
Educational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger SocietyEducational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger Society
Educational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger Society
ijtsrd
 
DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...
DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...
DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...
ijtsrd
 

More from ijtsrd (20)

‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation
‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation
‘Six Sigma Technique’ A Journey Through its Implementation
 
Edge Computing in Space Enhancing Data Processing and Communication for Space...
Edge Computing in Space Enhancing Data Processing and Communication for Space...Edge Computing in Space Enhancing Data Processing and Communication for Space...
Edge Computing in Space Enhancing Data Processing and Communication for Space...
 
Dynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and Prospects
Dynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and ProspectsDynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and Prospects
Dynamics of Communal Politics in 21st Century India Challenges and Prospects
 
Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...
Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...
Assess Perspective and Knowledge of Healthcare Providers Towards Elehealth in...
 
The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...
The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...
The Impact of Digital Media on the Decentralization of Power and the Erosion ...
 
Online Voices, Offline Impact Ambedkars Ideals and Socio Political Inclusion ...
Online Voices, Offline Impact Ambedkars Ideals and Socio Political Inclusion ...Online Voices, Offline Impact Ambedkars Ideals and Socio Political Inclusion ...
Online Voices, Offline Impact Ambedkars Ideals and Socio Political Inclusion ...
 
Problems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A Study
Problems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A StudyProblems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A Study
Problems and Challenges of Agro Entreprenurship A Study
 
Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...
Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...
Comparative Analysis of Total Corporate Disclosure of Selected IT Companies o...
 
The Impact of Educational Background and Professional Training on Human Right...
The Impact of Educational Background and Professional Training on Human Right...The Impact of Educational Background and Professional Training on Human Right...
The Impact of Educational Background and Professional Training on Human Right...
 
A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...
A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...
A Study on the Effective Teaching Learning Process in English Curriculum at t...
 
The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...
The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...
The Role of Mentoring and Its Influence on the Effectiveness of the Teaching ...
 
Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...
Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...
Design Simulation and Hardware Construction of an Arduino Microcontroller Bas...
 
Sustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. Sadiku
Sustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. SadikuSustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. Sadiku
Sustainable Energy by Paul A. Adekunte | Matthew N. O. Sadiku | Janet O. Sadiku
 
Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...
Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...
Concepts for Sudan Survey Act Implementations Executive Regulations and Stand...
 
Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...
Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...
Towards the Implementation of the Sudan Interpolated Geoid Model Khartoum Sta...
 
Activating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment Map
Activating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment MapActivating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment Map
Activating Geospatial Information for Sudans Sustainable Investment Map
 
Educational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger Society
Educational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger SocietyEducational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger Society
Educational Unity Embracing Diversity for a Stronger Society
 
Integration of Indian Indigenous Knowledge System in Management Prospects and...
Integration of Indian Indigenous Knowledge System in Management Prospects and...Integration of Indian Indigenous Knowledge System in Management Prospects and...
Integration of Indian Indigenous Knowledge System in Management Prospects and...
 
DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...
DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...
DeepMask Transforming Face Mask Identification for Better Pandemic Control in...
 
Streamlining Data Collection eCRF Design and Machine Learning
Streamlining Data Collection eCRF Design and Machine LearningStreamlining Data Collection eCRF Design and Machine Learning
Streamlining Data Collection eCRF Design and Machine Learning
 

Recently uploaded

會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
中 央社
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
EADTU
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
AnaAcapella
 

Recently uploaded (20)

OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
OS-operating systems- ch05 (CPU Scheduling) ...
 
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdfFICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
FICTIONAL SALESMAN/SALESMAN SNSW 2024.pdf
 
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文會考英文
 
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategiesMajor project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
Major project report on Tata Motors and its marketing strategies
 
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
ANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptxANTI         PARKISON          DRUGS.pptx
ANTI PARKISON DRUGS.pptx
 
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinhĐề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
Đề tieng anh thpt 2024 danh cho cac ban hoc sinh
 
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes GuàrdiaPersonalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
Personalisation of Education by AI and Big Data - Lourdes Guàrdia
 
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
diagnosting testing bsc 2nd sem.pptx....
 
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
TỔNG HỢP HƠN 100 ĐỀ THI THỬ TỐT NGHIỆP THPT TOÁN 2024 - TỪ CÁC TRƯỜNG, TRƯỜNG...
 
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
ĐỀ THAM KHẢO KÌ THI TUYỂN SINH VÀO LỚP 10 MÔN TIẾNG ANH FORM 50 CÂU TRẮC NGHI...
 
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer  Multilingual LearnersSupporting Newcomer  Multilingual Learners
Supporting Newcomer Multilingual Learners
 
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of TransportBasic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
Basic Civil Engineering notes on Transportation Engineering & Modes of Transport
 
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPSSpellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
Spellings Wk 4 and Wk 5 for Grade 4 at CAPS
 
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptxGraduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
Graduate Outcomes Presentation Slides - English (v3).pptx
 
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.pptAIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
AIM of Education-Teachers Training-2024.ppt
 
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopale-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
e-Sealing at EADTU by Kamakshi Rajagopal
 
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptxObserving-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
Observing-Correct-Grammar-in-Making-Definitions.pptx
 
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
Andreas Schleicher presents at the launch of What does child empowerment mean...
 
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio AppImproved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
Improved Approval Flow in Odoo 17 Studio App
 
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community PartnershipsSpring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
Spring gala 2024 photo slideshow - Celebrating School-Community Partnerships
 

A Review of Friction Stirs Welding

  • 1. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470 www.ijtsrd.com 254 IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017 Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com A Review of Friction Stirs Welding Danail Abdullah Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Malaysia, Malaysia ABSTRACT Through this paper an attempt is made to study and review a special welding technology of friction stir welding (FSW) which is a solid-state joining process. Friction Stir Welding (FSW) is a recent advanced technique, invented by The Welding Institute (TWI) in 1991, that utilizes a non consumable rotating welding tool to generate frictional heat and plastic deformation at the welding location; thereby, affecting the formation of a joint while the material is in the solid state. In particular, FSW can be used to join high-strength aerospace aluminum alloys and other high temperature metallic alloys that are difficult to weld by conventional fusion welding method. FSW is considered to be the most significant development in metal joining process in a decade The comprehensive body of knowledge that has built up with respect to the friction stir welding (FSW) of aluminum alloys. This study addresses the current state of understanding and development of the FSW process. The principles of weld formation, welding parameters, design principles, including metal flow and thermal history, before discussing how process parameters affect the weld microstructure. KEYWORDS Friction stir welding, metal flow, process parameters, mechanical properties, Microstructure. I. INTRODUCTION The welding of aluminum and its alloys has always represented a great challenge for researchers and technologists. Friction stir welding (FSW) is a new welding process that has produced low-cost and high- quality joints of aluminum alloys. For carrying out research work in any area, the first and an important phase are to review the available literature on the selected topic and the research problem can be formulated with clear objectives. In order to formulate the present research problem along with the methodology that could be adopted for accomplishing this research work, the selective review of the relevant literature surveyed is presented briefly. It is worth mentioning The Tanta University, Egypt is one of the first university and research centers that has worked in the field of friction stir welding pipes of aluminum alloys since 2013. Thomas (1997) focuses on this study the relatively new joining technology, friction stir welding (FSW). Friction stir welding can be used to join most aluminium alloys and surface oxide presents no difficulty to the process. On the basis of this study it was recommend that number of light weight materials suitable for the automotive, rail, marine and aerospace transportation industries can be fabricated by FSW. Ying et al., (1999) used FSW to join the plates of 2024 Al and 6060 Al having thickness of 0.6 cm each. The tool rotation speed was varied between 400 to 1200 rpm. Dislocation spirals and loops are observed in the 2024 Al intercalation regions within the weld zones at higher speeds (>800 rpm). Micro hardness profiles follow microstructural variations which result in a 40% reduction in the 6061 Al workpiece micro hardness and a 50% reduction in the 2024 Al workpiece micro hardness just outside the FSW zone. Sutton et al., (2002) prepared the weld joints of 7 mm thickness using 2024-T351 aluminium rolled sheet material by Friction stir welding. Metallurgical, hardness and quantitative energy dispersive X-ray measurements were performed. The tests demonstrated a segregated, banded, microstructure consisting of alternating hard particles. Since the band spacing is directly correlated with the welding tool advance per revolution, the results indicated that the opportunity exists to manipulate the friction stir weld process parameters in order to modify the weld microstructure and improve a range of material properties, including fracture resistance. Lee et al., (2003) welded A356 alloys sheets using friction-stir-welding to observe the effect of mechanical properties at the weld zone by varying the welding speeds. The microstructures of the weld zone
  • 2. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470 www.ijtsrd.com 255 IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017 Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com are composed of SZ (stir zone), TMAZ (thermo- mechanical affected zone) and BM (base metal). The microstructure of the SZ is very different from that of the BM. But the microstructure of TMAZ, where the original grains were greatly deformed, is characterized by dispersed eutectic Si particles aligned along the rotational direction of the welding tool. The mechanical properties of the weld zone are greatly improved in comparison to that of the BM. Mustafa and Adem (2004) prepared the weld joints of Al 1080 alloy using five different stirrers, one of them square cross-sectioned and the rest were cylindrical with 0.85, 1.10, 1.40 and 2.1 mm screw pitch. The stirrers pitched 1.40 and 2.0 mm acted like a drill rather than a stirrer and compelled the weld metal outward in the form of chips. Bonding could be affected with square cross section stirrer but poor mechanical and metallographic properties were observed. The specimen welded with cross-section stirrer has 60 N/mm2 Tensile Strength and the fracture took place within the weld metal. This type of stir sweeps a large amount of metal from the plasticized zone and results in an inhomogeneous structure. But the specimen welded using 0.85 and 1.10 mm pitched stirrers, have 110 N/mm2 UTS. The higher strength of the weld metal can be attributed to heat generation during stirring. Ahmed. M. El-Kassas et al. (2015) in this study effect to the mechanical properties in order to demonstrate the feasibility of friction stir welding for joining Al 6061 aluminum pipes with different thickness 2 to 4mm, rotational speeds 485 to 1400 RPM and a traverse speed 4 to 10 mm/min was applied. This work focuses on two methods such as artificial neural networks(ANN) using software (Pythia) and response surface methodology (RSM) to predict the tensile strength, the percentage of elongation and hardness of friction stir welded 6061 aluminum alloy. An artificial neural network (ANN) model was developed for the analysis of the friction stir welding parameters of Al 6061aluminum pipe. Response surface methodology (RSM) also developed and the values obtained for the response Tensile strengths, the percentage of elongation and hardness are compared with measured values. Chena et al., (2006) used friction stir welding (FSW) for 2219-O and 2219-T6 aluminium alloy to investigate the effects of the base material conditions on the FSW characteristics. The experimental results indicated that the base material condition has a significant effect on weld morphologies, weld defects, and mechanical properties of joints. The strength efficiency of 2219-O joints is found to be 100%, while that of 2219-T6 joints is only up to 82%. A M Khourshid and I. Sabry(2013) in this study effect Friction stir welding for pipes on Al 6063 alloy. The tool rotation 485 to 1400 rpm with a traverse speed 4 mm/min was applied. The Mechanical properties of welded joints were investigated using different mechanical tests including destructive test. Based on the stir welding experiments conducted in this The resultant microstructure was characterized using optical microscopy. Hirata et al., (2007) developed the relationship between the microstructure of stir zone and the mechanical properties of FS-welded 5083 aluminium alloy. The microstructures of the stir zones consisted of fine equiaxed grains at various FSW conditions. The grain size of the stir zone decreased with the decrease in friction heat flow during FSW. The results shown that the micro structure and mechanical properties of the FS-welded 5083 Al alloy joints were improved by the refinement of grain size of the stir zone. Cabibbo et al., (2007) investigated the microstructure and mechanical properties of a friction stir welded 6056-T6 aluminium alloy plates. The microstructure revealed different grain morphologies in the thermo- mechanically affected zones, in proximity of the weld nugget. The advancing side had fairly elongated, bent grains, whilst the broader retreating side had more elongated, narrower grains. Tensile tests showed yield and ultimate strength slightly lower across the weld as compared to the parent material. Reduction in ductility of the weld region was also observed. Kumara and Kailas (2008) investigated the influence of axial load and the effect of position of the interface with respect to the tool axis on tensile strength of the friction stir welded joint of aluminium alloy 7020-T6. The axial load is continuously varied by linearly increasing the interference between the tool shoulder and the surface of the base material. It is found that there is an optimal axial load, above which the weld is defect-free, with joint efficiency of 84%. Lombard et al., (2008) in this research work present a systematic approach to optimizing FSW process
  • 3. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470 www.ijtsrd.com 256 IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017 Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com parameters (tool rotational speed and feed rate). Eleven experiments were conducted by varying the tool rotational speed and welding speed. The tensile strength of the joint was increased from 289 to 313 MPa by varying the tool rotational speed from 400 rpm to 200 rpm at the constant welding speed of 85 mm/min. The tensile strength of the joint increased from 254 MPa to 315 MPa by varying the tool rotational speed from 635 rpm to 254 rpm at the constant welding speed 135 mm/min. The work indicates that the tool rotational speed is the key parameter governing the tensile strength. Ibraheem sabry et al., (2017) Aluminum can't successfully be arc welded in an air environment, due to the affinity for oxygen. If fusion welded in normal atmosphere oxidization readily happens and this outcome in both slag inclusion and porosity in the weld, greatly reducing its mechanical properties. To overcome these problems one of the most common ways of welding aluminum has been to a suggestion the friction stir welding. To work in this area needs to do a tremendous amount of experience and this thesis has provided general Specification of the process of friction stir welding pipes using three methods regression analysis (RA),Response surface methodology(RSM) and artificial neural networks (ANN) to infer the mechanical properties has this Specification so for the thickness of 2 to 4 mm, depending on the rotational speed from 485 to 1800(RPM) travel speed from 4 to 10 (mm/min to work comparative between three method ( (RA), (RSM) and (ANN)) through total error. Rajakumar et al., (2011) explored the influence of process and tool parameters on tensile strength properties of AA7075-T6 joints produced by friction stir welding. Tensile strength of the joints were evaluated and correlated with the microstructure, micro hardness of weld nugget. From this investigation it is found that the joint fabricated at a tool rotational speed of 1400 rpm, welding speed of 60 mm/min, axial force of 8 kN, using the tool with 15 mm shoulder diameter, 5 mm pin diameter, 45 HRC tool hardness yielded higher strength properties compared to other joints. Chen et al., (2005) investigated that, the tensile strength of the FSW joints of 2219-O aluminium alloy significantly improved by the PWHT process. The tensile properties of the joints welded at different welding speeds, before and after the heat treatment were evaluated. The results indicate that the heat- treated joints possess a higher tensile strength and a lower elongation than the as-welded joints. The as welded joints fracture in the base material zone, while the heat-treated joints fracture in the weld zone (WZ). This implies that the PWHT process has a significant effect on the fracture locations of the joints. Elangovana and Balasubramanian (2008) reported that the influences of various post-weld heat treatment procedures on tensile properties of friction stir-welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints. Solution treatment, an artificial aging treatment and a combination of both were given to the welded joints. Mechanical properties such as yield strength, tensile strength, elongation and joint efficiency were evaluated. A simple artificial aging treatment was found to be more beneficial than other post weld treatment methods Singh et al., (2011) reported the effect of post weld heat treatment (T6) on the microstructure and mechanical properties of friction stir welded 7039 aluminium alloy joints. FSW parameters were optimized by making welds at constant rotary speed of 635 rpm and welding speed of 8 and 12 mm/min. It was observed that the thermo-mechanically affected zone (TMAZ) showed coarser grains than that of nugget zone. As welded joint has highest joint efficiency (92.1%). Post weld heat treatment lowers yield strength, ultimate tensile strength but improves percentage elongation. Wang et al., (2008) reported the effect of welding processes (FSW and TIG) on the fatigue properties of 5052 aluminium-welded joints was analyzed based on fatigue testing. The results show that the fatigue properties of FSW welded joints are better than those of TIG welded joints. Cabello et al., (2008) made a comparative study on microstructural and mechanical characteristics of fusion welds (TIG) and solid-state welds (FSW) of Al–4.5 Mg–0.26 Sc heat-treatable aluminium alloy. The corresponding mechanical properties are evaluated through micro hardness measurements and tensile tests. The effect of a post-weld heat treatment on both microstructure and mechanical properties is further examined. The results suggest that hardening precipitates are comparatively more affected by the TIG than by the FSW process. This results in a substantial reduction of mechanical properties of TIG
  • 4. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470 www.ijtsrd.com 257 IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017 Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com welds that can be partially recovered through a post- weld heat treatment. Zhao et al., (2010) welded Al–Mg–Sc alloy plates by FSW and TIG welding. The effect of welding processes on mechanical and metallurgical properties of welded joints was analyzed. The results shown that the mechanical properties of FSW welded joint are much better than those of TIG welded joint. Moreover, tensile strength and yield strength of FSW joint are 19% and 31% higher than those of TIG joint, respectively. Due to the low welding temperature during FSW process and the excellent thermal stability of Al3(Sc,Zr) particles, the cold working microstructures can be well preserved. Zhen et al., (2011) made a comparative study of the mechanical and metallurgical properties of Al-Mg- Mn-Sc-Zr alloy weld joints prepared by FSW and TIG welding. The strength of FSW and TIG welded joints decreased as compared to the base metal but strength of FSW welded joints higher than the TIG welded joints. The loss of substructure strengthening and a very little loss of precipitation strengthening of Al3(Sc, Zr) cause the decreased strength of FSW welded joint. But for the TIG welded joint, the disappearance of both the strain hardening and most precipitation strengthening effect of Al3(Sc, Zr) particles contributed to its softening. At the same time, the grains in weld nugget zone of FSW welded joints were finer than those in the molten zone of TIG welded joints Lakshminarayanan and Balasubramanian (2008) applied Taguchi approach to determine the most influential control factors which will yield better tensile strength of the joints of friction stir welded RDE-40 aluminium alloy. Through the Taguchi parametric design approach, the optimum levels of process parameters (tool rotational speed, traverse speed and axial force) were determined. The results indicate that the rotational speed, welding speed and axial force are the significant parameters in deciding the tensile strength of the joint. Sarsilmaz and Çaydaş (2008) applied the full factorial experimental design to study the effect of friction-stir welding (FSW) parameters such as spindle rotational speed, traverse speed, and stirrer geometry on mechanical properties of AA 1050/AA 5083 alloy. Ultimate tensile strength (UTS) and hardness of welded joints were determined for this purpose. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and main effect plot were used to determine the significant parameters and set the optimal level for each parameter. A linear regression equation was derived to predict each output characteristic. Ibraheem Sabry (2017) discusses the cost analysis of pipe friction stir welding spicily aluminum 6061.cost estimation were performed on pipe with different thickness 2 to 4 mm. rotational speeds 485 to 1800 RPM and a travel speed 4 to 10 mm/min. The each cost component of joining Al 6061 aluminum pipe welding was each component cost (Labor cost, Power cost, Machine cost and Tooling cost) has been closely analyzed and major cost components have been included in the cost model. We used these cost models to predict the cost of friction stir welded pipe joints. Initial results show that the rotational speed, material thickness and travel speed increased due to increase the total cost. Ibraheem Sabry (2017) In this Work, a comprehensive practical study in total cost estimation of welded Aluminum 6061 pipes using three different types of welds, Metal Inert Gas (MIG), Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and Friction Stir Welding (FSW) . The cost component of joining Al 6061 aluminum pipe welding was each component cost (labor cost, Power cost, Ma-chine cost, shield gas cost(MIG,TIG), filler metal cost(MIG,TIG) and Tool cost(FSW)) has been closely analyzed and major cost components have been included in the cost model. We used these cost models to predict the cost of Metal Inert Gas (MIG), Tungsten Inert Gas (TIG) and friction stir welded pipe joints. Initial results show that MIG and TIG welding were less cost effective compared to FS welding, but it is possible that the cost of reduced friction stirs welding with quantitative prediction. CONCLUSIONS Still friction stir welding needs more research and study through the influence of the thickness of the metal, as well as the work of standardization of friction stir welding . REFERENCES [1] Misra and Kate N. Nagaraj,”Security in Wireless Ad Hoc Networks”, in Book The Handbook of Ad-Hoc Wireless Networks (Chapter 30), CRC Press LLC, 2003.
  • 5. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470 www.ijtsrd.com 258 IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017 Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com [2] Thomas, W.M., Nicholas, E.D., Needham, J.C., Murch, M.G., Templesmith, P. and Dawes, C.J. (1992). Improvements relating to friction welding. European Patent Specification 0 615 480 (PCT/GB92/02203). [3] The Welding Institute, Cambridge, 27 Nov. 1992. M. Sutton, B. Yang, A. Reynolds, and R. Taylor. “Microstructural studies of Fiction stir welds in 2024-T3 aluminum”. Materials Science and Engineering A 323 (2002) pp. 160-166. [4] Lee WB, Yeon YM, Jung SB "Evaluation of the microstructure and mechanical properties of fiction stir welded 6005 aluminum alloy",Mater Sci Technol(2003). [5] A.M., El-Kassas, A. M. Khourshid and I. Sabry, “Optimization of friction stir welding parameters for joining Aluminum pipes using regression analysis”. International Journal of Civil, Mechanical and Energy Science (IJAMES).2016 [6] Mustafa Kemal Kulekci experimental comparison of mig and friction stir welding processes for en aw-6061-t6 (aL mG1sI cU) aluminum alloy, The Arabian Journal for Science and Engineering, Volume 35, Number 1B2010, pp 321-328. [7] Chen, G., P. Yang, G.W. Kattawar, and M.I. Mishchenko, 2006: Scattering phase functions of horizontally oriented hexagonal ice crystals. J. Quant. Spectrosc. Radiat. Transfer, 100, 91-102, doi:10.1016/j.jqsrt.2005.11.029. [8] Ibraheem Sabry, Ahmed. M. El-Kassas “Total Error Analysis Role of Predicting Mechanical Properties by Friction Stir Welded Aluminum pipes “International journal of advanced production and industrial engineering(IJAPIE), Vol. 2, No. 1, 2017. [9] Hirata, H., Hinoda, Y., Nakajima, K., Kawamoto, K., Kikuno, N., Kawakami, K., Yamamura, S., Ueno, K., Majid, S., and Saini, S. (2009). Wnt antagonist gene DKK2 is epigenetically silenced and inhibits renal cancer progression through apoptotic and cell cycle pathways. Clin Cancer Res. 15, 5678-5687. [10]Cabibbo M., Mc Queenb H. J., Evangelista E., Spigarelli S., Paola M. D., Falchero A., (2007), “Micros tructure and mechanical property studies of AA6056 friction stir welded plate”, Materials Science and Engineering A, 460 – 461, pp. 86 – 94. [11]K. Kumar, Satish V. Kailas" The role of friction stir welding tool on material flow and weld formation" Materials Science and Engineering A 485 (2008) 367–374 Received 30 January 2007; received in revised form 30 July 2007; accepted 8 August 2007 [12] Lombard H, Hattingh D G, Steuwer A, James M N 2008 Optimising FSW process parameters to minimize defects and maximise fatigue life in 5083-H321 aluminium alloy, Eng. Fracture Mech. 75: 341–354 [13]A.M.Khourshid, I.Sabry “analysis, and design of Friction stir welding” International Journal of mechanical engineering and robotics research, Vol. 2, No. 3, 2013. [14]Rajkumar, S., Muralidharan, C., Balasubramanian ,V., "Optimization of the friction stir- welding process and the tool parameters to attain a maximum tensile strength of the AA7075-T6 aluminum alloy". J Eng Manuf,2010,pp.1175–91. [15]C.M. Chen, R. Kovacevic ,Finite element modeling of friction stir welding—thermal and thermomechanical analysis, International Journal of Machine Tools & Manufacture 43 (2003) 1319– 1326, Received 12 May 2003; accepted 10 June 2003 [16]Elangovan K. , Balasubramanian V. , Babu b S. , Predicting tensile strength of friction stir welded AA6061 aluminium alloy joints by a mathematical model, Materials and Design 30 (2009) 188 – 193 [17]Singh et. al. (2013), ―Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Joints Fabricated by FSW Of Aluminum Alloys 5083 And 6063 With Round And Square Tool Pin Profiles, International Conference on Advancements and Futuristic Trends in Mechanical and Materials Engineering (October 3 -6, 2013). [18]Wang, D. A., Chao, C. W., Lin, P. C. & Uan, J. Y., 2010. Mechanical characterization of friction stir spot microwelds. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, Volume 210, p. 1942– 1948 [19]A.Cabello et.al., Comparision of TIG welded and friction stir welded Al-4.5Mg-0.26Sc alloy Journal of Materials processing Tech nology vol.197, 2008, pp337-343. [20]Y.H. Zhao, S.B. Lin, Lin Wu, F.X. QuThe influence of pin geometry on bonding and mechanical properties in friction stir weld 2014 Al alloy
  • 6. International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development, Volume 1(4), ISSN: 2456-6470 www.ijtsrd.com 259 IJTSRD | May-Jun 2017 Available Online @www.ijtsrd.com [21]Yong zhao et.al.(2014),Microstructure and mechanical properties of Friction stir welded MG- 2Nd- 0.3Zn- 0.4Zr Mgalloy,ASMinternational JMEPEG 2 3:4136- 4142. [22]Lakshminarayanan, A.K., Balasubramanian, V. Tensile and Impact Toughness Properties of Gas Tungsten Arc Welded and Friction Stir Welded Interstitial Free Steel Joints 2010, Journal of Materials Engineering and Performance , pp.8 (Available online). [23]Sarsilmaz F, ÇaydaşU, Hasçalik A, Tanriover L (2010a). The joint properties of dissimilar aluminum plates joined by friction stir welding. Int. J. Mat. Res., 101: 692-699. [24]Jian Qing Su et al, Microstructural evolu tion during ESW/FSP of high strength aluminum alloys, Material science and Engineering vol.A 405, 2005, pp277-286. [25]Ibraheem Sabry, Ahmed M El-Kassas " Cost estimation of Pipe friction stirs Welding "International Journal of Advance Research and Innovation, Volume 5, Issue 1 (2017) 19-23 [26] Ahmed M. El-Kassas and Ibraheem Sabry" A Comparison between FSW, MIG and TIG based non Total Cost Estimation for Aluminum Pipes" European Journal of Advances in Engineering and Technology, 2017, 4 (3): 158-163