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A Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Based Program
for Developing the Kindergarteners’ English Language Skills
By
Dr. Mohammad Abu El-Magd* Dr. Neveen Ahmad Khalil**
2012
Abstract
The purpose of this research was to develop the Kindergarteners’
English Language skills. The target English Language Skills were:
Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing that were appropriate to KG1
Kids. Four measurement tools were developed by the researchers and
validated. They were: 1) Listening test, 2) Speaking Test, 3) Reading Test
and 4) Writing Test. The participants were a group of 32 KG1 kids at
Osman Ahmad Osman School (one of Ismailia Public Schools in Egypt).
The research design was one group pre- and post-test experimental design.
One of the modules of the proposed program was fully developed and
applied by the use of the Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) as
an effective and helpful approach to teaching English as a Foreign
Language (EFL) to kindergarteners with the classroom learning. The
findings revealed that the proposed program had a significant positive
effect on developing the KG1 kids’ EFL skills.
Key Words: CALL, Language Skills, Listening , Speaking, Reading,
Writing, Integration of Language Skills and Kindergarten
* Lecturer of Methods of TEFL, Ismailia Faculty of Education, Suez
Canal University, Egypt.
** Lecturer of Methods of Kindergaten Teaching, Ismailia Faculty of
Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt.
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A Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Based Program
for Developing the Kindergarteners’ English Language Skills
Background and Problem
Kindergarten is a significant year in a child's development because it
is the introduction to many academic and social skills. Kindergarten
prepares the children for more structured schooling. In the last few years,
skills that used to be taught in first grade of the primary stage are now
introduced in kindergarten, so kindergarten has become more focused and
goal-oriented than it was in the past (Davis,2012). Brain research supports
the belief that teaching a foreign language to kindergarteners can be a key
factor in language ability. There is a critical period hypothesis that says the
cortex of a child’s brain is more plastic than that of an older learner and
therefore a child has many more synapses taking place. These synapses or
connections occurring in the brain result in a greater ability to pronounce
particular sounds due to the fact that a child’s facial muscles have not yet
matured and he/she has not lost the sensitivity to phonetic distinctions.
Another reason to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the start of
a child’s academic career is that children who study EFL score higher on
verbal standardized tests conducted in English (Faust, 2012).
This is almost in line with Ontario Ministry of Education’s
Kindergarten Program (2007:6) which affirms that early EFL have a
profound effect on the kindergarteners’ development. On the other hand,
EFL in the kindergarten stage should be incorporated into a Language Arts
program. The language arts are listening, speaking, reading and writing
(Penn, 2012). Thus, bilingual kindergarten (Native Language/English)
teachers claim that kindergarteners have the ability and the necessity to go
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through a well-structured program including the four basic language skills
of listening, speaking, reading and writing (Leal, 2012).
Accordingly, the researcher conducted content analysis, a sample EFL
test involving the four language skills and open interviews with the
Kindergarten supervisors, Senior Kindergarten teachers and Kindergarten
teachers of EFL as a preliminary investigation. The content analysis was
conducted to check out how the Kindergarteners’ EFL program fulfill their
needs for a sound linguistic development of their language skills of
listening, speaking, reading and writing; the sample EFL exam was
administered to check out the KG1’ performance level in English and open
interviews were conducted in order to find out the EFL Skills that KG1
need as well as their performance level in the four basic language skills.
In light of the content analysis of the kindergarteners’ EFL courses at
the public schools in Levels 1 and 2, these courses do not involve listening
or speaking skills at all, besides they lack even the fundamental basics in
reading and writing for kindergarteners. Also, there are no higher general
EFL courses at Levels 1 and 2 in the kindergarten stage at the public
experimental language schools since they vary from one school to another
depending on the EFL teachers’ self-made EFL handouts to
kindergarteners. Consequently, a preliminary EFL Exam was conducted to
the KG1 in both public schools (2 schools) and public language
experimental schools (2 schools) in Ismailia City in Egypt. Based on the
findings of this exam, it was found out that kindergarteners lack the
listening and speaking skills as well as they encounter EFL reading and
writing difficulties. The findings with this pilot study are in line with the
problem of the study conducted by Labib (2010:1) in Arish City in Egypt,
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which stated that Kindergarteners lack the phonological awareness skills in
EFL. This, in turn, affects negatively the kindergarteners’ listening,
speaking, reading and writing skills as proved by a study conducted by Adl
Hameed (2009).
Review of literature and related studies
Since the current research aimed at developing English as a Foreign
Language (EFL) skills for kindergarteners at Egyptian Public Schools and
Public Language, the first step is to identify the most important sub-skills
in each of the four basic language skills that are necessary for the second
level kindergarteners. Besides, the use of a Computer-assisted Language
Learning (CALL) approach based program to develop such skills.
Therefore, a review of literature and related studies was provided in the
following:
1. Kindergarteners’ English as a Foreign Language )EFL( Skills.
2. CALL Approach and its key role in an effective and active TEFL.
1. Kindergarteners’ English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Skills:
1.1 Listening:
Listening is one of the most important skills of EFL in general
and for kindergarteners in particular for they help the kindergarteners
develop their ability to understand the spoken text. Even at the
beginner level of the kindergarteners, they are the starting point for
their oral communication later in the next stages of their academic
years at schools and in their life after graduation since it is harder to
develop the listening skills for the EFL adult learners who could not
manage to develop their listening skills at a younger age.
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Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the
following most significant listening skills which are necessary for
kindergarteners. According to The Egyptian National Standards for
Kindergarten (The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:84), the
listening skills involved are:
a. Focusing on what is heard.
b. Understanding simple information presented orally.
c. Following and understanding one or two step oral directions.
d. Expressing feelings based on what is heard (non-verbal cues
and facial expressions)
e. Descriminating among phonemes in the three-phoneme-words
(Pen, Cat, Dog)
f. Recognizing rhyming words with alliteration (Bat – Cat, Pan –
Fan)
However there are other important listening skills that KG miss in
Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG:
a. Understanding simple information presented through media
b. Understanding question words (interrogatives)
c. Understanding spoken simple and short sentences.
d. Understanding spoken simple adjectives and their antonyms
(Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:8 ; California State
Board of Education , 2009:5; Utah State Office of Education,
2010: 25; and North Carolina Department of Public Instruction ,
2012:20)
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1.2 Speaking:
Speaking is also a significant EFL skill for kindergarteners. In
this respect, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction
(2012:20-21) states that kindergarteners should engage in
conversations about grade-appropriate topics and texts, thus they
should be given the opportunity to take part actively in a variety of
rich and structured conversations.
Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the
following most significant speaking skills which are necessary for
kindergarteners. According to The Egyptian National Standards for
Kindergarten (The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:85), the
Speaking skills involved are:
a. Pronouncing the phonemes of the alphabet.
b. Repeating orally the spoken words or songs.
c. Expressing feelings orally (happiness, sadness, etc)
However there are other important speaking skills that KG miss
in Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG:
a. Confirming understanding of a spoken text orally presented
information by asking and answering questions.
b. Asking and answering questions in order to seek help, get
information, and get permission to do something or clarify
what is not understood.
c. Using the question words (interrogatives) orally.
d. Producing simple two or three-letter words.
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(Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:7 ; California State
Board of Education , 2009:5; Utah State Office of Education,
2010: 25; and North Carolina Department of Public Instruction ,
2012:20-21)
1.3 Reading:
Reading ,as an EFL skill to kindergarteners, is the most
important language skill since it ultimately aims at developing the
kindergarteners’ phonological awareness whereas Kindergarteners at
Egyptian schools lack the phonological awareness in EFL as stated
by a study conducted by Labib (2010:1). Moreover, reading must not
be regarded as simply the teaching of grammar or vocabulary;
however it involves attaching meaning to form the language as well
as extracting meaning from print (English Section of the Advisory
Inspectorate and the Institute of Language in Education, 1993: 307-
310). A study was conducted by Gwendolyn (2006:2-98) to prove
the great influence of Phonics as a basic part of a fundamental
reading program on EFL learning in Chinese Classrooms especially
for kindergarteners. In this regard, the main objective of this study
was to prove the importance of starting to teach EFL with phonics.
Thus, he claims that phonics (as an essential part of the EFL reading
foundation program to kindergarteners) is vital for anyone who cares
about their children‘s education and wants to get their money‘s
worth sending their kids to English language centers.
Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the
following most significant reading skills which are necessary for
kindergarteners. According to The Egyptian National Standards for
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Kindergarten (The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:85), the
Reading skills involved are:
a. Recognizing and naming all upper- and lowercase letters of the
alphabet.
b. Following words from left to right, top to bottom
c. Demonstrating basic knowledge of letter-sound
correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent
sound for each consonant.
d. Guessing the first letter of the words in light of the attached
pictures.
e. Using pictures and context to make predictions about the story
content.
However there are other important reading skills that KG miss in
Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG:
a. Concepts about print:
➢ Identifying the front cover, back cover and title page of the
book.
➢ Understanding that printed materials provide information.
➢ Understanding that words are separated by spaces in print.
b. Phonemic Awareness:
➢ Distinguishing between similarly spelled words by
identifying the sounds of the letters that differ.
➢ Isolating and pronouncing the initial sound (phoneme) in
three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant) words.
c. Decoding and Word Recognition:
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➢ Matching all consonant and short-vowel sounds to
appropriate letters.
➢ Understanding that as letters of words change, so do the
sounds (i.e., the alphabetic principle).
d. Reading Comprehension:
➢ Understanding the main idea of a printed text of a short
sentence.
(Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:1-4 ;California
State Board of Education , 2009:1-2; Utah State Office of
Education,2010:13-18; North Carolina Department of
Public Instruction , 2012:8-15; and IOWA Department of
Education, 2012)
1.4 Writing:
Kindergarten marks the first year of elementary school and the
introduction to a variety of new skills and concepts. Therefore,
writing, as an EFL skill to kindergarteners, is as important as the
other EFL skills since kindergarteners are at an age when their
interest in writing can ebb and wane. Thus, it is a good idea to
engage them in writing-oriented activities )O’Neal, 2012(. Among
the many things that children learn during kindergarten is
handwriting as it is a skill that is required for both academic and day-
to-day lives. Handwriting is perhaps one of the most important of
these skills since Kindergarteners begin learning how to print the
letters of the alphabet, and using a variety of engaging activities that
capture their interest can help them master this basic, yet vital skill
(Mae, 2012).
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Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the most
significant writing skills that are necessary for kindergarteners.
According to The Egyptian National Standards for Kindergarten
(The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:85), the Writing skills
involved are:
a. Writing by moving from left to right and from top to bottom
b. Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by tracing
models.
c. Writing the name by hand or by the keyboard.
However there are other important writing skills that KG miss in
Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG:
a. Organization and Focus:
➢ Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by
dictation.
b. Penmanship:
➢ Writing uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet
independently, attending to the form and proper spacing of
the letters.
(Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:5-6 ; California
State Board of Education , 2009:3; Utah State Office of
Education ,2010:21,28; EduGuide Staff, 2010; and North
Carolina Department of Public Instruction , 2012:16-19)
Conclusion
Depending on the previously mentioned sub skills in each of the
four basic language skills needed for kindergarteners in light of the
literature review, a list of EFL skills was prepared to be submitted to
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jurors in the field of TEFL and Kindergarten Education to identify
the EFL skills that are necessary for and appropriate to KG1 in
Egypt. Accordingly the following EFL skills were used in the
proposed CALL program:
Listening
1. Understanding one step directions.
2. Understanding spoken simple words.
3. Understanding spoken simple short phrases or sentences.
4. Understanding spoken simple adjectives and their antonyms.
Speaking
1. Asking and answering simple questions orally in order to seek
help, get and provide information, or get permission to do
something.
2. Speaking audibly to express thoughts, feelings and ideas clearly.
3. Producing simple words or short sentences/ phrases.
4. Spelling orally the first letter of the words they hear.
5. Saying the meaning of words in light of the accompanying
pictures or their equivalents in Arabic.
6. Singing simple elementary songs.
7. Saying the alphabets in their correct order.
Reading
a. Concepts about print
1. Following letters from left to right.
2. Naming all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet.
b. Phonemic Awareness
1. Pronouncing the initial phonemes in words.
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2. Recognizing rhyming words.
c. Decoding and Word Recognition
1. Producing the primary or most frequent sound for the letters.
2. Reading the letters of the sounds they hear.
Writing
a. Organization and Focus
1. Writing the alphabets in their correct order by moving from
left to right.
2. Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by
dictation.
3. Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by
reading a written model.
4. Writing the first letter of the words in light of their provided
pictures.
5. Writing the spoken letters.
b. Penmanship
1. Writing uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet
independently, attending to the form and proper spacing of
the letters.
2. CALL Approach and its key role in an effective and active TEFL:
The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in
the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to
the swift and modern changes in language software (Bagheri, E. et
al, 2012). The use of CALL has won a secure place among the
resources available to the modern language teacher. Language
centers throughout the world know that they cannot do without
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computes for learning purposes (Admin: 2011). However, to the best
of the researcher’s knowledge, CALL is not widely employed in the
field of TEFL in Egypt.
2.1 What is the CALL Approach?
Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an
approach to teaching and learning in which the computer and
computer-based resources, such as Internet, are used to
present, reinforce and assess. It also includes the search for
and the investigation of applications in language teaching and
learning. CALL has also been known by several other terms
such as technology-enhanced language learning (Jani, 2011:1).
In light of the variables of this research, CALL approach is an
offline multimedia-based approach to teaching of EFL which
works as an effective assistant in the classroom instruction of
EFL to the KG1 in a way that helps develop their EFL
language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing.
2.2 The CALL approach’s key role in teaching EFL skills:
The CALL approach is supposed to help teach EFL
effectively. As for the positive effect of CALL on TEFL, a
study was conducted by Almekhlafi (2006) to investigate the
effect of CALL on the United Arab Emirates preparatory
pupils’ EFL learning. The findings proved the role of CALL
as an effective and active approach to TEFL for preparatory
pupils. Therefore, CALL takes into consideration the
development of all the four skills, listening, speaking, reading
and writing, required for EFL learning since it is based on
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enhancing an interactive teaching and individualizing learning
(Shiwani,2009).
2.2.1 The CALL approach and Teaching Listening:
In general, CALL helps enhanced EFL learners’
listening ability (Bingham & Larson, 2006). In this
respect, a study was conducted by Phuong (2010) to
investigate the effect of using the CALL approach to
promote the adult EFL learners’ listening skills in
Vietnamese universities. The findings proved its
effectiveness in developing their listening skills.
Moreover, a study was conducted by Nobar &
Ahangari (2012) to determine the impact of CALL on
Iranian EFL adult learners’ task-based listening skills
at Islamic Azad University. The results asserted the
effectiveness of using the CALL approach in
developing the EFL learners’ listening skills.
2.2.2 The CALL approach and Teaching Speaking:
The development of speaking skills through the
CALL approach, is being given the attention it deserves
but still a lot has to be achieved (Shiwani, 2009). The
CALL approach can help develop the speaking skills
through an integration between speaking and listening
(Zou, 2008) since listening and speaking are closely
related together in EFL learning (Murphy, 1991 and
Hedge, 2000). Accordingly, CALL helps provide
controlled interactive speaking practice inside the
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classroom based on the multimedia-based listening
instruction of the CALL approach. Therefore, using
CALL has led to small improvements in ability to
engage in meaningful conversation in the EFL context
(Shiwani, 2009). In this regard, CALL can supplement
face-to-face teaching but cannot replace it to develop
the EFL learners’ speaking skills.
2.2.3 The CALL approach and Teaching Reading:
CALL is an effective approach to teaching
reading in EFL courses (Soe et al, 2000). Magisterska et
al (2011) refer to the following impacts of CALL on
Teaching Reading in an EFL context:
a. Computers can present the text in a variety of ways
apart from a plain printed one. The text can be
accompanied by animation and sound which make both
the text and reading more interesting.
b. Computerized reading activities are also more
challenging, interesting, motivating and they demand a
lot of attention and full participation on the part of the
learner.
2.2.4 The CALL approach and Teaching Writing:
Computer-based writing instruction, as a part of
CALL approach to TEFL, plays a vital role in
developing some writing skills. In this respect, a study
was conducted by Mohammadi et al (2012) in which
they confirmed the effects of CALL approach on
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developing the EFL adult learners’ writing accuracy.
Another study was conducted by Jafarian et al (2012) to
determine the effect of CALL on EFL high school
students’ writing achievement. The findings confirmed
that Computer-assisted writing instruction helps develop
their writing skills better than the traditional instruction
since it increases their motivation to write better and
provide them with constructive feedback. However,
computers cannot properly assess writing skills
(Shiwani, 2009). Therefore, CALL can supplement
face-to-face teaching but cannot replace it.
Conclusion
Generally, CALL improves command over basic skills in
language classrooms (Shiwani, 2009). Thus, the CALL approach is
effective in developing the EFL learners’ language skills. However,
considering the current level of technology, most significant gains
are achieved in reading and listening because computers cannot
properly assess speaking and writing skills. Consequently, the
current research attempted to design a module in a proposed EFL
program which is based on the CALL approach in order to develop
the KG1 kids’ EFL skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing
in combination with face-to-face classroom teaching.
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Statement of the problem
According to the findings of the conducted pilot studies (Content
Analysis, Preliminary English Exam and Open interviews), it has been
found out that:
a. There is almost no EFL course in Kindergarten Stage at the
public schools.
b. There is no higher level EFL courses in Kindergarten Stage at
the public experimental language schools.
c. Kindergarteners at the public schools and the public
experimental language schools in Ismailia encounter serious
difficulties in learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL).
Therefore, the current research sought to find answers to the following
questions:
1. What are the EFL sub-skills that KG1 kids need in the four basic
language skills?
2. What are the features of the proposed CALL approach based
program?
3. What is the effect of applying the first module of the proposed
CALL approach based program on the KG1 kids’ EFL learning in
each of the following language skills:
a. Listening?
b. Speaking?
c. Reading?
d. Writing?
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Hypotheses
1. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level
(0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of
the listening test in favor of the post-measurement.
2. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level
(0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of
the speaking in favor of the post-measurement.
3. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level
(0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of
the reading in favor of the post-measurement.
4. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level
(0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of
the writing test in favor of the post-measurement.
Objectives
1. Proposing a CALL approach based program and designing the first
module to develop the KG1 kids’ English Language Skills at
Ismailia public schools.
2. Determining the effect of teaching the developed module by using
the CALL approach on the KG1 kids’ EFL skills at Ismailia Public
schools.
Delimitations
The current research was delimited to the following:
1. KG1 at Ismailia Public Schools in Egypt.
2. The four basic EFL Skills that are appropriate to the KG1.
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3. Developing the first module of the proposed CALL based EFL
program for the 1st semester of the 1st level kindergarten stage.
4. Applying the first module of the developed program.
Method
1. The Design:
In the current research, the One Group Pre and Post Test Design was
used as indicated in the following table:
Table (1)
The Research Design
Pre-measurement Experimental
Treatment
Post-measurement
The
participants
Conducting the EFL
Tests
Teaching the
developed CALL
approach based first
module
Conducting the
EFL Tests
2. The Participants:
A Random sample of 32 KG1 kids at one of Ismailia Public Schools.
3. The instruments:
• The developed module in the proposed CALL approach based
program (prepared by the researchers)
• Four EFL tests aiming at assessing the KG1 kids’ listening,
speaking, reading and writing (prepared by the researchers)
The Program
A framework was proposed for the CALL-based program to teaching
EFL to KG1. The program is based on E-learning (multimedia-based
presentations) except for the classroom learning sessions in which the
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kindergarteners will practice speaking or use their handwriting worksheets
(for letter tracing) and blank worksheets (for drawing and dictation). The
program involves the following three modules:
1. Module 1 “Hello” in this module the kindergarteners learn the
following:
• Instructions )“Stand up”, “Sit down”, “Go potty” and “Be
quiet”(
• Expressions “)I’m Happy” and “I’m Sad”(
• Requests )“Water, please” and “Toilet, please”(
• Welcoming and Greeting )“Hello” and “Good Morning”(
• Getting and providing information )“What’s your name?”
and “How old are you?”(
• Words )“Black”, “White” and “Circle”(
• The uppercase and lowercase of the letters A,B and C
(Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing)
• The major phoneme of each of these letters.
• Words that start with the letters A, B and C.
2. Module 2 “I am in KG1” in this module the
kindergarteners learn the following:
• Asking for help )“Please, open my bag” and “Please, open
my pencil case”(
• Expressions “)I’m Hungry” and “I’m Thirsty”(
• Requests )“Draw, please” and “Color, please”(
• Adjectives and their antonyms )“Tall”, “Short”, “Big”,
“Small”, “Thin” and “Fat”(
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• Getting and providing information )“Which school are you
in?” and “Which class are you in?”(
• Words )“Blue”, “Red” and “Triangle”(
• The uppercase and lowercase of the letters D,E and F
(Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing)
• The major phoneme of each of these letters.
• Words that start with the letters D, E and F.
3. Module 3 “Bye” in this module the kindergarteners learn
the following:
• Asking for help )“Pencil, please” and “Rubber, please”(
• Expressions “)I’m Sleepy” and “I’m Tired”(
• Requests )“Write, please” and “Read, please”(
• Adjectives and their antonyms )“Cold”, “Hot”, “Living”,
and “Non-living”(
• Getting and providing information )“What is your
nationality?” and “Who created us?”(
• Words )“Yellow”, “Green” and “Square”(
• The uppercase and lowercase of the letters G,H and I
(Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing)
• The major phoneme of each of these letters.
• Words that start with the letters G, H and I.
The first module was fully developed as a model to figure out the
program’s effect on the KG1’ EFL skills. The duration of Module 1 is
16 hours (4 days a week / 4 hours a day). The module’s multimedia-
based layout is shown in the following figure:
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The Title
Page
The
Objectives
Page
Intro Pages
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3D Texts
Pictures
Content and Task Pages
Supported by
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Videos
Figure (1) The layout of the multimedia presentation sessions in Module 1
“Hello” of the CALL-based Program to teaching EFL skills to KG1
Task Page
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Procedures
To answer the first question:
1. Preparing an inventory of the four basic EFL skills and their inherent
sub-skills by:
a. Reviewing literature and related studies for the Kindergarten’s
EFL skills.
b. Conducting open interviews (to identify the necessary 1st level
Kindergarten’s EFL skills( with the following:
i. Kindergarten supervisors.
ii. Senior kindergarten teachers at the public and
experimental language schools.
iii. Kindergarten teachers of EFL at the public and
experimental language schools.
2. Submitting the EFL skills’ inventory to a jury committee in the field
of TEFL and Kindergarten Education to identify the most important
and appropriate EFL skills to the KG1.
To answer the second question:
1. The analysis stage:
In light of the learners’ needs assessment )the validated inventory of
KG1’ EFL skills, the coming steps were followed:
a. Identifying the goals of the proposed program.
b. Specifying the topics of the proposed program.
c. Identifying the multimedia elements that were necessary for
presenting the specified content; such as text, sound, video,
animation, graphics, etc.
2. The design stage:
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a. Dividing the specified topics into three modules.
b. Formulating the aims of each module.
c. Formulating the objectives of each topic in each module.
d. Collecting the content of the first module in light of its aims
and objectives.
e. Designing the embedded activities of the first module either
on hand-outs for the classroom learning instruction, or the on
computer for the multimedia-based instruction.
f. Creating the storyboard of the first module so that it included
the following:
i. User interaction controls.
ii. Screen layouts.
iii. Navigation maps.
3. The production stage:
a. Getting and producing the previously identified multimedia
elements for the first module.
b. Authoring the first module by using the computer software.
c. Producing the sheets and the handouts that were attached to
the multimedia-based instruction while using the CALL
approach.
4. The evaluation stage:
a. Alpha test:
Submitting the first module which was fully developed, and
the framework of the other two modules to jurors in the fields
of TEFL, Kindergarten Education and Instructional
Technology.
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b. Beta test:
Making the necessary modifications in light of the pilot
application of the first module in the proposed CALL
approach based program.
5. The application stage:
a. Publishing the first module for final application on:
i. DVD for the multimedia based instruction.
ii. Hand-outs and sheets for the classroom instruction.
b. Applying the first module, using the CALL approach in
October of the first semester of the scholastic year 2012-2013
starting from 7th of October on Sunday until the 7th of
November on Wednesday (4 days per week from Sunday until
Wednesday) at Osman Ahmad Osman public school in
Ismailia (Egypt).
To answer the third question:
1. Designing the tests in light of the objectives of the first module so
that each test measures a skill (Listening Test, Speaking Test,
Reading Test and Writing Test).
2. Submitting the tests to jurors in the fields of TEFL and Kindergarten
Education to verify their content validity.
3. Checking the reliability of the tests by using the test-retest method.
4. Administering the final forms of the four EFL tests to the
participants before and after the treatment (One test per day).
5. Collecting the data from the pre and post-measurements.
6. Treating the data statistically.
7. Discussing the findings and offering explanations.
‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬
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Findings and discussion of results
Investigating the experimental hypotheses by conducting paired-samples T-
test as follows:
1. Hypothesis I stated “There is a statistical significant difference at the
significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-
measurements of the listening test in favor of the post-
measurement”. The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis.
The following table shows the findings related to the listening skill.
Table (2)
T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the
Pre and Post-measurements of the Listening Test
Number of
Participants
Mean
Scores
Standard
Deviation
T-Value Significance
Pre-measurement
32
11.613 5.34589
-15.540 .000
Post-measurement 23.226 3.61211
The table above demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at
(0.05) level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved.
As for the Effect Size on the listening skill, it was estimated by using
the following equation:
T2
2= __________
T2 + df
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The table below shows the related findings:
Table (3)
The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1
on the listening skill
Independent
variable
Dependent
variable
T2 Value DF 2 Effect Size
level
The CALL-based
Program
(Module 1)
Listening
Skill
241.4916 31 0.88 High
Accordingly, the proposed program is supposed to have a high and
positive effect on the KG1’ Listening skill. This significance may be
due to the following:
a. Using the CALL approach to teaching listening. [As stated
by Larson (2006) and approved in the study conducted by
Nobar & Ahangari (2012)]
b. Providing listening with real life videos.
c. Providing the listening using native speakers’ voices.
d. Synchronizing the audio with the text and pictures.
2. Hypothesis II stated “There is a statistical significant difference at
the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and
post-measurements of the speaking in favor of the post-
measurement”. The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis.
The following table shows the findings related to the Speaking skill.
‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬
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Table (4)
T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the
Pre and Post-measurements of the Speaking Test
Number of
Participants
Mean
Scores
Standard
Deviation
T-
Value
Significance
Pre-
measurement 32
7.9062 3.77051
-17.161 .000
Post-
measurement
22.7500 4.28802
As for the Effect Size on the speaking skill, it was estimated by
using the following equation:
T2
2= __________
T2 + df
The table below shows the related findings:
Table (5)
The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1
on the speaking skill
Independent
variable
Dependent
variable
T2 Value DF 2 Effect Size
level
The CALL-based
Program
(Module 1)
Speaking Skill 294.499921 31 0.90 High
The table above demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at
(0.05) level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved. Accordingly, the
proposed program is supposed to have a high and positive effect on
the KG1’ Speaking skill. This significance may be due to the
following:
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a. Integrating Listening and Speaking by using the CALL
approach. [As claimed by Zou (2008)]
b. Introducing the topic of speaking using different multimedia
elements; such as text, audio, video , animation, pictures,
…etc. [As referred to by Shiwani (2009)]
c. Using the CALL approach to enhance the classroom learning.
[As stated by Shiwani (2009)]
3. Hypothesis III stated “There is a statistical significant difference at
the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and
post-measurements of the reading in favor of the post-measurement”.
The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis. The following
table shows the findings related to the Reading skill.
Table (6)
T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the
Pre and Post-measurements of the Reading Test
Number of
Participants
Mean
Scores
Standard
Deviation
T-
Value
Significance
Pre-
measurement 32
16.7419 3.08726
-
14.218
.000
Post-
measurement
25.8387 2.64697
As for the Effect Size on the reading skill, it was estimated by using
the following equation:
T2
2= __________
T2 + df
‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬
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ϮϬϭϮ
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The table below shows the related findings:
Table (7)
The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1
on the reading skill
Independent
variable
Dependent
variable
T2
Value
DF 2 Effect Size
level
The CALL-based
Program
(Module 1)
Reading
Skill 202.151524 31 0.86 High
Table (7) demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at (0.05)
level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved. Accordingly, the proposed
program is supposed to have a high and positive effect on the KG1’
Reading skill. This significance may be due to the following:
1. Integrating listening and reading by using the CALL
approach. [As demonstrated by Soe et al (2000)]
2. Using the CALL-based modeling instruction to teach
phonics. [As explained by Magisterska et al (2011)]
3. Synchronizing the Reading Text with the Audio, video or
Pictures. [As approved by Magisterska et al (2011)]
4. Hypothesis IV stated “There is a statistical significant difference at
the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and
post-measurements of the Writing test in favor of the post-
measurement”. The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis.
The following table shows the findings related to the Writing skill.
‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬
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ϮϬϭϮ
)
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Table (8)
T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the
Pre and Post-measurements of the Writing Test
Number of
Participants
Mean
Scores
Standard
Deviation
T-Value Significance
Pre-
measurement 32
16.3548 4.77876
-11.631 .000
Post-
measurement
24.4516 3.90588
As for the Effect Size on the writing skill, it was estimated by using
the following equation:
T2
2= __________
T2 + df
The table below shows the related findings
Table (9)
The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1 on the writing skill
Independent
variable
Dependent
variable
T2
Value
DF 2 Effect
Size level
The CALL-based
Program
(Module 1)
Writing Skill 135.280161 31 0.81 High
The table above demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at
(0.05) level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved. Accordingly, the
proposed program is supposed to have a high and positive effect on
the KG1’ Writing skill. This significance may be due to the
following:
1. Integrating Listening, Reading and Writing by using the
CALL approach. [As referred to by Shiwani (2009)]
‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬
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2. Introducing the Writing tasks by using different multimedia
elements; such as text, audio, video, animation, pictures, etc.
[As proved by a study conducted by Jafarian et al (2012)]
3. Using the CALL approach to enhance the classroom
learning. [As referred to by Shiwani (2009)]
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)
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IOWA Department of Education. (2012), English Language Arts
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)
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‫الملخص‬
‫على‬ ‫قائم‬ ‫برنامج‬
‫بمساندة‬ ‫اللغ‬ ‫تعلم‬
‫اآلى‬ ‫الحاسب‬
‫ض‬ ‫الر‬ ‫أطفا‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫اأنجليزي‬ ‫اللغ‬ ‫ارا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لتنمي‬
‫الحالي‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫فت‬ ‫ه‬
‫إ‬
‫ا‬ ‫أط‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اانج‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫تن‬ ‫ل‬
‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫القراء‬ ، ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ،‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ :‫هي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ ‫كانت‬ .)‫ر‬ ‫(م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اعي‬ ‫باإس‬ ‫ض‬ ‫الر‬
‫عالج‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫كانت‬ . ‫ض‬ ‫الر‬ ‫مرح‬ ‫في‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫مع‬ ‫ناسب‬ ‫ت‬
‫ي‬ ‫جري‬ ‫ال‬
‫هي‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حقيق‬ ‫ل‬
‫سان‬ ‫ب‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫تع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫قائم‬ ‫برنامج‬
‫الحاسب‬
‫اآل‬
‫ي‬ ‫فاع‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ال‬ ‫من‬ ‫حقق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫القيا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ .
‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬ ،‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬ :‫هي‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ال‬
، ‫ح‬
‫ص‬ ‫من‬ ‫حقق‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تم‬ ‫ق‬ . ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬ ‫القراء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫القراء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬
‫من‬ ‫ع‬ ‫مج‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫عين‬ ‫كانت‬ . ‫ا‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬
32
‫ل‬ ‫ط‬
‫ط‬
‫اأ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أط‬ ‫من‬
‫اإس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫بإح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬ ‫يا‬ ‫رح‬ ‫ب‬
‫ي‬ ‫جري‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يم‬ ‫ال‬ ‫كا‬ .) ‫ا‬ ‫عث‬ ‫أح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫(عث‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اعي‬
‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫بين‬ ‫امل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫حقيق‬ ‫ب‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يم‬ ‫تق‬ ‫تم‬ ‫ق‬ . ‫اح‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ل‬
‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫لقطا‬ ‫تي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫سجيا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫يس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫في‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ال‬ ‫سائط‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫باس‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اإنج‬
‫ك‬ ‫النطق‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ب‬ ‫لك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫طح‬ ‫م‬
‫ا‬ ‫إم‬ ‫لك‬ ‫العا‬ ‫اسي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫اخل‬ ‫ف‬ ‫الحر‬ ‫اب‬
‫ير‬ ‫تط‬ ‫تم‬ ‫ق‬ . ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫في‬ ‫م‬ ‫جابات‬ ‫باس‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫في‬ ‫الراجع‬ ‫ي‬ ‫غ‬ ‫بال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬
‫اإيجابي‬ ‫اأثر‬ ‫عن‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ائج‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أس‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫فاع‬ ‫من‬ ‫حقق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يق‬ ‫تط‬
‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫تن‬ ‫في‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ال‬
‫يا‬ ‫رح‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أط‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اانج‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ل‬
. ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬
: ‫المفتاحي‬ ‫لما‬ ‫ال‬
، ‫القراء‬ ، ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ،‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ ، ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ،‫الحاسب‬ ‫سان‬ ‫ب‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫تع‬
. ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬ ‫يا‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫امل‬ ‫ت‬ ، ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬

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A Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Based Program For Developing The Kindergarteners English Language Skills

  • 1. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭ A Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Based Program for Developing the Kindergarteners’ English Language Skills By Dr. Mohammad Abu El-Magd* Dr. Neveen Ahmad Khalil** 2012 Abstract The purpose of this research was to develop the Kindergarteners’ English Language skills. The target English Language Skills were: Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing that were appropriate to KG1 Kids. Four measurement tools were developed by the researchers and validated. They were: 1) Listening test, 2) Speaking Test, 3) Reading Test and 4) Writing Test. The participants were a group of 32 KG1 kids at Osman Ahmad Osman School (one of Ismailia Public Schools in Egypt). The research design was one group pre- and post-test experimental design. One of the modules of the proposed program was fully developed and applied by the use of the Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) as an effective and helpful approach to teaching English as a Foreign Language (EFL) to kindergarteners with the classroom learning. The findings revealed that the proposed program had a significant positive effect on developing the KG1 kids’ EFL skills. Key Words: CALL, Language Skills, Listening , Speaking, Reading, Writing, Integration of Language Skills and Kindergarten * Lecturer of Methods of TEFL, Ismailia Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt. ** Lecturer of Methods of Kindergaten Teaching, Ismailia Faculty of Education, Suez Canal University, Egypt.
  • 2. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯ A Computer-Assisted Language Learning (CALL) Based Program for Developing the Kindergarteners’ English Language Skills Background and Problem Kindergarten is a significant year in a child's development because it is the introduction to many academic and social skills. Kindergarten prepares the children for more structured schooling. In the last few years, skills that used to be taught in first grade of the primary stage are now introduced in kindergarten, so kindergarten has become more focused and goal-oriented than it was in the past (Davis,2012). Brain research supports the belief that teaching a foreign language to kindergarteners can be a key factor in language ability. There is a critical period hypothesis that says the cortex of a child’s brain is more plastic than that of an older learner and therefore a child has many more synapses taking place. These synapses or connections occurring in the brain result in a greater ability to pronounce particular sounds due to the fact that a child’s facial muscles have not yet matured and he/she has not lost the sensitivity to phonetic distinctions. Another reason to teach English as a Foreign Language (EFL) at the start of a child’s academic career is that children who study EFL score higher on verbal standardized tests conducted in English (Faust, 2012). This is almost in line with Ontario Ministry of Education’s Kindergarten Program (2007:6) which affirms that early EFL have a profound effect on the kindergarteners’ development. On the other hand, EFL in the kindergarten stage should be incorporated into a Language Arts program. The language arts are listening, speaking, reading and writing (Penn, 2012). Thus, bilingual kindergarten (Native Language/English) teachers claim that kindergarteners have the ability and the necessity to go
  • 3. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯ through a well-structured program including the four basic language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing (Leal, 2012). Accordingly, the researcher conducted content analysis, a sample EFL test involving the four language skills and open interviews with the Kindergarten supervisors, Senior Kindergarten teachers and Kindergarten teachers of EFL as a preliminary investigation. The content analysis was conducted to check out how the Kindergarteners’ EFL program fulfill their needs for a sound linguistic development of their language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing; the sample EFL exam was administered to check out the KG1’ performance level in English and open interviews were conducted in order to find out the EFL Skills that KG1 need as well as their performance level in the four basic language skills. In light of the content analysis of the kindergarteners’ EFL courses at the public schools in Levels 1 and 2, these courses do not involve listening or speaking skills at all, besides they lack even the fundamental basics in reading and writing for kindergarteners. Also, there are no higher general EFL courses at Levels 1 and 2 in the kindergarten stage at the public experimental language schools since they vary from one school to another depending on the EFL teachers’ self-made EFL handouts to kindergarteners. Consequently, a preliminary EFL Exam was conducted to the KG1 in both public schools (2 schools) and public language experimental schools (2 schools) in Ismailia City in Egypt. Based on the findings of this exam, it was found out that kindergarteners lack the listening and speaking skills as well as they encounter EFL reading and writing difficulties. The findings with this pilot study are in line with the problem of the study conducted by Labib (2010:1) in Arish City in Egypt,
  • 4. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϰ which stated that Kindergarteners lack the phonological awareness skills in EFL. This, in turn, affects negatively the kindergarteners’ listening, speaking, reading and writing skills as proved by a study conducted by Adl Hameed (2009). Review of literature and related studies Since the current research aimed at developing English as a Foreign Language (EFL) skills for kindergarteners at Egyptian Public Schools and Public Language, the first step is to identify the most important sub-skills in each of the four basic language skills that are necessary for the second level kindergarteners. Besides, the use of a Computer-assisted Language Learning (CALL) approach based program to develop such skills. Therefore, a review of literature and related studies was provided in the following: 1. Kindergarteners’ English as a Foreign Language )EFL( Skills. 2. CALL Approach and its key role in an effective and active TEFL. 1. Kindergarteners’ English as a Foreign Language (EFL) Skills: 1.1 Listening: Listening is one of the most important skills of EFL in general and for kindergarteners in particular for they help the kindergarteners develop their ability to understand the spoken text. Even at the beginner level of the kindergarteners, they are the starting point for their oral communication later in the next stages of their academic years at schools and in their life after graduation since it is harder to develop the listening skills for the EFL adult learners who could not manage to develop their listening skills at a younger age.
  • 5. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϱ Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the following most significant listening skills which are necessary for kindergarteners. According to The Egyptian National Standards for Kindergarten (The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:84), the listening skills involved are: a. Focusing on what is heard. b. Understanding simple information presented orally. c. Following and understanding one or two step oral directions. d. Expressing feelings based on what is heard (non-verbal cues and facial expressions) e. Descriminating among phonemes in the three-phoneme-words (Pen, Cat, Dog) f. Recognizing rhyming words with alliteration (Bat – Cat, Pan – Fan) However there are other important listening skills that KG miss in Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG: a. Understanding simple information presented through media b. Understanding question words (interrogatives) c. Understanding spoken simple and short sentences. d. Understanding spoken simple adjectives and their antonyms (Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:8 ; California State Board of Education , 2009:5; Utah State Office of Education, 2010: 25; and North Carolina Department of Public Instruction , 2012:20)
  • 6. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϲ 1.2 Speaking: Speaking is also a significant EFL skill for kindergarteners. In this respect, the North Carolina Department of Public Instruction (2012:20-21) states that kindergarteners should engage in conversations about grade-appropriate topics and texts, thus they should be given the opportunity to take part actively in a variety of rich and structured conversations. Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the following most significant speaking skills which are necessary for kindergarteners. According to The Egyptian National Standards for Kindergarten (The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:85), the Speaking skills involved are: a. Pronouncing the phonemes of the alphabet. b. Repeating orally the spoken words or songs. c. Expressing feelings orally (happiness, sadness, etc) However there are other important speaking skills that KG miss in Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG: a. Confirming understanding of a spoken text orally presented information by asking and answering questions. b. Asking and answering questions in order to seek help, get information, and get permission to do something or clarify what is not understood. c. Using the question words (interrogatives) orally. d. Producing simple two or three-letter words.
  • 7. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϳ (Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:7 ; California State Board of Education , 2009:5; Utah State Office of Education, 2010: 25; and North Carolina Department of Public Instruction , 2012:20-21) 1.3 Reading: Reading ,as an EFL skill to kindergarteners, is the most important language skill since it ultimately aims at developing the kindergarteners’ phonological awareness whereas Kindergarteners at Egyptian schools lack the phonological awareness in EFL as stated by a study conducted by Labib (2010:1). Moreover, reading must not be regarded as simply the teaching of grammar or vocabulary; however it involves attaching meaning to form the language as well as extracting meaning from print (English Section of the Advisory Inspectorate and the Institute of Language in Education, 1993: 307- 310). A study was conducted by Gwendolyn (2006:2-98) to prove the great influence of Phonics as a basic part of a fundamental reading program on EFL learning in Chinese Classrooms especially for kindergarteners. In this regard, the main objective of this study was to prove the importance of starting to teach EFL with phonics. Thus, he claims that phonics (as an essential part of the EFL reading foundation program to kindergarteners) is vital for anyone who cares about their children‘s education and wants to get their money‘s worth sending their kids to English language centers. Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the following most significant reading skills which are necessary for kindergarteners. According to The Egyptian National Standards for
  • 8. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϴ Kindergarten (The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:85), the Reading skills involved are: a. Recognizing and naming all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. b. Following words from left to right, top to bottom c. Demonstrating basic knowledge of letter-sound correspondences by producing the primary or most frequent sound for each consonant. d. Guessing the first letter of the words in light of the attached pictures. e. Using pictures and context to make predictions about the story content. However there are other important reading skills that KG miss in Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG: a. Concepts about print: ➢ Identifying the front cover, back cover and title page of the book. ➢ Understanding that printed materials provide information. ➢ Understanding that words are separated by spaces in print. b. Phonemic Awareness: ➢ Distinguishing between similarly spelled words by identifying the sounds of the letters that differ. ➢ Isolating and pronouncing the initial sound (phoneme) in three-phoneme (consonant-vowel-consonant) words. c. Decoding and Word Recognition:
  • 9. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϵ ➢ Matching all consonant and short-vowel sounds to appropriate letters. ➢ Understanding that as letters of words change, so do the sounds (i.e., the alphabetic principle). d. Reading Comprehension: ➢ Understanding the main idea of a printed text of a short sentence. (Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:1-4 ;California State Board of Education , 2009:1-2; Utah State Office of Education,2010:13-18; North Carolina Department of Public Instruction , 2012:8-15; and IOWA Department of Education, 2012) 1.4 Writing: Kindergarten marks the first year of elementary school and the introduction to a variety of new skills and concepts. Therefore, writing, as an EFL skill to kindergarteners, is as important as the other EFL skills since kindergarteners are at an age when their interest in writing can ebb and wane. Thus, it is a good idea to engage them in writing-oriented activities )O’Neal, 2012(. Among the many things that children learn during kindergarten is handwriting as it is a skill that is required for both academic and day- to-day lives. Handwriting is perhaps one of the most important of these skills since Kindergarteners begin learning how to print the letters of the alphabet, and using a variety of engaging activities that capture their interest can help them master this basic, yet vital skill (Mae, 2012).
  • 10. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϬ Therefore, a literature review was carried out to identify the most significant writing skills that are necessary for kindergarteners. According to The Egyptian National Standards for Kindergarten (The Egyptian Ministry of Education, 2011:85), the Writing skills involved are: a. Writing by moving from left to right and from top to bottom b. Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by tracing models. c. Writing the name by hand or by the keyboard. However there are other important writing skills that KG miss in Egypt and they are domestically appropriate to EFL in KG: a. Organization and Focus: ➢ Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by dictation. b. Penmanship: ➢ Writing uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet independently, attending to the form and proper spacing of the letters. (Michigan State Board of Education, 2008:5-6 ; California State Board of Education , 2009:3; Utah State Office of Education ,2010:21,28; EduGuide Staff, 2010; and North Carolina Department of Public Instruction , 2012:16-19) Conclusion Depending on the previously mentioned sub skills in each of the four basic language skills needed for kindergarteners in light of the literature review, a list of EFL skills was prepared to be submitted to
  • 11. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϭ jurors in the field of TEFL and Kindergarten Education to identify the EFL skills that are necessary for and appropriate to KG1 in Egypt. Accordingly the following EFL skills were used in the proposed CALL program: Listening 1. Understanding one step directions. 2. Understanding spoken simple words. 3. Understanding spoken simple short phrases or sentences. 4. Understanding spoken simple adjectives and their antonyms. Speaking 1. Asking and answering simple questions orally in order to seek help, get and provide information, or get permission to do something. 2. Speaking audibly to express thoughts, feelings and ideas clearly. 3. Producing simple words or short sentences/ phrases. 4. Spelling orally the first letter of the words they hear. 5. Saying the meaning of words in light of the accompanying pictures or their equivalents in Arabic. 6. Singing simple elementary songs. 7. Saying the alphabets in their correct order. Reading a. Concepts about print 1. Following letters from left to right. 2. Naming all upper- and lowercase letters of the alphabet. b. Phonemic Awareness 1. Pronouncing the initial phonemes in words.
  • 12. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϮ 2. Recognizing rhyming words. c. Decoding and Word Recognition 1. Producing the primary or most frequent sound for the letters. 2. Reading the letters of the sounds they hear. Writing a. Organization and Focus 1. Writing the alphabets in their correct order by moving from left to right. 2. Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by dictation. 3. Writing alphabetical letters (upper and lower cases) by reading a written model. 4. Writing the first letter of the words in light of their provided pictures. 5. Writing the spoken letters. b. Penmanship 1. Writing uppercase and lowercase letters of the alphabet independently, attending to the form and proper spacing of the letters. 2. CALL Approach and its key role in an effective and active TEFL: The use of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) in the field of education has increased remarkably in recent years due to the swift and modern changes in language software (Bagheri, E. et al, 2012). The use of CALL has won a secure place among the resources available to the modern language teacher. Language centers throughout the world know that they cannot do without
  • 13. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϯ computes for learning purposes (Admin: 2011). However, to the best of the researcher’s knowledge, CALL is not widely employed in the field of TEFL in Egypt. 2.1 What is the CALL Approach? Computer-assisted language learning (CALL) is an approach to teaching and learning in which the computer and computer-based resources, such as Internet, are used to present, reinforce and assess. It also includes the search for and the investigation of applications in language teaching and learning. CALL has also been known by several other terms such as technology-enhanced language learning (Jani, 2011:1). In light of the variables of this research, CALL approach is an offline multimedia-based approach to teaching of EFL which works as an effective assistant in the classroom instruction of EFL to the KG1 in a way that helps develop their EFL language skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing. 2.2 The CALL approach’s key role in teaching EFL skills: The CALL approach is supposed to help teach EFL effectively. As for the positive effect of CALL on TEFL, a study was conducted by Almekhlafi (2006) to investigate the effect of CALL on the United Arab Emirates preparatory pupils’ EFL learning. The findings proved the role of CALL as an effective and active approach to TEFL for preparatory pupils. Therefore, CALL takes into consideration the development of all the four skills, listening, speaking, reading and writing, required for EFL learning since it is based on
  • 14. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϰ enhancing an interactive teaching and individualizing learning (Shiwani,2009). 2.2.1 The CALL approach and Teaching Listening: In general, CALL helps enhanced EFL learners’ listening ability (Bingham & Larson, 2006). In this respect, a study was conducted by Phuong (2010) to investigate the effect of using the CALL approach to promote the adult EFL learners’ listening skills in Vietnamese universities. The findings proved its effectiveness in developing their listening skills. Moreover, a study was conducted by Nobar & Ahangari (2012) to determine the impact of CALL on Iranian EFL adult learners’ task-based listening skills at Islamic Azad University. The results asserted the effectiveness of using the CALL approach in developing the EFL learners’ listening skills. 2.2.2 The CALL approach and Teaching Speaking: The development of speaking skills through the CALL approach, is being given the attention it deserves but still a lot has to be achieved (Shiwani, 2009). The CALL approach can help develop the speaking skills through an integration between speaking and listening (Zou, 2008) since listening and speaking are closely related together in EFL learning (Murphy, 1991 and Hedge, 2000). Accordingly, CALL helps provide controlled interactive speaking practice inside the
  • 15. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϱ classroom based on the multimedia-based listening instruction of the CALL approach. Therefore, using CALL has led to small improvements in ability to engage in meaningful conversation in the EFL context (Shiwani, 2009). In this regard, CALL can supplement face-to-face teaching but cannot replace it to develop the EFL learners’ speaking skills. 2.2.3 The CALL approach and Teaching Reading: CALL is an effective approach to teaching reading in EFL courses (Soe et al, 2000). Magisterska et al (2011) refer to the following impacts of CALL on Teaching Reading in an EFL context: a. Computers can present the text in a variety of ways apart from a plain printed one. The text can be accompanied by animation and sound which make both the text and reading more interesting. b. Computerized reading activities are also more challenging, interesting, motivating and they demand a lot of attention and full participation on the part of the learner. 2.2.4 The CALL approach and Teaching Writing: Computer-based writing instruction, as a part of CALL approach to TEFL, plays a vital role in developing some writing skills. In this respect, a study was conducted by Mohammadi et al (2012) in which they confirmed the effects of CALL approach on
  • 16. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϲ developing the EFL adult learners’ writing accuracy. Another study was conducted by Jafarian et al (2012) to determine the effect of CALL on EFL high school students’ writing achievement. The findings confirmed that Computer-assisted writing instruction helps develop their writing skills better than the traditional instruction since it increases their motivation to write better and provide them with constructive feedback. However, computers cannot properly assess writing skills (Shiwani, 2009). Therefore, CALL can supplement face-to-face teaching but cannot replace it. Conclusion Generally, CALL improves command over basic skills in language classrooms (Shiwani, 2009). Thus, the CALL approach is effective in developing the EFL learners’ language skills. However, considering the current level of technology, most significant gains are achieved in reading and listening because computers cannot properly assess speaking and writing skills. Consequently, the current research attempted to design a module in a proposed EFL program which is based on the CALL approach in order to develop the KG1 kids’ EFL skills of listening, speaking, reading and writing in combination with face-to-face classroom teaching.
  • 17. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϳ Statement of the problem According to the findings of the conducted pilot studies (Content Analysis, Preliminary English Exam and Open interviews), it has been found out that: a. There is almost no EFL course in Kindergarten Stage at the public schools. b. There is no higher level EFL courses in Kindergarten Stage at the public experimental language schools. c. Kindergarteners at the public schools and the public experimental language schools in Ismailia encounter serious difficulties in learning English as a Foreign Language (EFL). Therefore, the current research sought to find answers to the following questions: 1. What are the EFL sub-skills that KG1 kids need in the four basic language skills? 2. What are the features of the proposed CALL approach based program? 3. What is the effect of applying the first module of the proposed CALL approach based program on the KG1 kids’ EFL learning in each of the following language skills: a. Listening? b. Speaking? c. Reading? d. Writing?
  • 18. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϴ Hypotheses 1. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of the listening test in favor of the post-measurement. 2. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of the speaking in favor of the post-measurement. 3. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of the reading in favor of the post-measurement. 4. There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of the writing test in favor of the post-measurement. Objectives 1. Proposing a CALL approach based program and designing the first module to develop the KG1 kids’ English Language Skills at Ismailia public schools. 2. Determining the effect of teaching the developed module by using the CALL approach on the KG1 kids’ EFL skills at Ismailia Public schools. Delimitations The current research was delimited to the following: 1. KG1 at Ismailia Public Schools in Egypt. 2. The four basic EFL Skills that are appropriate to the KG1.
  • 19. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϭϵ 3. Developing the first module of the proposed CALL based EFL program for the 1st semester of the 1st level kindergarten stage. 4. Applying the first module of the developed program. Method 1. The Design: In the current research, the One Group Pre and Post Test Design was used as indicated in the following table: Table (1) The Research Design Pre-measurement Experimental Treatment Post-measurement The participants Conducting the EFL Tests Teaching the developed CALL approach based first module Conducting the EFL Tests 2. The Participants: A Random sample of 32 KG1 kids at one of Ismailia Public Schools. 3. The instruments: • The developed module in the proposed CALL approach based program (prepared by the researchers) • Four EFL tests aiming at assessing the KG1 kids’ listening, speaking, reading and writing (prepared by the researchers) The Program A framework was proposed for the CALL-based program to teaching EFL to KG1. The program is based on E-learning (multimedia-based presentations) except for the classroom learning sessions in which the
  • 20. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϮϬ kindergarteners will practice speaking or use their handwriting worksheets (for letter tracing) and blank worksheets (for drawing and dictation). The program involves the following three modules: 1. Module 1 “Hello” in this module the kindergarteners learn the following: • Instructions )“Stand up”, “Sit down”, “Go potty” and “Be quiet”( • Expressions “)I’m Happy” and “I’m Sad”( • Requests )“Water, please” and “Toilet, please”( • Welcoming and Greeting )“Hello” and “Good Morning”( • Getting and providing information )“What’s your name?” and “How old are you?”( • Words )“Black”, “White” and “Circle”( • The uppercase and lowercase of the letters A,B and C (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing) • The major phoneme of each of these letters. • Words that start with the letters A, B and C. 2. Module 2 “I am in KG1” in this module the kindergarteners learn the following: • Asking for help )“Please, open my bag” and “Please, open my pencil case”( • Expressions “)I’m Hungry” and “I’m Thirsty”( • Requests )“Draw, please” and “Color, please”( • Adjectives and their antonyms )“Tall”, “Short”, “Big”, “Small”, “Thin” and “Fat”(
  • 21. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϭ • Getting and providing information )“Which school are you in?” and “Which class are you in?”( • Words )“Blue”, “Red” and “Triangle”( • The uppercase and lowercase of the letters D,E and F (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing) • The major phoneme of each of these letters. • Words that start with the letters D, E and F. 3. Module 3 “Bye” in this module the kindergarteners learn the following: • Asking for help )“Pencil, please” and “Rubber, please”( • Expressions “)I’m Sleepy” and “I’m Tired”( • Requests )“Write, please” and “Read, please”( • Adjectives and their antonyms )“Cold”, “Hot”, “Living”, and “Non-living”( • Getting and providing information )“What is your nationality?” and “Who created us?”( • Words )“Yellow”, “Green” and “Square”( • The uppercase and lowercase of the letters G,H and I (Listening, Speaking, Reading and Writing) • The major phoneme of each of these letters. • Words that start with the letters G, H and I. The first module was fully developed as a model to figure out the program’s effect on the KG1’ EFL skills. The duration of Module 1 is 16 hours (4 days a week / 4 hours a day). The module’s multimedia- based layout is shown in the following figure:
  • 22. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϮϮ The Title Page The Objectives Page Intro Pages
  • 23. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϯ 3D Texts Pictures Content and Task Pages Supported by
  • 24. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϰ Videos Figure (1) The layout of the multimedia presentation sessions in Module 1 “Hello” of the CALL-based Program to teaching EFL skills to KG1 Task Page
  • 25. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϱ Procedures To answer the first question: 1. Preparing an inventory of the four basic EFL skills and their inherent sub-skills by: a. Reviewing literature and related studies for the Kindergarten’s EFL skills. b. Conducting open interviews (to identify the necessary 1st level Kindergarten’s EFL skills( with the following: i. Kindergarten supervisors. ii. Senior kindergarten teachers at the public and experimental language schools. iii. Kindergarten teachers of EFL at the public and experimental language schools. 2. Submitting the EFL skills’ inventory to a jury committee in the field of TEFL and Kindergarten Education to identify the most important and appropriate EFL skills to the KG1. To answer the second question: 1. The analysis stage: In light of the learners’ needs assessment )the validated inventory of KG1’ EFL skills, the coming steps were followed: a. Identifying the goals of the proposed program. b. Specifying the topics of the proposed program. c. Identifying the multimedia elements that were necessary for presenting the specified content; such as text, sound, video, animation, graphics, etc. 2. The design stage:
  • 26. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϲ a. Dividing the specified topics into three modules. b. Formulating the aims of each module. c. Formulating the objectives of each topic in each module. d. Collecting the content of the first module in light of its aims and objectives. e. Designing the embedded activities of the first module either on hand-outs for the classroom learning instruction, or the on computer for the multimedia-based instruction. f. Creating the storyboard of the first module so that it included the following: i. User interaction controls. ii. Screen layouts. iii. Navigation maps. 3. The production stage: a. Getting and producing the previously identified multimedia elements for the first module. b. Authoring the first module by using the computer software. c. Producing the sheets and the handouts that were attached to the multimedia-based instruction while using the CALL approach. 4. The evaluation stage: a. Alpha test: Submitting the first module which was fully developed, and the framework of the other two modules to jurors in the fields of TEFL, Kindergarten Education and Instructional Technology.
  • 27. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϳ b. Beta test: Making the necessary modifications in light of the pilot application of the first module in the proposed CALL approach based program. 5. The application stage: a. Publishing the first module for final application on: i. DVD for the multimedia based instruction. ii. Hand-outs and sheets for the classroom instruction. b. Applying the first module, using the CALL approach in October of the first semester of the scholastic year 2012-2013 starting from 7th of October on Sunday until the 7th of November on Wednesday (4 days per week from Sunday until Wednesday) at Osman Ahmad Osman public school in Ismailia (Egypt). To answer the third question: 1. Designing the tests in light of the objectives of the first module so that each test measures a skill (Listening Test, Speaking Test, Reading Test and Writing Test). 2. Submitting the tests to jurors in the fields of TEFL and Kindergarten Education to verify their content validity. 3. Checking the reliability of the tests by using the test-retest method. 4. Administering the final forms of the four EFL tests to the participants before and after the treatment (One test per day). 5. Collecting the data from the pre and post-measurements. 6. Treating the data statistically. 7. Discussing the findings and offering explanations.
  • 28. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϴ Findings and discussion of results Investigating the experimental hypotheses by conducting paired-samples T- test as follows: 1. Hypothesis I stated “There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post- measurements of the listening test in favor of the post- measurement”. The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis. The following table shows the findings related to the listening skill. Table (2) T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the Pre and Post-measurements of the Listening Test Number of Participants Mean Scores Standard Deviation T-Value Significance Pre-measurement 32 11.613 5.34589 -15.540 .000 Post-measurement 23.226 3.61211 The table above demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at (0.05) level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved. As for the Effect Size on the listening skill, it was estimated by using the following equation: T2 2= __________ T2 + df
  • 29. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) Ϯϵ The table below shows the related findings: Table (3) The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1 on the listening skill Independent variable Dependent variable T2 Value DF 2 Effect Size level The CALL-based Program (Module 1) Listening Skill 241.4916 31 0.88 High Accordingly, the proposed program is supposed to have a high and positive effect on the KG1’ Listening skill. This significance may be due to the following: a. Using the CALL approach to teaching listening. [As stated by Larson (2006) and approved in the study conducted by Nobar & Ahangari (2012)] b. Providing listening with real life videos. c. Providing the listening using native speakers’ voices. d. Synchronizing the audio with the text and pictures. 2. Hypothesis II stated “There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of the speaking in favor of the post- measurement”. The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis. The following table shows the findings related to the Speaking skill.
  • 30. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϬ Table (4) T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the Pre and Post-measurements of the Speaking Test Number of Participants Mean Scores Standard Deviation T- Value Significance Pre- measurement 32 7.9062 3.77051 -17.161 .000 Post- measurement 22.7500 4.28802 As for the Effect Size on the speaking skill, it was estimated by using the following equation: T2 2= __________ T2 + df The table below shows the related findings: Table (5) The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1 on the speaking skill Independent variable Dependent variable T2 Value DF 2 Effect Size level The CALL-based Program (Module 1) Speaking Skill 294.499921 31 0.90 High The table above demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at (0.05) level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved. Accordingly, the proposed program is supposed to have a high and positive effect on the KG1’ Speaking skill. This significance may be due to the following:
  • 31. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϭ a. Integrating Listening and Speaking by using the CALL approach. [As claimed by Zou (2008)] b. Introducing the topic of speaking using different multimedia elements; such as text, audio, video , animation, pictures, …etc. [As referred to by Shiwani (2009)] c. Using the CALL approach to enhance the classroom learning. [As stated by Shiwani (2009)] 3. Hypothesis III stated “There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of the reading in favor of the post-measurement”. The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis. The following table shows the findings related to the Reading skill. Table (6) T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the Pre and Post-measurements of the Reading Test Number of Participants Mean Scores Standard Deviation T- Value Significance Pre- measurement 32 16.7419 3.08726 - 14.218 .000 Post- measurement 25.8387 2.64697 As for the Effect Size on the reading skill, it was estimated by using the following equation: T2 2= __________ T2 + df
  • 32. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϮ The table below shows the related findings: Table (7) The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1 on the reading skill Independent variable Dependent variable T2 Value DF 2 Effect Size level The CALL-based Program (Module 1) Reading Skill 202.151524 31 0.86 High Table (7) demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at (0.05) level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved. Accordingly, the proposed program is supposed to have a high and positive effect on the KG1’ Reading skill. This significance may be due to the following: 1. Integrating listening and reading by using the CALL approach. [As demonstrated by Soe et al (2000)] 2. Using the CALL-based modeling instruction to teach phonics. [As explained by Magisterska et al (2011)] 3. Synchronizing the Reading Text with the Audio, video or Pictures. [As approved by Magisterska et al (2011)] 4. Hypothesis IV stated “There is a statistical significant difference at the significant level (0.05) between the mean scores of the pre- and post-measurements of the Writing test in favor of the post- measurement”. The T-Test paired as used to check this hypothesis. The following table shows the findings related to the Writing skill.
  • 33. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϯ Table (8) T-Test value for the difference between the mean scores of the Pre and Post-measurements of the Writing Test Number of Participants Mean Scores Standard Deviation T-Value Significance Pre- measurement 32 16.3548 4.77876 -11.631 .000 Post- measurement 24.4516 3.90588 As for the Effect Size on the writing skill, it was estimated by using the following equation: T2 2= __________ T2 + df The table below shows the related findings Table (9) The Effect Size level of the fully developed module 1 on the writing skill Independent variable Dependent variable T2 Value DF 2 Effect Size level The CALL-based Program (Module 1) Writing Skill 135.280161 31 0.81 High The table above demonstrates that the T-Value is significant at (0.05) level. Thus, the hypothesis was approved. Accordingly, the proposed program is supposed to have a high and positive effect on the KG1’ Writing skill. This significance may be due to the following: 1. Integrating Listening, Reading and Writing by using the CALL approach. [As referred to by Shiwani (2009)]
  • 34. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϰ 2. Introducing the Writing tasks by using different multimedia elements; such as text, audio, video, animation, pictures, etc. [As proved by a study conducted by Jafarian et al (2012)] 3. Using the CALL approach to enhance the classroom learning. [As referred to by Shiwani (2009)] References Abdl Hameed, S.K. )2009(, “The Effectiveness of a Training Program in improving the Pronunciation of a Sample of Kindergarteners with Learning Difficulties”, The Center of Studies and Researches for The Disabled Kids: 1017-1058 (In Arabic) Admin. (2011), CALL approach into EFL classroom setting: An investigation into the role of teacher’s research proposal, http://research-topics.freeblogskorner.com/2011/09/call- approach-into-efl-classroom-setting-an-investigation-into-the- role-of-teachers-research-proposal.html, retrieved in August 2012 Almekhlafi, A.G. )2006(, “The effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning (CALL) on United Arab Emirates English as a foreign language )EFL( school students' achievement and attitude”, Journal of Interactive Learning Research, http://www.thefreelibrary.com/The+effect+of+Computer+Assisted +Language+Learning+%28CALL%29+on+United...-0145516494. , retrieved in August 2012
  • 35. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϱ Bagheri, E. et al. )2012(, “Effect of CALL-based and Non-CALL Based Methods of Teaching on L2 Vocabulary Learning”, Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol.3, No.4: 744-752 Bingham, S. & Larson, E. )2006(,” Using CALL as the major element of study for a university English class in Japan”, The JALT Journal, Vol.2, No.3: 39-52. California State Board of Education. (2009), English-Language Arts Content Standards for California Public Schools: Kindergarten through Grade Twelve, California: California Department of Education. Davis, S. (2012), What is Taught in Kindergarten?, available at: http://www.ehow.com/facts_5183136_taught-kindergarten_.html, retrieved in August 2012 EduGuide Staff. (2010), Elementary Study Skills in Kindergarten English Language Arts, available at: http://www.eduguide.org/library/ viewarticle/1694, retrieved in September 2012 English Section of the Advisory Inspectorate and the Institute of Language in Education. (1993), the Teaching of Phonics, Hong Kong: Language Resource Center Faust, M. )2012(, “Individual Differences in the Perceptual Representations of Speech Sounds”, the Handbook of the Neuropsychology of Language: 20-38 Gwendolyn, N. (2006), Phonics for Chinese EFL Learners, China Hedge, T. (2000), Teaching and Learning in the Language Classroom, Oxford: Oxford University Press.
  • 36. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϲ IOWA Department of Education. (2012), English Language Arts Standards: Reading in Kindergarten, available at: http://www.educateiowa.gov/index.php?option=com_content&vie w=article&id=2370&Itemid=4475, retrieved in September 2012 Jafarian, K. et al. )2012(, “The Effect of Computer Assisted Language Learning )CALL( on EFL High School Students’ Writing Achievement”, European Journal of Social Sciences, Vol.27, and No.2: 138-148 Jani, A.C. (2011), Computer-Assisted Language Learning, Bhavnagar University: Department of English Labib, H. (2010), Developing Some of the EFL Phonological Awareness Skills for Kindergarteners, Egypt, Arish: Arish Faculty of Education (In Arabic) Leal, S.R. (2012), Teaching EFL in a Kindergarten, available at: http://www.eslhitchhiker.com/forum/teach-english-fluent- language-kindergartens, retrieved in September 2012 Mae, L. (2012), How to Teach Handwriting in Kindergarten, available at: http://www.ehow.com/how_8670323_teach-handwriting- kindergarten.html, retrieved in August 2012 Magisterska, P. et al. (2011), Application of Computer Assisted Language Learning in the Development of Reading Comprehension Skills, http://ifa.amu.edu.pl/fa/files/ifa/papers/kledecka/kledecka- mgr.htm, retrieved in April 2012 Michigan State Board of Education. (2008), A Parent’s Guide to English Language Arts Grade Level Content Expectations: What Your
  • 37. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϳ Child Needs to Know by the End of Kindergarten, Michigan: Michigan Department of Education. Mohammadi, N. et al. )2012(, “Effects of computer assisted language learning )CALL( approach on EFL learners’ descriptive essay writing: the evaluation of computer grammar and spelling checker software”, Advances in Digital Multimedia (ADMM), Vol.1, and No.2: 103-107 Murphy, M. J. )1991(, “Oral communication in TESOL: Integrating Speaking, Listening and Pronunciation”. TESOL Quarterly. vol.25, no.1: 51-75. Nobar, A.G. & Ahangari, S. )2012(, “The Impact of Computer Assisted Language Learning on Iranian EFL Learners’ Task-Based Listening Skill and Motivation”, Journal of Academic and Applied Studies, Vol.2, and No.1:39-61 North Carolina Department of Public Instruction. (2012), English Language Arts Common Core State Standards Kindergarten, North Carolina O’Neal, L. )2012(, Kindergarten Writing Tools, available at: http://www.ehow.com/list_6759084_kindergarten-writing- tools.html, retrieved in August 2012 Ontario Ministry of Education. (2007), The Kindergarten program, Canada Penn, S. (2012), How to Teach Kindergarten English, available at: http://www.ehow.com/how_5611038_teach-kindergarten- english.html, retrieved in October 2012
  • 38. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϴ Phuong, L. )2010(, “Adopting CALL to Promote Listening Skills for EFL Learners in Vietnamese Universities”, International Conference: ICT for Language Learning, New Zealand: University of Auckland. Retrieved from http://www.pixel- online.net/ICT4LL2011/common/download/Paper_pdf/IBL26- 175-FP-Phuong-ICT4LL2011.pdf Shiwani, K. (2009), Computer Assisted Language Learning vs. Classroom Learning,http://edufire.com/content/articles/33-computer- assisted-language-learning-vs-classroom-learning, retrieved in April 2012 Soe, K. et al. (2000), Effects of computer-assisted instruction (CAI) on reading achievement: A meta-analysis in Pacific Resources for Education and Learning, http://www.prel.org/products/products/ effect-cai.htm , retrieved in March 2012 The Egyptian Ministry of Education. (2011), A Project for Improving Instruction in Kindergarten: The Documentary of the National Standards for Kindergarten, Ministry of Education, Public Education Sector: The Central Administration of Kindergarten and Primary stages. (In Arabic) Utah State Office of Education. (2010), Core Standards for English Language Arts, Utah: National Governors Association Center for Best Practices and Council of Chief State School Officers. Zou, B. )2008(, “Research design in a computer-assisted language learning study”, International Journal of Education and Development using Information and Communication Technology (IJEDICT), Vol.4, No.3: 155-165
  • 39. ‫التدريس‬ ‫وطرق‬ ‫المناهج‬ ‫في‬ ‫دراسا‬ ‫مج‬ ‫العدد‬ 189 ( ϮϬϭϮ ) ϯϵ ‫الملخص‬ ‫على‬ ‫قائم‬ ‫برنامج‬ ‫بمساندة‬ ‫اللغ‬ ‫تعلم‬ ‫اآلى‬ ‫الحاسب‬ ‫ض‬ ‫الر‬ ‫أطفا‬ ‫لدى‬ ‫اأنجليزي‬ ‫اللغ‬ ‫ارا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لتنمي‬ ‫الحالي‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫فت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫إ‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أط‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اانج‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫تن‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫القراء‬ ، ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ،‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ :‫هي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ ‫كانت‬ .)‫ر‬ ‫(م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اعي‬ ‫باإس‬ ‫ض‬ ‫الر‬ ‫عالج‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ ‫كانت‬ . ‫ض‬ ‫الر‬ ‫مرح‬ ‫في‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫مع‬ ‫ناسب‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ي‬ ‫جري‬ ‫ال‬ ‫هي‬ ‫ف‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ه‬ ‫حقيق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫سان‬ ‫ب‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫تع‬ ‫ع‬ ‫قائم‬ ‫برنامج‬ ‫الحاسب‬ ‫اآل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫فاع‬ ‫ر‬ ‫ال‬ ‫من‬ ‫حقق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫القيا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أ‬ . ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬ ،‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬ :‫هي‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ال‬ ، ‫ح‬ ‫ص‬ ‫من‬ ‫حقق‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تم‬ ‫ق‬ . ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬ ‫القراء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫لقيا‬ ‫القراء‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اخ‬ ‫من‬ ‫ع‬ ‫مج‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫عين‬ ‫كانت‬ . ‫ا‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫ك‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ث‬ 32 ‫ل‬ ‫ط‬ ‫ط‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أط‬ ‫من‬ ‫اإس‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫بإح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬ ‫يا‬ ‫رح‬ ‫ب‬ ‫ي‬ ‫جري‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يم‬ ‫ال‬ ‫كا‬ .) ‫ا‬ ‫عث‬ ‫أح‬ ‫ا‬ ‫(عث‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اعي‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫بين‬ ‫امل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫حقيق‬ ‫ب‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يم‬ ‫تق‬ ‫تم‬ ‫ق‬ . ‫اح‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ج‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يم‬ ‫ت‬ ‫ه‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫لقطا‬ ‫تي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫سجيا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫مثل‬ ‫يس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫في‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ال‬ ‫سائط‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫باس‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اإنج‬ ‫ك‬ ‫النطق‬ ‫ع‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ب‬ ‫لك‬ ‫ا‬ ‫طح‬ ‫م‬ ‫ا‬ ‫إم‬ ‫لك‬ ‫العا‬ ‫اسي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ال‬ ‫اخل‬ ‫ف‬ ‫الحر‬ ‫اب‬ ‫ير‬ ‫تط‬ ‫تم‬ ‫ق‬ . ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ‫تي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫في‬ ‫م‬ ‫جابات‬ ‫باس‬ ‫ص‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ا‬ ‫في‬ ‫الراجع‬ ‫ي‬ ‫غ‬ ‫بال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬ ‫اإيجابي‬ ‫اأثر‬ ‫عن‬ ‫اس‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ائج‬ ‫ن‬ ‫ر‬ ‫أس‬ ‫ه‬ ‫ي‬ ‫فاع‬ ‫من‬ ‫حقق‬ ‫ل‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يق‬ ‫تط‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫ي‬ ‫تن‬ ‫في‬ ‫رنامج‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ال‬ ‫يا‬ ‫رح‬ ‫ب‬ ‫اأ‬ ‫س‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫أط‬ ‫ل‬ ‫ي‬ ‫ي‬ ‫اانج‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ل‬ . ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬ : ‫المفتاحي‬ ‫لما‬ ‫ال‬ ، ‫القراء‬ ، ‫ح‬ ‫ال‬ ،‫اع‬ ‫ااس‬ ، ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ،‫الحاسب‬ ‫سان‬ ‫ب‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫م‬ ‫تع‬ . ‫ا‬ ‫اأط‬ ‫يا‬ ‫غ‬ ‫ال‬ ‫ا‬ ‫ا‬ ‫م‬ ‫امل‬ ‫ت‬ ، ‫اب‬ ‫ال‬