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Research Journal of Education
ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886
Vol. 2, No. 4, pp: 64-67, 2016
URL: http://arpgweb.com/?ic=journal&journal=15&info=aims
64
Academic Research Publishing Group
A Comparative Study of Creativity between Normal Children
and Blind Children Studying In Secondary Schools of Mysore
City
Sharmista Assistant Professor BGS. B.Ed College Mysore, Karnataka, India
1. Introduction
Creativity is the capacity of an individual to create, discover or produce an entirely new or novel idea or
object by the rearrangement or reshaping of what is already known. It is characterized by qualities like
universality, adventurousness and open-minded change and novelty, ego involvement and divergent thinking.
According to Wilson et al. (1974) the creative process is any process by which something new is produced, an
idea or an object including a new form or arrangement of old elements. The new creation must contribute to the
solution of some problem. Stein (1974) opinied that creativity is a process which results in novel work that is
accepted as tenable to useful or satisfying to a group of people at some point of time. The blind and near blind
include those persons whose visual acuity is less than 20/200 according to the snellen chart. The blind cannot see
anything.Some can see only the difference between light and dark or day and night and cannot see the shape of
things.Many others will have problems in seeing the things clearly.
2. Review of Related Literature
The investigator reviewed the studies related to the problem that are presented in summarized from as follows: -
Raina (1969) observed that the prevailing educational system is not conducive to promoting creativity for
developing and identifying creative talents. The teacher himself has to be creative; otherwise there is a danger of
mistaking creativity for abnormality. Pandit (1976) studied creativity and sex differences, it was indicated that girls
scored significantly higher than boys on all aspects of creativity. Gokhar (1974) studied the relationship of
creativity to age and sex, the findings were sex did not account for significant contribution to the variance resulting
out of the creativity scores except for one case where girls significantly scored higher than boys on flexibility.
Badrinath and Satyanarayan (1976) found out that boys scored significantly higher than the girls in verbal
originality and total verbal creativity. The male students were significantly higher than female students in fluency
and originality dimensions of creativity. Sharma (1982) conducted a study on “Factors related to creativity”. The
main findings were that boys were more creative as compared to girls, creativity was higher in nuclear family but not
in joint family. Creativity was significantly higher in high I.Q group in comparision with middle and low I.Q.groups.
Abstract: Creativity is a novel and personal experience. Creativity is universal. It is not confined to any
individuals, groups of individuals, caste, colour or creed. It is not bounded by the barriers of age, location or
culture. Everyone possesses and is capable of demonstrating creativity to some degree. Although many
research findings and incidents favour the suggestion that creativity is god given and natural endowment, the
influence of the sensory experiences, cultural background, education and training in the nurturing of creativity
cannot be ruled out. Therefore one’s creativity maybe correctly said to be a function of natural endowment as
well as its nurturing. . The individual receives impressions of the world only through the senses .It is evident
therefore deviation from the normal vision has important significance. More impressions reach the brain for
interpretation through the sense of sight than through all the other senses combined. Visual difficulties may
influence individual in all spheres of life. It is a moral responsibility to see that a positive educational
programme is devised under which facilities would be available for nurturing the creativity of the blind
children. Proper care and provision of opportunities for creative expression inspire, stimulate and sharpen the
the creative mind. It is in this sphere that parents, society and teachers make a significant contribution. They
are required to help the children in nourishing and utilizing their creative abilities to the utmost. The
educational process, therefore, should be aimed at developing creative abilities among children.
Keywords: Creativity-ability to produce something new; Blind-no vision; Normal children-having normal vision;
secondary schools-8th grade to 10th grade.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(4): 64-67
65
According to Hathway and Lowenfield (1973) visual handicap has a modifying influence on the development of the
child and on the methods used in his education,but it must be kept in mind that the blind child in most respects,a
normal child.His growing intellect,his developing functions ,his emotions and his desires are fundamentally like
those of all children.The degree of visual handicap varies from individual to individual.The child even with a small
amount of sight will consider it one of his greatest assets.If the teacher does not recognize this and treats the child as
blind he may drive him into opposition and resentment. Regarding creative ability it may be said that drawing and
painting are not possible for blind children.But modelings can be very well substituted for these arts.Many blind
children show considerable talent in it and derive much pleasure from working with clay and plasticine.The art
which the blind are associated is music and therefore this art should be given adequate encouragement.
2.1. Nature of the Study
The present study is descriptive in nature. The study is descriptive as it attempts to test components of creativity
such as fluency, flexibility and originality and compares the total creativity between normal children and blind
children studying in secondary schools of Mysore city.
2.2. Objectives of the Study
The objectives of the study were as follows: -
 To find the level of creativity in blind children
 To find the level of creativity in normal children
 To compare the total creativity of blind children with that of
 Normal children.
 To compare the sub factors of creativity of blind children
 With that of normal children.
2.3. Delimitation of the Study
The delimitations of the study are as follows:
1. This study is restricted to creativity among normal children and blind children.
2. This study is delimited to secondary schools situated in Mysore city.
2.4. Design of the Study
The study was descriptive in nature, aimed at comparing the level of creativity between normal children and
blind children studying in secondary schools of Mysore city.
2.5. Sample of the Study
Size of the sample of the study was 70 children, out of 70 children, 35 children were visually impaired and 35
children had normal vision. Purpose sampling technique was followed to draw the sample. The visual impaired
children were taken from a government secondary school and normal children were selected from two government
secondary schools of Mysore city.
2.6. Tool used in the Study
The tool used for the present study was “Thinking creatively with words” developed by Baqer Mehdi.
2.6.1. Description of Tool
The tool used for the present study is developed by Dr. Baqer Mehdi. Baqer, Mehdi’s verbal test of creativity
which includes 4 sub-tests namely, Consequences Test, Unusual Test, Similarity Test and Product Improvement
Test.
The problems in the test are divided into four activities. Each activity is separately timed. Within the time limit
for each “activity”subject may work on the different problems according to his speed. 1. Consequences test consists
of three hypothetical situations (a) what would happen if man could fly like birds? (b) What would happen if our
schools had wheels? And (c) what would happen if man does not have any need for food? The subject is required to
think as many consequences of these situations as he can, and write them under each situation in the space provided.
The situations being hypothetical minimize the effect of experience and also provide the subject with an unlimited
opportunity to make responses. The test encourages free play of imagination and originality. An example is given on
the test booklet to acquaint the subjects with the nature of the test. The time allowed for the three problems is 4
minutes each.
Unusual Uses Test: This test presents the subject with the names of three common objects - a piece of stone, a
wooden stick, and water and requires him to write as many novel, interesting and unusual uses of these objects as he
may think of. The example given on the test booklet acquaints the subjects with the nature of the task. This test
measures the subject’s ability to retrieve items of information from his personal information in storage. Evidently, it
measures also the subject’s ability to shift frames of reference to use the environment in original manner. The time
allowed for the three tasks in 5 minutes.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(4): 64-67
66
New relationships Test: This test presents the subject with three pairs of words’ apparently different - tree and
house, chair and ladder, air and water, and requires him to think and write as many novel relationships as possible
between the two objects of each pair in the space provided. The test provides an opportunity for the free play of
imagination and originality. The time allowed for each pair of words is 5 minutes.
Product Improvement Test: In this test the subject is asked to think of a simple wooden toy of a horse and
suggest addition of new things to it to make it more interesting for the children to play.The time allowed is 6
minutes. The total time required for administering the test is 48 minutes in addition to the time necessary for giving
instructions, passing out test booklets to children and collecting them back.
2.6.2. Rationale for the Activities Included in the Test
In this section an attempt has been made to give a rationale for the selection of different types of activities
included in the test.
2.6.3. Consequences
The basis of this activity is Guilford’s Consequences Test or Torrance’s Just Suppose Activity. The tasks
included in this activity are based on familiar things but are presented in the form of a hypothetical situation. The
tasks confront the subject with a situation, which he can think of with a large number of possibilities to hypothetical
happening. This implies cause and effect thinking. The event is mentioned and the subject has to think of the
consequences that may occur as a result of the stimulus, event, or happening, whether the happening is usual or
unusual, logical or illogical. Thus the number of relevant responses produced by the subject yields a measure of his
ideational fluency, the number of shifts in the thinking trends of the consequences of the responses or the thinking
departure from the common place gives the measure of originality.
2.6.4. Unusual Uses
The basic idea of these tasks comes from Guilford’s Brick Uses Test or Torrance’s Tin Can Uses Test, or
Cardboard Boxes Uses Test. Common things like water, a wooden stick and a piece of stone are used as stimuli to let
the subject’s thinking go in different directions. The activity appears playful to the child but quickly puts him on a
train of thought, which will yield many novel responses. The number of relevant responses may give the measure of
one’s ideational fluency, the number of thought categories the measure of verbal flexibility and uncommonness of
responses a measure of his originality.
2.6.5. New Relationships
In this activity, articles of daily use with which the child is quite familiar are taken so as to enable him to think
more naturally about relationships between two apparently dissimilar objects. The items of this activity provide
possibilities for scoring responses for fluency, flexibility, and originality in the same fashion as for unusual uses test.
2.6.6. Product Improvement
This test of verbal imagination is similar to the one found in Torrance’s product improvement activity. Torrance
used a picture of a toy monkey, but in this test the subject is only asked to imagine a figure of a horse toy and then
give responses, which would indicate what he will do to make it more interesting and unusual for the child to play.
The task tasks the child in the world of imagination and spurs him to think in different directions. Apart from
ideational fluency, the
test also measures flexibility and originality.
2.7. Scoring
Each item of the test has to be scored for fluency, flexibility and originality.
2.7.1. Scoring for Fluency
The number of relevant and unrepeated ideas, which the tastes produce, represents Fluency. The scorer should
strike off responses, which are irrelevant and repeated. Then he should count the remaining number of response and
this is the fluency score.
2.7.2. Scoring for Flexibility
Flexibility is represented by the person’s ability to produce idea which differ in approach or thought trend. All
ideas which fall under one category of approach or thought trend are treated as one for purpose of flexibility scoring.
If all the five ideas are based on five different approaches or thought trends then the flexibility score will be five.
2.7.3. Scoring for Originality
Originality is represented by uncommonness of a given response. Responses given by less than 5 parent of a
group are treated as original. More uncommon the response, higher is the originality weight. If a response has been
given by 1% to 99% of tastes, then the responses will get an originality weight of 5.
Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(4): 64-67
67
The total of fluency score, flexibility score and originality scores
is considered as composite creativity score.
2.8. Statistical Techniques
The statistical Technique used for analysis of data was “t” test.
2.9. Findings of the Study
Findings of the study are as follows:
 Normal children are more creative than the blind children.
 No significant difference is observed between normal children and blind children in their fluency
component of creativity.
 No significant difference is observed between normal children and blind children in their
flexibility component of creativity
 No significant difference is observed between normal children and blind children in their
originality component of creativity
3. Conclusion
Creativity is a very precious and unique quality in an individual that enables an individual to solve complicated
problems in different walks of life. The gift of creativity in blind children needs to be nurtured right from childhood
and should be continued throughout adulthood. The progress and prosperity of a nation depends on the development
of creative potential of its people. Suppression of creativity of blind children means behavior problems, dropouts and
mental conflicts and above all a loss to mankind.
References
Badrinath and Satyanarayan (1976). Creative thinking of school students. Discovery Publishing House: New Delhi.
Gokhar, S. (1974). Creativity in relation to age and sex. Journal of Education and Psychology, 32: 122.
Hathway, W. and Lowenfield, B. (1973). Teaching the Visually Handicapped ,Education of Exceptional
Children,49th year book,part 2. 144-45.
Pandit, R. (1976). A study of creativity in relation to adjustment,socio economic status and scholastic achievement of
students, Unpublished M.Ed Dissertation, Devi Ahilya University.
Raina, M. M. (1969). Creativity research in India : an analysis. Journal of Creative Behaviour: 3(3): 200-210.
Sharma, S. (1982). A study of intellectual factors and academic achievement in arts, science and commerce courses
at higher secondary stage. Unpublished Ph.D.(Edu.), Aligarh Muslim University.
Stein, M. I. (1974). Stimulating creativity: Individual procedures. Academic Press: New York. 1.
Wilson, R. C., Guilford, J. P. and Christensen, P. R. (1974). Quoted by N.K.Dutt,psychological foundations of
education. Doaba House: Delhi.

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A Comparative Study of Creativity between Normal Children and Blind Children Studying In Secondary Schools of Mysore City

  • 1. Research Journal of Education ISSN(e): 2413-0540, ISSN(p): 2413-8886 Vol. 2, No. 4, pp: 64-67, 2016 URL: http://arpgweb.com/?ic=journal&journal=15&info=aims 64 Academic Research Publishing Group A Comparative Study of Creativity between Normal Children and Blind Children Studying In Secondary Schools of Mysore City Sharmista Assistant Professor BGS. B.Ed College Mysore, Karnataka, India 1. Introduction Creativity is the capacity of an individual to create, discover or produce an entirely new or novel idea or object by the rearrangement or reshaping of what is already known. It is characterized by qualities like universality, adventurousness and open-minded change and novelty, ego involvement and divergent thinking. According to Wilson et al. (1974) the creative process is any process by which something new is produced, an idea or an object including a new form or arrangement of old elements. The new creation must contribute to the solution of some problem. Stein (1974) opinied that creativity is a process which results in novel work that is accepted as tenable to useful or satisfying to a group of people at some point of time. The blind and near blind include those persons whose visual acuity is less than 20/200 according to the snellen chart. The blind cannot see anything.Some can see only the difference between light and dark or day and night and cannot see the shape of things.Many others will have problems in seeing the things clearly. 2. Review of Related Literature The investigator reviewed the studies related to the problem that are presented in summarized from as follows: - Raina (1969) observed that the prevailing educational system is not conducive to promoting creativity for developing and identifying creative talents. The teacher himself has to be creative; otherwise there is a danger of mistaking creativity for abnormality. Pandit (1976) studied creativity and sex differences, it was indicated that girls scored significantly higher than boys on all aspects of creativity. Gokhar (1974) studied the relationship of creativity to age and sex, the findings were sex did not account for significant contribution to the variance resulting out of the creativity scores except for one case where girls significantly scored higher than boys on flexibility. Badrinath and Satyanarayan (1976) found out that boys scored significantly higher than the girls in verbal originality and total verbal creativity. The male students were significantly higher than female students in fluency and originality dimensions of creativity. Sharma (1982) conducted a study on “Factors related to creativity”. The main findings were that boys were more creative as compared to girls, creativity was higher in nuclear family but not in joint family. Creativity was significantly higher in high I.Q group in comparision with middle and low I.Q.groups. Abstract: Creativity is a novel and personal experience. Creativity is universal. It is not confined to any individuals, groups of individuals, caste, colour or creed. It is not bounded by the barriers of age, location or culture. Everyone possesses and is capable of demonstrating creativity to some degree. Although many research findings and incidents favour the suggestion that creativity is god given and natural endowment, the influence of the sensory experiences, cultural background, education and training in the nurturing of creativity cannot be ruled out. Therefore one’s creativity maybe correctly said to be a function of natural endowment as well as its nurturing. . The individual receives impressions of the world only through the senses .It is evident therefore deviation from the normal vision has important significance. More impressions reach the brain for interpretation through the sense of sight than through all the other senses combined. Visual difficulties may influence individual in all spheres of life. It is a moral responsibility to see that a positive educational programme is devised under which facilities would be available for nurturing the creativity of the blind children. Proper care and provision of opportunities for creative expression inspire, stimulate and sharpen the the creative mind. It is in this sphere that parents, society and teachers make a significant contribution. They are required to help the children in nourishing and utilizing their creative abilities to the utmost. The educational process, therefore, should be aimed at developing creative abilities among children. Keywords: Creativity-ability to produce something new; Blind-no vision; Normal children-having normal vision; secondary schools-8th grade to 10th grade.
  • 2. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(4): 64-67 65 According to Hathway and Lowenfield (1973) visual handicap has a modifying influence on the development of the child and on the methods used in his education,but it must be kept in mind that the blind child in most respects,a normal child.His growing intellect,his developing functions ,his emotions and his desires are fundamentally like those of all children.The degree of visual handicap varies from individual to individual.The child even with a small amount of sight will consider it one of his greatest assets.If the teacher does not recognize this and treats the child as blind he may drive him into opposition and resentment. Regarding creative ability it may be said that drawing and painting are not possible for blind children.But modelings can be very well substituted for these arts.Many blind children show considerable talent in it and derive much pleasure from working with clay and plasticine.The art which the blind are associated is music and therefore this art should be given adequate encouragement. 2.1. Nature of the Study The present study is descriptive in nature. The study is descriptive as it attempts to test components of creativity such as fluency, flexibility and originality and compares the total creativity between normal children and blind children studying in secondary schools of Mysore city. 2.2. Objectives of the Study The objectives of the study were as follows: -  To find the level of creativity in blind children  To find the level of creativity in normal children  To compare the total creativity of blind children with that of  Normal children.  To compare the sub factors of creativity of blind children  With that of normal children. 2.3. Delimitation of the Study The delimitations of the study are as follows: 1. This study is restricted to creativity among normal children and blind children. 2. This study is delimited to secondary schools situated in Mysore city. 2.4. Design of the Study The study was descriptive in nature, aimed at comparing the level of creativity between normal children and blind children studying in secondary schools of Mysore city. 2.5. Sample of the Study Size of the sample of the study was 70 children, out of 70 children, 35 children were visually impaired and 35 children had normal vision. Purpose sampling technique was followed to draw the sample. The visual impaired children were taken from a government secondary school and normal children were selected from two government secondary schools of Mysore city. 2.6. Tool used in the Study The tool used for the present study was “Thinking creatively with words” developed by Baqer Mehdi. 2.6.1. Description of Tool The tool used for the present study is developed by Dr. Baqer Mehdi. Baqer, Mehdi’s verbal test of creativity which includes 4 sub-tests namely, Consequences Test, Unusual Test, Similarity Test and Product Improvement Test. The problems in the test are divided into four activities. Each activity is separately timed. Within the time limit for each “activity”subject may work on the different problems according to his speed. 1. Consequences test consists of three hypothetical situations (a) what would happen if man could fly like birds? (b) What would happen if our schools had wheels? And (c) what would happen if man does not have any need for food? The subject is required to think as many consequences of these situations as he can, and write them under each situation in the space provided. The situations being hypothetical minimize the effect of experience and also provide the subject with an unlimited opportunity to make responses. The test encourages free play of imagination and originality. An example is given on the test booklet to acquaint the subjects with the nature of the test. The time allowed for the three problems is 4 minutes each. Unusual Uses Test: This test presents the subject with the names of three common objects - a piece of stone, a wooden stick, and water and requires him to write as many novel, interesting and unusual uses of these objects as he may think of. The example given on the test booklet acquaints the subjects with the nature of the task. This test measures the subject’s ability to retrieve items of information from his personal information in storage. Evidently, it measures also the subject’s ability to shift frames of reference to use the environment in original manner. The time allowed for the three tasks in 5 minutes.
  • 3. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(4): 64-67 66 New relationships Test: This test presents the subject with three pairs of words’ apparently different - tree and house, chair and ladder, air and water, and requires him to think and write as many novel relationships as possible between the two objects of each pair in the space provided. The test provides an opportunity for the free play of imagination and originality. The time allowed for each pair of words is 5 minutes. Product Improvement Test: In this test the subject is asked to think of a simple wooden toy of a horse and suggest addition of new things to it to make it more interesting for the children to play.The time allowed is 6 minutes. The total time required for administering the test is 48 minutes in addition to the time necessary for giving instructions, passing out test booklets to children and collecting them back. 2.6.2. Rationale for the Activities Included in the Test In this section an attempt has been made to give a rationale for the selection of different types of activities included in the test. 2.6.3. Consequences The basis of this activity is Guilford’s Consequences Test or Torrance’s Just Suppose Activity. The tasks included in this activity are based on familiar things but are presented in the form of a hypothetical situation. The tasks confront the subject with a situation, which he can think of with a large number of possibilities to hypothetical happening. This implies cause and effect thinking. The event is mentioned and the subject has to think of the consequences that may occur as a result of the stimulus, event, or happening, whether the happening is usual or unusual, logical or illogical. Thus the number of relevant responses produced by the subject yields a measure of his ideational fluency, the number of shifts in the thinking trends of the consequences of the responses or the thinking departure from the common place gives the measure of originality. 2.6.4. Unusual Uses The basic idea of these tasks comes from Guilford’s Brick Uses Test or Torrance’s Tin Can Uses Test, or Cardboard Boxes Uses Test. Common things like water, a wooden stick and a piece of stone are used as stimuli to let the subject’s thinking go in different directions. The activity appears playful to the child but quickly puts him on a train of thought, which will yield many novel responses. The number of relevant responses may give the measure of one’s ideational fluency, the number of thought categories the measure of verbal flexibility and uncommonness of responses a measure of his originality. 2.6.5. New Relationships In this activity, articles of daily use with which the child is quite familiar are taken so as to enable him to think more naturally about relationships between two apparently dissimilar objects. The items of this activity provide possibilities for scoring responses for fluency, flexibility, and originality in the same fashion as for unusual uses test. 2.6.6. Product Improvement This test of verbal imagination is similar to the one found in Torrance’s product improvement activity. Torrance used a picture of a toy monkey, but in this test the subject is only asked to imagine a figure of a horse toy and then give responses, which would indicate what he will do to make it more interesting and unusual for the child to play. The task tasks the child in the world of imagination and spurs him to think in different directions. Apart from ideational fluency, the test also measures flexibility and originality. 2.7. Scoring Each item of the test has to be scored for fluency, flexibility and originality. 2.7.1. Scoring for Fluency The number of relevant and unrepeated ideas, which the tastes produce, represents Fluency. The scorer should strike off responses, which are irrelevant and repeated. Then he should count the remaining number of response and this is the fluency score. 2.7.2. Scoring for Flexibility Flexibility is represented by the person’s ability to produce idea which differ in approach or thought trend. All ideas which fall under one category of approach or thought trend are treated as one for purpose of flexibility scoring. If all the five ideas are based on five different approaches or thought trends then the flexibility score will be five. 2.7.3. Scoring for Originality Originality is represented by uncommonness of a given response. Responses given by less than 5 parent of a group are treated as original. More uncommon the response, higher is the originality weight. If a response has been given by 1% to 99% of tastes, then the responses will get an originality weight of 5.
  • 4. Research Journal of Education, 2016, 2(4): 64-67 67 The total of fluency score, flexibility score and originality scores is considered as composite creativity score. 2.8. Statistical Techniques The statistical Technique used for analysis of data was “t” test. 2.9. Findings of the Study Findings of the study are as follows:  Normal children are more creative than the blind children.  No significant difference is observed between normal children and blind children in their fluency component of creativity.  No significant difference is observed between normal children and blind children in their flexibility component of creativity  No significant difference is observed between normal children and blind children in their originality component of creativity 3. Conclusion Creativity is a very precious and unique quality in an individual that enables an individual to solve complicated problems in different walks of life. The gift of creativity in blind children needs to be nurtured right from childhood and should be continued throughout adulthood. The progress and prosperity of a nation depends on the development of creative potential of its people. Suppression of creativity of blind children means behavior problems, dropouts and mental conflicts and above all a loss to mankind. References Badrinath and Satyanarayan (1976). Creative thinking of school students. Discovery Publishing House: New Delhi. Gokhar, S. (1974). Creativity in relation to age and sex. Journal of Education and Psychology, 32: 122. Hathway, W. and Lowenfield, B. (1973). Teaching the Visually Handicapped ,Education of Exceptional Children,49th year book,part 2. 144-45. Pandit, R. (1976). A study of creativity in relation to adjustment,socio economic status and scholastic achievement of students, Unpublished M.Ed Dissertation, Devi Ahilya University. Raina, M. M. (1969). Creativity research in India : an analysis. Journal of Creative Behaviour: 3(3): 200-210. Sharma, S. (1982). A study of intellectual factors and academic achievement in arts, science and commerce courses at higher secondary stage. Unpublished Ph.D.(Edu.), Aligarh Muslim University. Stein, M. I. (1974). Stimulating creativity: Individual procedures. Academic Press: New York. 1. Wilson, R. C., Guilford, J. P. and Christensen, P. R. (1974). Quoted by N.K.Dutt,psychological foundations of education. Doaba House: Delhi.