SlideShare a Scribd company logo
The Great Migration
The Great Migration represented a sustained effort on the part of Black Americans to escape the
stifling oppression of the Jim Crow South. Between 1916 and 1970, about six million Black
residents left the rural South, the largest internal mass migration in U.S. history.
Source: Univ. of Washington
The Northern Black press played a major role in recruiting Black southerners to move North during the
Great Migration, publishing job postings and rail schedules and documenting stories of the migrant
experience. Key publications included the Chicago Defender, the Pittsburgh Courier, the New
Amsterdam News, and the Philadelphia Tribune. The major papers boasted weekly circulation of more
than 500,000 copies, with a readership several times higher.
The Black Press
Union Terminal Railroad Depot Concourse, Jacksonville, Florida, 1921.
Source: Florida Memory
Particularly during World War I
and World War II, Black
migrants sought to leave the
horrors of Jim Crow and seize
economic opportunities in
growing industries in the North
and West.
“The Arthurs, an African American family moving to the urban North
from the rural South, arrive in Chicago, Illinois, in 1920. The family left
their hometown of Paris, Texas, after two family members were
murdered.” (Chicago History Museum via Getty Images)
In 1916, a factory worker in a
Northern city could earn three
times what might be possible
working the land in the South.
Though many imagined the
North as a “promised land” free
of Jim Crow’s overt racist
oppression, they quickly
realized that white supremacy
was a defining feature of
American life everywhere.
National Urban League
Created from the merger of three
similar organizations, the National
Urban League (NUL) was founded
in 1910, prior to the onset of the
Great Migration, to help
newcomers to Northern cities
acclimate and find employment,
housing, and other resources. It
established chapters in many major
cities and would play a large role
in efforts to address housing
discrimination during the civil
rights movement of the 1960s.
The Red Summer of 1919
Racial violence erupted in dozens of
U.S. cities, including Chicago and
Washington, sparked by resentment over
competition for jobs and housing, as well
as perceived violations of de facto
segregation. These tensions were made
worse by an economic recession and the
return of soldiers from World War I,
including many Black veterans who
found they were treated no better as a
result of their military service. Writer
and activist James Weldon Johnson
referred to this period of racial terror as
“Red Summer.”
New York Tribune (27 July 1919)
Chicago, Summer of 1919
Residential Segregation
This map illustrates the racial demographics
of Chicago in 1934, revealing a clear pattern
of racial segregation in housing. Enforced by
practices and customs such as restrictive
housing covenants, rather than by law, so-
called de facto ( “in fact”) segregation
resulted in the concentration of most Black
residents in the so-called “Black belt” on
Chicago’s South side. Black residents
generally preferred the term “Bronzeville,”
coined by newspaper editor James Gentry.
Chicago tenement housing, 1941
As tens of thousands of Black
Southern migrants arrived in
Chicago in the early 1940s, housing
in Black neighborhoods became
increasingly scarce. Landlords were
therefore able to charge exorbitant
rents for poorly maintained,
overcrowded units. In many cases,
apartments were subdivided and
occupied by multiple families, who
would share a single bathroom in the
hall. Residents were often forced to
live without heat, adequate lighting,
or running water. Rats were common
and fires frequently broke out—
caused by flammable construction
materials and the use of kerosene
lamps—in some years occurring
nearly twice a day in Bronzeville.
“Negro family living in
crowded quarters, Chicago,
Illinois, April 1941.”
Photo by Russell Lee
Novelist Richard Wright, a migrant from
Natchez, Mississippi, documented the
socioeconomic conditions in Chicago’s
Black communities in his 1940 classic
Native Son. In the literary style of
naturalism, Wright’s story depicts the effects
of poverty and racial oppression on Bigger
Thomas, a Black man driven to commit
murder in an effort to survive the system of
white supremacy that structured every aspect
of his environment.
The Harlem Renaissance (1920s)
• During the 1920s, the Harlem section of New York was home to a flowering of
Black culture: literature, art, music, and theater. Similar artistic movements
occurred in Chicago, Washington, and other cities of the Great Migration.
• Writer Alain Locke coined the term “New Negro” to refer to a new Black
consciousness working to use art to capture the Black experience as a tool for
Black liberation.
• Key figures of the movement included Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright,
Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay, Jessie Redmon Fauset,
Louis Armstrong, and Jacob Lawrence.
• Jazz and blues music were central to the arts scene, and venues like the Cotton
Club and the Apollo Theater drew celebrities and crowds.
• Many Black artists were sponsored or commissioned to work for white patrons,
capturing glimpses of a Black experience often as rendered for white eyes.
By the 1930s, the nation’s largest Black community was in Harlem, New York, home to the NAACP,
the UNIA, and the National Urban League. Photo: Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
At the age of 23, painter Jacob
Lawrence produced a collection
of sixty prints known as The
Migration Series (WPA, 1941).
It documented the social and
economic conditions of the Jim
Crow South that pushed
migrants to leave, and the harsh
realities of race relations in the
North, imagined by many
would-be migrants to be a
“promised land” free of racial
oppression. The child of
Southern migrants, Lawrence
lived in Harlem.
Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series (1941)
Discussion
In groups of three or four, select one to two paintings to examine.
Consider:
• How does Lawrence tell a story in his paintings?
• How does he portray the conditions of the South?
• How does he portray the promise of the North?
• What does he emphasize about the physical process of migration?

More Related Content

Similar to 1.24.23 The Great Migration.pptx

1920s and harlem
1920s and harlem1920s and harlem
1920s and harlem
Liz Slavens
 
Essay On Harlem Renaissance
Essay On Harlem RenaissanceEssay On Harlem Renaissance
Essay On Harlem Renaissance
College Papers Writing Service
 
Events civil rights_move
Events civil rights_moveEvents civil rights_move
Events civil rights_move
Alex Thompson
 
Civil rights
Civil rightsCivil rights
Civil rights
ewaszolek
 
harlem_renaissance_presentation.ppt
harlem_renaissance_presentation.pptharlem_renaissance_presentation.ppt
harlem_renaissance_presentation.ppt
AyazuddinHaidari
 
Red Summer 1919
Red Summer 1919Red Summer 1919
Red Summer 1919
Diana Fordham
 
Great Migration: Art and History
Great Migration: Art and History Great Migration: Art and History
Great Migration: Art and History
Wake County and Pitt County Schools, North Carolina
 
Harlem Renaissance Essays
Harlem Renaissance EssaysHarlem Renaissance Essays
Harlem Renaissance Essays
Custom Paper Writing Services
 
The new negro an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930
The new negro  an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930The new negro  an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930
The new negro an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930
Derek Schmidt
 
15 1920s
15 1920s15 1920s
15 1920s
stacey12130
 
Black towns done
Black towns doneBlack towns done
Black towns done
Thomas Atkinson
 
Lecture 4 ethnic and racial diversity
Lecture 4 ethnic and racial diversityLecture 4 ethnic and racial diversity
Lecture 4 ethnic and racial diversity
bflood
 
Elit 48 c class 21
Elit 48 c class 21Elit 48 c class 21
Elit 48 c class 21
jordanlachance
 
Timeline Presentation Real Final
Timeline Presentation Real FinalTimeline Presentation Real Final
Timeline Presentation Real Final
mledarkness
 
Elit 48 c class 24
Elit 48 c class 24Elit 48 c class 24
Elit 48 c class 24
jordanlachance
 

Similar to 1.24.23 The Great Migration.pptx (15)

1920s and harlem
1920s and harlem1920s and harlem
1920s and harlem
 
Essay On Harlem Renaissance
Essay On Harlem RenaissanceEssay On Harlem Renaissance
Essay On Harlem Renaissance
 
Events civil rights_move
Events civil rights_moveEvents civil rights_move
Events civil rights_move
 
Civil rights
Civil rightsCivil rights
Civil rights
 
harlem_renaissance_presentation.ppt
harlem_renaissance_presentation.pptharlem_renaissance_presentation.ppt
harlem_renaissance_presentation.ppt
 
Red Summer 1919
Red Summer 1919Red Summer 1919
Red Summer 1919
 
Great Migration: Art and History
Great Migration: Art and History Great Migration: Art and History
Great Migration: Art and History
 
Harlem Renaissance Essays
Harlem Renaissance EssaysHarlem Renaissance Essays
Harlem Renaissance Essays
 
The new negro an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930
The new negro  an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930The new negro  an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930
The new negro an evolution in black racial conscious, 1895-1930
 
15 1920s
15 1920s15 1920s
15 1920s
 
Black towns done
Black towns doneBlack towns done
Black towns done
 
Lecture 4 ethnic and racial diversity
Lecture 4 ethnic and racial diversityLecture 4 ethnic and racial diversity
Lecture 4 ethnic and racial diversity
 
Elit 48 c class 21
Elit 48 c class 21Elit 48 c class 21
Elit 48 c class 21
 
Timeline Presentation Real Final
Timeline Presentation Real FinalTimeline Presentation Real Final
Timeline Presentation Real Final
 
Elit 48 c class 24
Elit 48 c class 24Elit 48 c class 24
Elit 48 c class 24
 

More from MaryPotorti1

2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 
2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx
2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx
2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx
MaryPotorti1
 

More from MaryPotorti1 (20)

2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
2.27.24 Malcolm X and the Black Freedom Struggle.pptx
 
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.22.24 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
 
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
2.20.24 The March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom.pptx
 
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
2.15.24 The Birmingham Campaign and MLK.pptx
 
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
2.6.24 The Freedom Rides.pptx
 
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
2.1.24 Student Activism, Sit-ins, and the Rise of SNCC.pptx
 
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
1.30.24 The Montgomery Bus Boycott and the Crisis at Little Rock.pptx
 
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
1.25.24 The Brown Decision and the Murder of Emmett Till.pptx
 
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
1.23.24 Early Visionaries--Washington, DuBois, and Garvey.pptx
 
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
1.18.24 The Nadir--Race Relations in Early 20th C America.pptx
 
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
1.11.24 Movement Mythologies and the Legacies of Reconstruction .pptx
 
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
1.9.24 Intro to Course--Defining Key Terms and Asking Key Questions.pptx
 
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
3.28.23 Race, the Draft, and the Vietnam War.pptx
 
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
3.23.23 The Chicago Freedom Movement and Urban Uprisings.pptx
 
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
3.21.23 The Origins of Black Power.pptx
 
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
3.16.23 The Selma March and the Voting Rights Act.pptx
 
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
3.2.23 Freedom Summer.pptx
 
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
2.23.23 Malcolm X.pptx
 
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
2.21.23 Black Nationalism and the Nation of Islam.pptx
 
2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx
2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx
2.16.23 The March on Washington.pptx
 

Recently uploaded

Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
WaniBasim
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
mulvey2
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
Nicholas Montgomery
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
Dr. Shivangi Singh Parihar
 
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
Celine George
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
TechSoup
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Excellence Foundation for South Sudan
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
paigestewart1632
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Diana Rendina
 
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for studentLife upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
NgcHiNguyn25
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
Himanshu Rai
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Mohd Adib Abd Muin, Senior Lecturer at Universiti Utara Malaysia
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Denish Jangid
 
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama UniversityNatural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Akanksha trivedi rama nursing college kanpur.
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
สมใจ จันสุกสี
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
adhitya5119
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
Israel Genealogy Research Association
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
Celine George
 
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
Wahiba Chair Training & Consulting
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
Colégio Santa Teresinha
 

Recently uploaded (20)

Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdfLiberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
Liberal Approach to the Study of Indian Politics.pdf
 
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptxC1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
C1 Rubenstein AP HuG xxxxxxxxxxxxxx.pptx
 
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the moviewriting about opinions about Australia the movie
writing about opinions about Australia the movie
 
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
PCOS corelations and management through Ayurveda.
 
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 InventoryHow to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
How to Setup Warehouse & Location in Odoo 17 Inventory
 
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit InnovationLeveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
Leveraging Generative AI to Drive Nonprofit Innovation
 
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective UpskillingYour Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
Your Skill Boost Masterclass: Strategies for Effective Upskilling
 
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence PsychologyCognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
Cognitive Development Adolescence Psychology
 
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
Reimagining Your Library Space: How to Increase the Vibes in Your Library No ...
 
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for studentLife upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
Life upper-Intermediate B2 Workbook for student
 
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem studentsRHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
RHEOLOGY Physical pharmaceutics-II notes for B.pharm 4th sem students
 
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptxChapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
Chapter 4 - Islamic Financial Institutions in Malaysia.pptx
 
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptxChapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
Chapter wise All Notes of First year Basic Civil Engineering.pptx
 
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama UniversityNatural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
Natural birth techniques - Mrs.Akanksha Trivedi Rama University
 
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
คำศัพท์ คำพื้นฐานการอ่าน ภาษาอังกฤษ ระดับชั้น ม.1
 
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docxAdvanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
Advanced Java[Extra Concepts, Not Difficult].docx
 
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collectionThe Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
The Diamonds of 2023-2024 in the IGRA collection
 
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
How to Make a Field Mandatory in Odoo 17
 
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
How to Create a More Engaging and Human Online Learning Experience
 
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE”           .
MARY JANE WILSON, A “BOA MÃE” .
 

1.24.23 The Great Migration.pptx

  • 2. The Great Migration represented a sustained effort on the part of Black Americans to escape the stifling oppression of the Jim Crow South. Between 1916 and 1970, about six million Black residents left the rural South, the largest internal mass migration in U.S. history.
  • 3. Source: Univ. of Washington
  • 4. The Northern Black press played a major role in recruiting Black southerners to move North during the Great Migration, publishing job postings and rail schedules and documenting stories of the migrant experience. Key publications included the Chicago Defender, the Pittsburgh Courier, the New Amsterdam News, and the Philadelphia Tribune. The major papers boasted weekly circulation of more than 500,000 copies, with a readership several times higher. The Black Press
  • 5. Union Terminal Railroad Depot Concourse, Jacksonville, Florida, 1921. Source: Florida Memory Particularly during World War I and World War II, Black migrants sought to leave the horrors of Jim Crow and seize economic opportunities in growing industries in the North and West.
  • 6. “The Arthurs, an African American family moving to the urban North from the rural South, arrive in Chicago, Illinois, in 1920. The family left their hometown of Paris, Texas, after two family members were murdered.” (Chicago History Museum via Getty Images) In 1916, a factory worker in a Northern city could earn three times what might be possible working the land in the South. Though many imagined the North as a “promised land” free of Jim Crow’s overt racist oppression, they quickly realized that white supremacy was a defining feature of American life everywhere.
  • 7. National Urban League Created from the merger of three similar organizations, the National Urban League (NUL) was founded in 1910, prior to the onset of the Great Migration, to help newcomers to Northern cities acclimate and find employment, housing, and other resources. It established chapters in many major cities and would play a large role in efforts to address housing discrimination during the civil rights movement of the 1960s.
  • 8. The Red Summer of 1919 Racial violence erupted in dozens of U.S. cities, including Chicago and Washington, sparked by resentment over competition for jobs and housing, as well as perceived violations of de facto segregation. These tensions were made worse by an economic recession and the return of soldiers from World War I, including many Black veterans who found they were treated no better as a result of their military service. Writer and activist James Weldon Johnson referred to this period of racial terror as “Red Summer.” New York Tribune (27 July 1919)
  • 10. Residential Segregation This map illustrates the racial demographics of Chicago in 1934, revealing a clear pattern of racial segregation in housing. Enforced by practices and customs such as restrictive housing covenants, rather than by law, so- called de facto ( “in fact”) segregation resulted in the concentration of most Black residents in the so-called “Black belt” on Chicago’s South side. Black residents generally preferred the term “Bronzeville,” coined by newspaper editor James Gentry.
  • 11. Chicago tenement housing, 1941 As tens of thousands of Black Southern migrants arrived in Chicago in the early 1940s, housing in Black neighborhoods became increasingly scarce. Landlords were therefore able to charge exorbitant rents for poorly maintained, overcrowded units. In many cases, apartments were subdivided and occupied by multiple families, who would share a single bathroom in the hall. Residents were often forced to live without heat, adequate lighting, or running water. Rats were common and fires frequently broke out— caused by flammable construction materials and the use of kerosene lamps—in some years occurring nearly twice a day in Bronzeville.
  • 12. “Negro family living in crowded quarters, Chicago, Illinois, April 1941.” Photo by Russell Lee
  • 13. Novelist Richard Wright, a migrant from Natchez, Mississippi, documented the socioeconomic conditions in Chicago’s Black communities in his 1940 classic Native Son. In the literary style of naturalism, Wright’s story depicts the effects of poverty and racial oppression on Bigger Thomas, a Black man driven to commit murder in an effort to survive the system of white supremacy that structured every aspect of his environment.
  • 14. The Harlem Renaissance (1920s) • During the 1920s, the Harlem section of New York was home to a flowering of Black culture: literature, art, music, and theater. Similar artistic movements occurred in Chicago, Washington, and other cities of the Great Migration. • Writer Alain Locke coined the term “New Negro” to refer to a new Black consciousness working to use art to capture the Black experience as a tool for Black liberation. • Key figures of the movement included Zora Neale Hurston, Richard Wright, Langston Hughes, James Weldon Johnson, Claude McKay, Jessie Redmon Fauset, Louis Armstrong, and Jacob Lawrence. • Jazz and blues music were central to the arts scene, and venues like the Cotton Club and the Apollo Theater drew celebrities and crowds. • Many Black artists were sponsored or commissioned to work for white patrons, capturing glimpses of a Black experience often as rendered for white eyes.
  • 15. By the 1930s, the nation’s largest Black community was in Harlem, New York, home to the NAACP, the UNIA, and the National Urban League. Photo: Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture
  • 16. At the age of 23, painter Jacob Lawrence produced a collection of sixty prints known as The Migration Series (WPA, 1941). It documented the social and economic conditions of the Jim Crow South that pushed migrants to leave, and the harsh realities of race relations in the North, imagined by many would-be migrants to be a “promised land” free of racial oppression. The child of Southern migrants, Lawrence lived in Harlem. Jacob Lawrence, The Migration Series (1941)
  • 17. Discussion In groups of three or four, select one to two paintings to examine. Consider: • How does Lawrence tell a story in his paintings? • How does he portray the conditions of the South? • How does he portray the promise of the North? • What does he emphasize about the physical process of migration?

Editor's Notes

  1. Schomburg Center for Research in Black Culture, Jean Blackwell Hutson Research and Reference Division, The New York Public Library (1168439)