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PARTICULATE MODEL  OF MATTER Interactive Science Volume A Chapter 11
THINGS WE WILL LEARN... (a) What is matter made up of? (b) The 3 states of matter (c) What happens during phase change?
Part (a) What is matter made up of?
What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Matter is made up of ATOMS! Atoms are little bits too small for us to see. They are so tiny you can’t break them down further.
What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Matter is made up of very small things. These things can be broken down into smaller… and smaller… and smaller pieces.
What is Matter made up of? Part (a) John Dalton (1766 – 1844) English Chemist Matter is made up of small individual particles. These particles are like solid balls.
What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Robert Brown (1773 – 1858) Scottish Scientist Pollen grains floating on water are moving about. It seems that matter is not only made up of small particles, the particles are constantly moving.
What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German-born American Physicist Pollen grains are moving about because they are being bombarded by smaller, moving water particles. Not because they can move by themselves.
What is Matter made up of? Part (a)
What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Hockey Puck Ball Bearings
The  Particulate Model of Matter  suggests that: 1. All matter is made up of  small discrete particles . 2. The small discrete particles are in  constant  and  random  motion. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) * Discrete – individually separate and distinct.
Part (b) In terms of Particulate Model of Matter… The 3 states of matter
STATES OF MATTER Solid Liquid Gas Part (b)
STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
Particulate behaviour in each state Part (b) Solid Liquid Gas ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Particulate behaviour in each state ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],SOLID Part (b)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Particulate behaviour in each state ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],LIQUID Part (b)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Particulate behaviour in each state ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],GAS Part (b)
Let’s Review
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],4. Substances in gaseous state have no fixed shape and size because A) they have bigger volume. B) the space between paricles is wider than  when they are in solid state and liquid  state.  C) the intermolecular force between the  particles is very weak compared to its  kinetic energy.  D) they are less dense than when they are at  solid or liquid state. 5. Which of the following is true? 1 Particles in a solid are stationary. 2 Particles  in a liquid are constantly in motion. 3 Particles  in a gas move slowly. A)  2 only B)  2 & 3 only  C)  1, 2 & 3   D)  none of the above
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],9. An airtight tin can is heated over a pot of boiling water. Which of the following is going to happen after some time? A)  The tin can melts. B)  The lid of the can flies out. C)  The tin can collapses. D)  The density of the tin can increases. 10. A balloon gets bigger when it is left under the hot sun because A) the air particles inside it are moving outwards.  B) the air  particles  expand when the balloon is heated. C) the air  particles  inside it move faster and push each other away at greater force.    D) the air  particles  inside it are exerting greater force onto each other without increase in their kinetic energy.
Part (c) In terms of Particulate Model of Matter… What happens during phase change?
[object Object],Part (c) {Answer only “solid”, “liquid” or “gas”   } The standard room temperature is at 31 o C. Temperature/ o C State of water - 20 10 65 120
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Part (c)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Part (c)
Part (c) ,[object Object]
[object Object],Part (c) ,[object Object],[object Object]
Part (c) Interaction - >  Forces between particles are being overcome. Collapse of molecular structure  ->  Particles lose their  fixed, regular arrangement . State of matter - >  Solid & Liquid states  exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - >  Energy is absorbed to break bonds,  not to increase internal energy  of substance.
Part (c) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
Part (c) Formation of molecular structure  ->  Particles arrange themselves in  fixed, regular arrangement . State of matter - >  Solid & Liquid states  exist at the same time . Temperature stays  constant  - >  Energy is given out to form bonds. Interaction - >  Attractive   forces increase between particles
Part (c) ,[object Object]
[object Object],Part (c) ,[object Object],[object Object]
Part (c) Interaction - >  Forces between particles are being overcome .   Weak intermolecular forces between particles. Particle Behaviour-> Particles  move randomly at high speeds . No fixed shape, no fixed volume. Fill up empty space quickly. State of matter - >  Liquid & Gaseous states  exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - >  Energy is absorbed to break bonds,  not to increase internal energy  of substance.
Part (c) ,[object Object],[object Object],[object Object]
 
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Part (c)
[object Object],[object Object],[object Object],Part (c)
Complete the following table to indicate the changes of  states that take place and whether energy has to be  absorbed or removed from the substance. Solid to Liquid Energy (heat) absorbed Liquid to Solid Energy (heat) removed Liquid to Gas Energy (heat) absorbed Part (c)                                            Process Change of state Energy absorbed or removed? Melting Freezing Boiling
The melting points of the following substances are given in the table. What is the state of each of the substances at room temperature? LIQUID LIQUID or GAS SOLID Part (c) Substance Melting point State of substance at room temperature X 0 o C Y - 39 o C Z 1063 o C

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11 particulate model (part 1)

  • 1. PARTICULATE MODEL OF MATTER Interactive Science Volume A Chapter 11
  • 2. THINGS WE WILL LEARN... (a) What is matter made up of? (b) The 3 states of matter (c) What happens during phase change?
  • 3. Part (a) What is matter made up of?
  • 4. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Matter is made up of ATOMS! Atoms are little bits too small for us to see. They are so tiny you can’t break them down further.
  • 5. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Matter is made up of very small things. These things can be broken down into smaller… and smaller… and smaller pieces.
  • 6. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) John Dalton (1766 – 1844) English Chemist Matter is made up of small individual particles. These particles are like solid balls.
  • 7. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Robert Brown (1773 – 1858) Scottish Scientist Pollen grains floating on water are moving about. It seems that matter is not only made up of small particles, the particles are constantly moving.
  • 8. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Albert Einstein (1879 – 1955) German-born American Physicist Pollen grains are moving about because they are being bombarded by smaller, moving water particles. Not because they can move by themselves.
  • 9. What is Matter made up of? Part (a)
  • 10. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) Hockey Puck Ball Bearings
  • 11. The Particulate Model of Matter suggests that: 1. All matter is made up of small discrete particles . 2. The small discrete particles are in constant and random motion. What is Matter made up of? Part (a) * Discrete – individually separate and distinct.
  • 12. Part (b) In terms of Particulate Model of Matter… The 3 states of matter
  • 13. STATES OF MATTER Solid Liquid Gas Part (b)
  • 14. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
  • 15. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
  • 16. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
  • 17. STATES OF MATTER Part (b)
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  • 25. Part (c) In terms of Particulate Model of Matter… What happens during phase change?
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  • 31. Part (c) Interaction - > Forces between particles are being overcome. Collapse of molecular structure -> Particles lose their fixed, regular arrangement . State of matter - > Solid & Liquid states exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - > Energy is absorbed to break bonds, not to increase internal energy of substance.
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  • 33. Part (c) Formation of molecular structure -> Particles arrange themselves in fixed, regular arrangement . State of matter - > Solid & Liquid states exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - > Energy is given out to form bonds. Interaction - > Attractive forces increase between particles
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  • 36. Part (c) Interaction - > Forces between particles are being overcome . Weak intermolecular forces between particles. Particle Behaviour-> Particles move randomly at high speeds . No fixed shape, no fixed volume. Fill up empty space quickly. State of matter - > Liquid & Gaseous states exist at the same time . Temperature stays constant - > Energy is absorbed to break bonds, not to increase internal energy of substance.
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  • 41. Complete the following table to indicate the changes of states that take place and whether energy has to be absorbed or removed from the substance. Solid to Liquid Energy (heat) absorbed Liquid to Solid Energy (heat) removed Liquid to Gas Energy (heat) absorbed Part (c)                                         Process Change of state Energy absorbed or removed? Melting Freezing Boiling
  • 42. The melting points of the following substances are given in the table. What is the state of each of the substances at room temperature? LIQUID LIQUID or GAS SOLID Part (c) Substance Melting point State of substance at room temperature X 0 o C Y - 39 o C Z 1063 o C