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WHAT IS THE INTERNET ?
• A network of networks, joining many government,
university and private computers together and
providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail,
bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext
documents, databases and other
computational resources
• The largest network of networks in the world.
• Uses TCP/IP protocols and packet switching .
• Runs on any communications substrate.
From Dr. Vinton Cerf,
Co-Creator of TCP/IP
WHAT IS THE INTERNET ?
BRIEF HISTORY OF THE
INTERNET
• 1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects
Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) to
create ARPAnet
• 1970 - First five nodes:
– UCLA
– Stanford
– UC Santa Barbara
– U of Utah, and
– BBN
• 1974 - TCP specification by Vint Cerf
• 1984 – On January 1, the Internet with its 1000 hosts
converts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging
TCP/IP
• The Internet protocol suite is the
networking model and a set of
communications protocols used for the
Internet.
• TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity
specifying:
– How data should be formatted
– Addressed,
– Transmitted,
– Routed
– Received at the destination.
IP ADDRESS
• IP (Internet Protocol) address: numerical
address given to each computer connected to
the network.
– An IP address consists of 4 numbers
– (ranging from 0 to 255) separated by
periods.
• Examples:
–128.95.1.207
–209.131.36.158
–4.2.2.1
5
Domain Name System (DNS)
• Remember IP address if you want to request
information from another computer
• Domain name: human-readable name given
to a related group of networked computers.
• Domain Name System (DNS): hierarchical
naming system for computers connected to
the Internet
6
INTERNET DOMAIN HIERARCHY
7
tracer.cs.washington.
edu
General
Specific
top-level
domain
TOP LEVEL DOMAIN
• top-level domain: last part of domain name
– Examples:
• .com (commercial)
• .org (organization)
• .edu (education)
• .gov (government)
• .uk (United Kingdom)
• .ca (Canada)
• Some top-level domains (e.g., .com and .org) are open for
registration to anyone, whereas others (e.g., .gov and .edu)
have rules restricting eligibility.
• List of top-level domains:
– http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/
8
Generic domain labels
Geographic Structure
• Geographic TLDs used for organizations in
other countries:
– .uk United Kingdom
– .fr France
– .ch Switzerland
– .jp Japan
– .my Malaysia
– .sg Singapore
– .id Indonesia
– .th Thailand
– .ph Philiphines
INTERNET SERVICE
Electronic Mail (e-mail)
World Wide Web
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
Telnet
Internet Telephone
Web TV/Radio
Internet Relay Chat
News Group
Electronic Mail (e-Mail)
• Distributes e-mail messages and attached files
to one or more electronic mailboxes.
• Eg:- e-mail addresses
– thomas@mes.edu.in
– murugan@mesmarampally.org
Electronic Mail (e-Mail)
thomas @ mes . edu .in
murugan @ mesmarampally .org
Continue……
Organization Type of OrganizationName of Person Country
Electronic Mail (e-Mail)
• Different e-mail service providers
– G-Mail
– Yahoo Mail
– Hot Mail
Continue……
World Wide Web (W W W) /
WEBSITE
• Most important service provided by Internet.
• An internet-based hypermedia
initiative for global information
sharing.
Definitions
21
HTML – HyperText Markup Language – The
Language of Web Pages on the World
Wide Web.
HTML is a text formatting language.
URL – Uniform Resource Locator.
Browser – A software program which is used to
show web pages.
Tim Berners-Lee
• Father of W W W.
• The inventor of
HTML.
• Invented W W W
while working at
CERN, the European
Particle Physics
Laboratory.
Types of Web Sites
Portal
• Offers a variety of Internet services.
• Examples of services:
– News
– Sports
– Search engine/directory
– Web publishing
– Reference tools
– Maps
– Shopping
– Email
• Examples of portals:
– AltaVista, AOL, Lycos, MSN, Netscape, Yahoo!
News
• Contains newsworthy material
• Contain stories and articles related to some of
the following:
– Life, money, current events, weather
• Examples:
– WSB-tv
– NBC.com
Informational
• Contains factual information
• Government agencies provide this type of info:
– Census data, tax codes, congressional
budget
• Others that provide this type are:
– MARTA
– Medicare
Business/Marketing
• Promotes or sells a product
• Many examples
Educational
• Offers exciting, challenging avenues for formal
and informal teaching and learning.
• Online training for a new skill.
• Online courses.
• Online college classes.
• Examples
– UGA
– Phoenix University
Entertainment
• Interactive and engaging
• Offer music, video, games, sports, chats,
sweepstakes
Advocacy
• Describes a cause, opinion, or idea
• Presents views of a group of people or
organizations
Blog
• Short for webblog
• Time-stamped articles or posts, in a diary type
format
• Vblog – a blog that contains video
• Blogosphere – worldwide collection of blogs
• Vlogosphere – all vblogs worldwide
• Reflect interest, opinions and personalities
of the author
Wiki
• Allows user to create, add, modify, or delete
web site content.
• Collect recent edits on a web page so someone
can review them for accuracy.
• Anyone can modify a wiki.
• Most popular - Wikipedia
Online Social Networks
• Encourages members in the group to share
interest, ideas, stories, photos, music, and
videos with other users
• Popular examples:
– Facebook
– MySpace (12 million visitors a day)
• Media Sharing Web site – different
– Allows members to share photos, music, and
videos
– ShutterFly, Flickr – popular sites
– GoogleVideo and YouTube are example for
video sharing sites
Personal
• Private individual or family created.
• People publish personal web pages for a variety
of reasons:
– Job hunting
– Share personal experiences
– Family histories
Telnet
• Allows a user to run commands and
programs remotely on another computer
across the Internet.
• The user runs a Telnet client program on
the local host.
• A Telnet server process must be running
on the remote host.
• The user must have the necessary
permissions and password to access the
remote host
File Transfer Protocol (FTP)
• Protocol for copying files between client
and an FTP server.
• Uses a TCP connection for reliable
transfer of files with error-checking.
• Most browsers support FTP, or you can
use a dedicated FTP client program, e.g
WS_FTP.
• Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a
lightweight version for small memory
devices
What is IRC?
– IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is a virtual
meeting place where people from all over
the world can meet and talk; you'll find the
whole diversity of human interests, ideas,
and issues here, and you'll be able to
participate in group discussions on one of
the many thousands of IRC channels, on
hundreds of IRC networks, or just talk in
private to family or friends, wherever they
are in the world.
Logging Chat
• IRC Client Logs
Web Browser
• A web browser or Internet browser is a software
application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing
information resources on the World Wide Web. An
information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource
Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or
other piece of content.[1] Hyperlinks present in
resources enable users to easily navigate their browsers
to related resources.
Browsers
• Netscape Navigator (Communicator)
– Product of Netscape (Now owned by AOL)
– Originally was dominant
– Multi-platform (all operating systems)
• Internet Explorer
– Product of Microsoft
– Current Dominant Browser
– Not available for all operating systems
• Browser compatibility problems can
cause web page problems
EDUC 478Davina Pruitt-Mentle 43
Netscape Search
EDUC 478 Davina Pruitt-Mentle 44
Netscape Search
• 1: Access to
different search
engines
• 2. Type words or
phrases into text
entry box
• 3. Click Button
• 4. Preserve
favorite search
engine
EDUC 478 Davina Pruitt-Mentle 45
Internet Explorer Search
EDUC 478Davina Pruitt-Mentle 46
•Separate Panel In Browser
•Uses MicroSoft Network
search
Search Engines
• For searching information on the Internet.
– Google
– Yahoo
– Altavista
WIKIPEDIA
• A wiki is a publishing platform on which many
people can contribute new content and revise
existing content.
• The content benefits from the collective
knowledge of the contributors, so wikis can be
very beneficial for group projects.
• Some businesses and organizations use wikis to
maintain documents.
Chapter 9 : INTERNET
Chapter 9 : INTERNET
Chapter 9 : INTERNET

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Chapter 9 : INTERNET

  • 1. WHAT IS THE INTERNET ? • A network of networks, joining many government, university and private computers together and providing an infrastructure for the use of E-mail, bulletin boards, file archives, hypertext documents, databases and other computational resources
  • 2. • The largest network of networks in the world. • Uses TCP/IP protocols and packet switching . • Runs on any communications substrate. From Dr. Vinton Cerf, Co-Creator of TCP/IP WHAT IS THE INTERNET ?
  • 3. BRIEF HISTORY OF THE INTERNET • 1968 - DARPA (Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency) contracts with BBN (Bolt, Beranek & Newman) to create ARPAnet • 1970 - First five nodes: – UCLA – Stanford – UC Santa Barbara – U of Utah, and – BBN • 1974 - TCP specification by Vint Cerf • 1984 – On January 1, the Internet with its 1000 hosts converts en masse to using TCP/IP for its messaging
  • 4. TCP/IP • The Internet protocol suite is the networking model and a set of communications protocols used for the Internet. • TCP/IP provides end-to-end connectivity specifying: – How data should be formatted – Addressed, – Transmitted, – Routed – Received at the destination.
  • 5. IP ADDRESS • IP (Internet Protocol) address: numerical address given to each computer connected to the network. – An IP address consists of 4 numbers – (ranging from 0 to 255) separated by periods. • Examples: –128.95.1.207 –209.131.36.158 –4.2.2.1 5
  • 6. Domain Name System (DNS) • Remember IP address if you want to request information from another computer • Domain name: human-readable name given to a related group of networked computers. • Domain Name System (DNS): hierarchical naming system for computers connected to the Internet 6
  • 8. TOP LEVEL DOMAIN • top-level domain: last part of domain name – Examples: • .com (commercial) • .org (organization) • .edu (education) • .gov (government) • .uk (United Kingdom) • .ca (Canada) • Some top-level domains (e.g., .com and .org) are open for registration to anyone, whereas others (e.g., .gov and .edu) have rules restricting eligibility. • List of top-level domains: – http://www.iana.org/domains/root/db/ 8
  • 10. Geographic Structure • Geographic TLDs used for organizations in other countries: – .uk United Kingdom – .fr France – .ch Switzerland – .jp Japan – .my Malaysia – .sg Singapore – .id Indonesia – .th Thailand – .ph Philiphines
  • 11. INTERNET SERVICE Electronic Mail (e-mail) World Wide Web File Transfer Protocol (FTP) Telnet Internet Telephone Web TV/Radio Internet Relay Chat News Group
  • 12. Electronic Mail (e-Mail) • Distributes e-mail messages and attached files to one or more electronic mailboxes. • Eg:- e-mail addresses – thomas@mes.edu.in – murugan@mesmarampally.org
  • 13. Electronic Mail (e-Mail) thomas @ mes . edu .in murugan @ mesmarampally .org Continue…… Organization Type of OrganizationName of Person Country
  • 14. Electronic Mail (e-Mail) • Different e-mail service providers – G-Mail – Yahoo Mail – Hot Mail Continue……
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  • 20. World Wide Web (W W W) / WEBSITE • Most important service provided by Internet. • An internet-based hypermedia initiative for global information sharing.
  • 21. Definitions 21 HTML – HyperText Markup Language – The Language of Web Pages on the World Wide Web. HTML is a text formatting language. URL – Uniform Resource Locator. Browser – A software program which is used to show web pages.
  • 22. Tim Berners-Lee • Father of W W W. • The inventor of HTML. • Invented W W W while working at CERN, the European Particle Physics Laboratory.
  • 23. Types of Web Sites
  • 24. Portal • Offers a variety of Internet services. • Examples of services: – News – Sports – Search engine/directory – Web publishing – Reference tools – Maps – Shopping – Email • Examples of portals: – AltaVista, AOL, Lycos, MSN, Netscape, Yahoo!
  • 25. News • Contains newsworthy material • Contain stories and articles related to some of the following: – Life, money, current events, weather • Examples: – WSB-tv – NBC.com
  • 26. Informational • Contains factual information • Government agencies provide this type of info: – Census data, tax codes, congressional budget • Others that provide this type are: – MARTA – Medicare
  • 27. Business/Marketing • Promotes or sells a product • Many examples
  • 28. Educational • Offers exciting, challenging avenues for formal and informal teaching and learning. • Online training for a new skill. • Online courses. • Online college classes. • Examples – UGA – Phoenix University
  • 29. Entertainment • Interactive and engaging • Offer music, video, games, sports, chats, sweepstakes
  • 30. Advocacy • Describes a cause, opinion, or idea • Presents views of a group of people or organizations
  • 31. Blog • Short for webblog • Time-stamped articles or posts, in a diary type format • Vblog – a blog that contains video • Blogosphere – worldwide collection of blogs • Vlogosphere – all vblogs worldwide • Reflect interest, opinions and personalities of the author
  • 32. Wiki • Allows user to create, add, modify, or delete web site content. • Collect recent edits on a web page so someone can review them for accuracy. • Anyone can modify a wiki. • Most popular - Wikipedia
  • 33. Online Social Networks • Encourages members in the group to share interest, ideas, stories, photos, music, and videos with other users • Popular examples: – Facebook – MySpace (12 million visitors a day) • Media Sharing Web site – different – Allows members to share photos, music, and videos – ShutterFly, Flickr – popular sites – GoogleVideo and YouTube are example for video sharing sites
  • 34. Personal • Private individual or family created. • People publish personal web pages for a variety of reasons: – Job hunting – Share personal experiences – Family histories
  • 35. Telnet • Allows a user to run commands and programs remotely on another computer across the Internet. • The user runs a Telnet client program on the local host. • A Telnet server process must be running on the remote host. • The user must have the necessary permissions and password to access the remote host
  • 36. File Transfer Protocol (FTP) • Protocol for copying files between client and an FTP server. • Uses a TCP connection for reliable transfer of files with error-checking. • Most browsers support FTP, or you can use a dedicated FTP client program, e.g WS_FTP. • Trivial File Transfer Protocol (TFTP) is a lightweight version for small memory devices
  • 37. What is IRC? – IRC (Internet Relay Chat) is a virtual meeting place where people from all over the world can meet and talk; you'll find the whole diversity of human interests, ideas, and issues here, and you'll be able to participate in group discussions on one of the many thousands of IRC channels, on hundreds of IRC networks, or just talk in private to family or friends, wherever they are in the world.
  • 38. Logging Chat • IRC Client Logs
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  • 42. Web Browser • A web browser or Internet browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. An information resource is identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI) and may be a web page, image, video, or other piece of content.[1] Hyperlinks present in resources enable users to easily navigate their browsers to related resources.
  • 43. Browsers • Netscape Navigator (Communicator) – Product of Netscape (Now owned by AOL) – Originally was dominant – Multi-platform (all operating systems) • Internet Explorer – Product of Microsoft – Current Dominant Browser – Not available for all operating systems • Browser compatibility problems can cause web page problems EDUC 478Davina Pruitt-Mentle 43
  • 44. Netscape Search EDUC 478 Davina Pruitt-Mentle 44
  • 45. Netscape Search • 1: Access to different search engines • 2. Type words or phrases into text entry box • 3. Click Button • 4. Preserve favorite search engine EDUC 478 Davina Pruitt-Mentle 45
  • 46. Internet Explorer Search EDUC 478Davina Pruitt-Mentle 46 •Separate Panel In Browser •Uses MicroSoft Network search
  • 47. Search Engines • For searching information on the Internet. – Google – Yahoo – Altavista
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  • 51. WIKIPEDIA • A wiki is a publishing platform on which many people can contribute new content and revise existing content. • The content benefits from the collective knowledge of the contributors, so wikis can be very beneficial for group projects. • Some businesses and organizations use wikis to maintain documents.

Editor's Notes

  1. When investigating cases involving IRC (or chat in general) the first pieces of evidence to consider are the log files. Shown here are the logging options for MIRC and Windows X-Chat. As you can see, MIRC logs by default while X-Chat does not. It is possible, however, to save the contents of a chat window. Typically by right clicking in the window we can bring up an option to save the chat to a file; useful when you are still in a chat room. Still ,client side logging is only one avenue for this information; there are additional possibilities.
  2. Netscape Provides interface that allows access to your choice (of a list) of search engines. These engines may pay Netscape to be listed on this page. Browser is a program. The Web page is served by Netscape. The search engine is served by “whoever (Google)”. You can access the search engines directly (typing or bookmark).
  3. Microsoft uses its own search engine when clicking the SEARCH button. Other search engines can be accessed via direct typing or Favorites. Be familiar with both