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Lesson 1 introduction to computers


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Lesson 1 introduction to computers

  1. 1. Computer Systems/Applications Introduction to Computers p Thomas Henaku E-mail: ©Thomas Henaku 2010
  2. 2. Lesson 1 Objectives Recognize the importance of computer literacy Distinguish between system software and application software Define the term, computer Describe th categories of computers D ib the t i f t Identify the components of a computer Discuss the advantages and disadvantages of using computers Identify the elements of y an information system Describe the various types yp of computer users Recognize the purpose of a network Discuss the uses of the Internet and World Wide Web Discuss various computer applications in society
  3. 3. A World of Computers What is computer literacy? Knowledge and understanding K l d d d t di of computers and their uses Computers are everywhere
  4. 4. What Is a Computer? How is a computer defined? Electronic device El t i d i operating under the control of ti d th t l f instructions stored in its own memory Accepts data Raw facts, figures, and symbols Processes data into information Data that is organized, meaningful, and useful Produces and stores results
  5. 5. What Is a Computer? What is the information processing cycle? Input I t Process Output O t t Storage Communication
  6. 6. The Components of a Computer What is an input device? Hardware used H d d to enter data and instructions
  7. 7. The Components of a Computer What is an output device? Hardware th t H d that conveys information to one or more people
  8. 8. The Components of a Computer What is the system unit? Case C containing electronic components p used to process data
  9. 9. The Components of a Computer What are two main components on the motherboard? Central Processing Unit (CPU) Also called a processor The electronic component that interprets and carries out the basic instructions that operate the computer t th b i i t ti th t t th t Memory Consists of electronic components that store p instructions waiting to be executed and data needed by those instructions
  10. 10. The Components of a Computer What is storage? Holds d t i t ti H ld data, instructions, and information di f ti for future use Storage media Physical material on which data, instructions data instructions, and information are stored Storage device Records and retrieves items to and from a storage medium
  11. 11. The Components of a Computer What is storage media? Digital cameras Portable, thin memory cards used in: Handheld computers
  12. 12. The Components of a Computer What is a floppy disk? Thin, i l Thi circular, flexible disk enclosed in rigid plastic shell
  13. 13. The Components of a Computer What is a USB flash drive? Provides P id much h greater storage capacity than a floppy disk or Zip® disk Small and lightweight enough g g g to be transported on a keychain or in a pocket
  14. 14. The Components of a Computer What is a hard disk? Provides P id greater storage t t capacity than a floppy disk Zip disk, or disk, disk USB flash drive Most are housed inside of the system unit y
  15. 15. The Components of a Computer What is a compact disc? Flat, Fl t round, portable metal disc d t bl t l di CD-ROM DVD-ROM
  16. 16. The Components of a Computer What is a communications device? Hardware component that p enables a computer to send and receive data, instructions, and i f d information i Occurs over cables telephone cables, lines, cellular radio networks, satellites, and other , transmission media
  17. 17. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers What are the advantages of using computers? Speed Reliability Storage St Consistency Communications C i ti
  18. 18. Advantages and Disadvantages of Using Computers What are the disadvantages of using computers? Violation of Privacy Impact on Labor Force Health Risks Impact on Environment
  19. 19. Networks and the Internet What is a network? Collection f C ll ti of computers and devices connected together t dd i t d t th Communications Device Enables a connection ti between computers Transmission Media Satellites Cables Telephone lines One type is a modem Cellular radio
  20. 20. Networks and the Internet What are the reasons to network? To share Resources Hardware d devices Software programs To T save Data time Information and money
  21. 21. Networks and the Internet What is a server? A server manages the resources on a network Clients access the resources on the server
  22. 22. Networks and the Internet What is the Internet? Worldwide ll ti W ld id collection of networks that connects f t k th t t millions of businesses, government agencies, educational institutions, and individuals institutions
  23. 23. Networks and the Internet Why do users access the Internet? 1. Communications 2. Information 3. Shopping 3 Sh i 4. Banking and Investing 5. Classes 6. Entertainment
  24. 24. Networks and the Internet What is the Web? Billions of documents, called W b pages, available to Billi fd t ll d Web il bl t anyone connected to the Internet A Web site is a collection of ll i f related Web pages A Web page contains text, t t graphics, sound, hi d video, and links to other Web pages You can share information by creating Web pages g p g or posting photos on a photo sharing community
  25. 25. Computer Software What is software? Consists of a series of instructions that fi i h tells the computer what to do Also ll d Al called a program
  26. 26. Computer Software What is a graphical user interface (GUI)? Allows you to All t interact with the software using graphics and icons Controls how you enter data and how t e sc ee d sp ays the screen displays information
  27. 27. Computer Software What is system software? Programs that control or maintain the operations of P th t t l i t i th ti f the computer and its devices Operating System (OS) is a set of programs that coordinates all activities among g computer hardware devices and allows users to run application software Utility Programs allow the user to perform maintenance-type tasks usually related to managing a computer, its devices or its programs
  28. 28. Computer Software What is application software? Programs that perform P th t f specific tasks for users Word Processing g Spreadsheet Database Presentation Graphics
  29. 29. Computer Software How do you install and run programs?
  30. 30. Computer Software Who is a programmer? Someone who d l S h develops application or system software Programmer writes instructions to direct computer to di process data into information Resulting Internet application Javascript program
  31. 31. Categories of Computers What are the categories of computers? Personal Computers ( (desktop) p) Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices Midrange Servers Mainframes Supercomputers Embedded Computers
  32. 32. Personal Computers What are the two most popular series of personal computers? t ? PC and compatibles use the Windows operating system Apple Macintosh uses the Macintosh operating system (Mac OS)
  33. 33. Personal Computers What is a desktop computer? Designed so all of the components fit entirely on D i d ll f th t ti l or under a desk or table
  34. 34. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a notebook computer? Portable, P t bl small enough ll h to fit on your lap Also called a laptop computer Generally more expensive than a desktop computer
  35. 35. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a Tablet PC? Resembles a l tt R bl letter-sized slate i d l t Allows you to write on the screen using a digital pen Especially useful for taking notes
  36. 36. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What are mobile devices? Small S ll enough t carry i a h to in pocket Internet-enabled telephone is a “smart p phone”
  37. 37. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a handheld computer? Small enough to fit in one hand Used by mobile employees such as meter readers and delivery people
  38. 38. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What is a personal digital assistant (PDA)? Provides P id personal organizer functions l i f ti Calendar Appointment b k A i book Address book Calculator Notepad
  39. 39. Mobile Computers and Mobile Devices What are smart phones and smart watches? A smart phone is an Internet-enabled telephone that usually provides PDA capabilities A smart watch is an Internet-enabled watch th t automatically t h that t ti ll adjusts to time zone changes and stores personal information
  40. 40. Servers What types of servers are there? Midrange server Powerful, large computer that supports up to a few thousand computers Mainframe Very powerful, expensive computer that supports thousands of computers Supercomputer The fastest, most powerful, most expensive computer. computer Used for applications requiring complex mathematical calculations p. 23 Figs. 1-23–1-25
  41. 41. Embedded Computers What is an embedded computer? A special-purpose computer th t f i l t that functions as a ti component in a larger product
  42. 42. Elements of an Information System What are information system elements? Hardware H d Software Data People Procedures
  43. 43. Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a home user?
  44. 44. Examples of Computer Usage What software is available for a small office/home office (SOHO) user? Productivity software soft are Specialty software Web usage E-mail
  45. 45. Examples of Computer Usage What is available for a mobile user? bil ? Hardware Notebook computers PDAs Smart phones Software Word W d processing i Spreadsheet Presentation graphics software
  46. 46. Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of a power user? Speed d large amounts of storage S d and l t f t Types of power users Engineers Scientists Architects Desktop publishers Graphic artists
  47. 47. Examples of Computer Usage What are the needs of the large business user?
  48. 48. Computer Applications in Society What are some examples of computer applications f t li ti in society? Education Ed ti Finance Government Healthcare Science Publishing Travel Industry
  49. 49. Summary of Introduction to Computers The importance of computer literacy The term, computer System software and S t ft d application software Categories of computers C t i f t The components of a computer The advantages and disadvantages of using computers Elements of an information system Types of computer users The purpose of a network The uses of the Internet and World Wide Web Computer applications in society