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chapter2-Cognitive-Neuroscience

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chapter2-Cognitive-Neuroscience

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chapter2-Cognitive-Neuroscience

  1. 1. Chapter 2: Cognitive Neuroscience http://brainexplorer.org/brain_atlas/Brainatlas_index.shtml#image http://www.learner.org/resources/series142.html#
  2. 2. Basic Unit of Brain: Neuron
  3. 3. Windows Mac OS 8-9 Mac OS X Neuron and Neural Impulse 0
  4. 4. Methods for the studying the human brain <ul><li>Postmortem studies </li></ul><ul><li>Animal Studies </li></ul><ul><li>Electrical Recordings </li></ul><ul><li>Static Imaging Techniques </li></ul><ul><li>Metabolic Imaging </li></ul>
  5. 5. Postmortem Studies <ul><li>Identify disorder and then examine after death </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Researchers may trace a link between an observed type of behavior and anomalies in a particular location of the brain. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Paul Broca – linked severe speech problems to an area in the frontal lobe now called Broca’s area </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Studies of Alzheimer's victims have le to identify some of the brain structures involved in memory </li></ul></ul></ul>
  6. 6. <ul><ul><li>Young, Holcomb, Yazdani, Hicks & German (2004) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Found that depression is associated with a greater number of nerve cells in the Thalamus being devoted to emotional regulation </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Supported idea that structural abnormality may lead to depression </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>¿Limitations? </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Cannot be performed on the living brain </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Do no offer insights into more specific physiological processes of the brain. </li></ul></ul></ul>
  7. 7. Animal Studies: In Vivo <ul><li>Monitor activity of a single neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Microelectrodes are inserted into the brain of the animal to obtain single-cell recordings of the activiry of a single neuron </li></ul><ul><li>Selective lesioning to observe resulting funcitonal deficits </li></ul>
  8. 8. Animal Study: Single Neuron Monitoring <ul><li>Disterhoft & Matthew (2003) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Young versus old rabbits compared in learning of eyeblink conditioning </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hippocampal pyramidal neurons were monitored </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Typically aging animals cannot learn the task </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Metrifonate, galanthamine, and CI-1017 injected into the aging rabbits </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>This led aged rabbits to learn as quickly as young controls </li></ul></ul>
  9. 9. EEG-Human Studies Dehaene-Lambertz, Pena, M., Christophe, & Landrieu (2004) Examined the language abilities of infants using EEG Electroencephalograph Research Example EEG’s are recordings of the electrical frecuencies and intensities of the living brain, typically recorded over relatively long periods.
  10. 10. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) <ul><li>Radioactive material is injected or inhaled </li></ul><ul><li>Participant is then scanned to produce an image of the brain’s activity </li></ul>
  11. 11. Magnetic Resonance Imaging <ul><ul><li>Strong magnetic field passed through the skull </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Uses the detection of radio frequency signals produced by displaced radio waves in a magnetic field </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Creates a detailed anatomical image of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  12. 12. Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) <ul><li>fMRI imaging takes a series of images of the brain in quick succession and then statistically analyzes the images for differences among them </li></ul><ul><li>Brain areas with more blood flow have been shown to have better visibility on MRI images </li></ul><ul><li>Better visibility is thought to be correlated with brain activation </li></ul>
  13. 13. fMRI in Research <ul><li>Gauthier, Skudlarski, Gore & Anderson (2000) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>fMRIs demonstrate that expertise for cars and birds uses areas involved in face recognition </li></ul></ul>
  14. 14. Anatomy of the Brain <ul><li>Forebrain </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Basal ganglia </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Motor movement </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Limbic system </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul></ul>
  15. 15. Anatomy of the Brain
  16. 16. Function of Limbic System <ul><li>Emotion, motivation, memory, and learning </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls mood and attitude </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Stores highly charged emotional memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls appetite and sleep cycles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Make us better to adapt our behaviors flexibly in response to our changing environment </li></ul></ul>
  17. 17. Function of Limbic System
  18. 18. Anatomy of Limbic System <ul><li>Amygdala </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in anger and aggression </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Septum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Involved in anger and fear </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hippocampus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Is important in the formation of memories </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Disruption results in deficits in declarative memory but not in procedural memory </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Korsakoff’s syndrome </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Loss of memory function </li></ul></ul></ul>
  19. 19. Anatomy of Limbic System
  20. 20. Anatomy of Limbic System <ul><li>Thalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relay sensory information to the cerebral cortex </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Control of sleep and walking </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hypothalamus </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Important to metabolic behaviors, eating, drinking, sexual behaviors, and regulating emotions </li></ul></ul>
  21. 21. Anatomy of Limbic System
  22. 22. Midbrain <ul><li>Location </li></ul><ul><ul><li>The midbrain extends from the pons to the lower portion of thalamus </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Reticular activating system </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Controls respiration, cardiovascular function, digestion, alertness, and sleep </li></ul></ul>Controls eye movement and coordination
  23. 23. Midbrain <ul><li>Brain Stem </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Vital in basic attention, arousal, and consciousness </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physicians make determination of brain death based on the functions of the brain stem </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Physicians must determine that the brain stem has been damaged so severely that various reflexes of the head are absent for more than 12 hours </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>The brain must show no electrical activity or cerebral circulation of blood. </li></ul></ul>
  24. 24. Hindbrain <ul><li>Medulla Oblongata </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Breathing, swallowing and digestion </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Pons </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Relay station </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Cerebellum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Motor co-ordination, posture, and maintaining balance. </li></ul></ul>
  25. 25. Hindbrain
  26. 26. Cerebral Cortex Principles <ul><li>Contralaterality </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Right side of brain controls left side of body </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Left side of brain controls right side of body </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Corpus Callosum </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Neural fibers connecting left and right lobes </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Allows communication between right and left sides of the brain </li></ul></ul>
  27. 27. Cerebral Cortex Principles <ul><li>Localization of function </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Specific mental processes are correlated with discrete regions of the brain </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Hemispheric Specialization </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Each lobe of the brain has specialized functions </li></ul></ul>
  28. 28. Evidence for Specialization of Left lobe <ul><li>Wernicke’s area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Speaks fluently but nonsensically </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Not coherent, contains lexical and grammatical errors </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Broca’s area </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Can understand everything said </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Patient can only respond in monosyllabic words </li></ul></ul>
  29. 29. Split Brain Studies <ul><li>Sperry (1960 - 1998) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>First to study patients with a split corpus callosum </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Two lobes function independently </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Gazzaniga (1980’s- current) </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Two lobes function complimentarily </li></ul></ul>
  30. 30. Split Brain Methodology <ul><li>Corpus callosum severed </li></ul><ul><li>Techniques used test each half-brain </li></ul>
  31. 31. Split Brain Studies Demonstrate Hemispheric Specialization <ul><li>Left Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Language functions (speech, song) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Logical thought (writing, logic) </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Right Lobe </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Spatial-relation functions </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Perception of rhythm, abstract or intuitive thought </li></ul></ul>
  32. 32. Split Brain Demonstration What would a split brain patient say they saw? What would a split brain patient point to with their left hand?
  33. 33. Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex <ul><li>Frontal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Reasoning & Planning </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Parietal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Touch, Temperature, Pain, & Pressure </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporal </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Auditory & Perceptual processing </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Occipital </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Visual processing </li></ul></ul>0
  34. 34. Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex 0

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