Viral diseases


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Viral diseases

  1. 1. September 28 is World Rabies Day, which promotes the information, prevention, and elimination of the disease.
  2. 2. a contagious and fatal viral disease of dogs and any other warm-blooded mammals, transmissible through the saliva to humans and causing madness and convulsions. The most common mode of rabies virus transmission is through the bite and virus-containing saliva of an infected rabid host. Transmission by non-bite exposures (scratches, open wounds, or mucous membranes contaminated with saliva) is rare. From the saliva's point of entry, the rabies virus travels along nerve cells to the brain. It multiplies there and moves to the salivary glands.
  5. 5. first signs of rabies are seen 10 to 50 days after the virus enters the body. The first symptoms of the disease in humans include: pain at the bite site  a general feeling of illness  depression  Fever  Headache  Nausea and vomitting  As the virus begins to multiply in the spinal cord or brain, neurological symptoms that appear include:  anxiety  confusion  excessive saliva production  hallucinations  high level of excitement  insomnia  paralysis of lower legs  problems swallowing due to painful throat and voice box spasms  restlessness  Hydrophobia
  6. 6. a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis Pasteur and Émile Roux. Their original vaccine was harvested from infected rabbits, from which the virus in the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for five to 10 days. Similar nerve tissue-derived vaccines are still used in some countries, as they are much cheaper than modern cell culture vaccines. The current rabies vaccine is available as: Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV) Purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV)
  7. 7.  Thoroughly wash the wound as soon as possible with soap and water for approximately five minute  apply a virucidal antiseptic such as povidoneiodine, iodine solution, or alcohol (ethanol) after washing. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes, nose or mouth should be flushed well with water.  The incubation period for rabies is usually about 4 to 8 weeks long.  The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible after exposure, with additional doses on days 3, 7 and 14 after the first
  8. 8. Polio virus is a member of the enterovirus subgroup, family Picornaviridae. Enteroviruses are transient inhabitants of the gastrointestinal tract, and are stable at acid pH. Picornaviruses are small, ether-insensitive viruses with an RNA genome. There are three poliovirus serotypes (P1, P2, and P3). There is minimal heterotypic immunity between the three serotypes. That is, immunity to one serotype does not produce significant immunity to the other serotypes. The poliovirus is rapidly inactivated by heat, formaldehyde, chlorine, and ultraviolet light.
  9. 9.  First dose of polio vaccine - shortly after birth, usually between 1–2 months of age,  Second dose -at 4 months of age.  Third dose -depends on the vaccine formulation, should be given between 6–18 months of age.  Booster vaccination - 4 to 6 years of age, for a total of four doses at or before school entry.  Fifth vaccination – during adolescence (in some countries
  10. 10.  The symptoms of polio are caused by the poliovirus, which is a small RNA virus that is spread through contact with the oral mucosa –the mouth , the nose etc..Most commonly, the virus attaches to and infects cells in the intestine, multiplies, and is excreted in the stool of the infected individual.
  11. 11.  Mild flu  Fatigue  Flu  Headache  Sore throat  Vomiting These symptoms usually last for one or two weeks.
  12. 12.  abnormal sensation,  breathing difficulty,  difficulty swallowing,  urinary retention,  constipation,  drooling,  headache,  mood swings,  Muscle pain and spasms, and  paralysis.
  13. 13. There is no cure for polio, so prevention is very important. Patients with non-paralytic polio need to be monitored for progression to paralytic polio. Patients with paralytic polio need to be monitored for signs and symptoms of respiratory failure, which may require lifesaving therapies such as respiratory support.
  14. 14. -- a well-known common childhood disease characterized by swelling of the parotid glands, salivary glands and other epithelial tissues, causing high morbidity and in some cases more serious complications such as deafness.
  15. 15. The MMR vaccine is an immunization vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella . It is a mixture of live attenuated viruses of the three diseases, administered via injection. It was first developed by Maurice Hilleman while at Merck It is usually considered a childhood vaccination. However, it is also recommended for use in some cases of adults with HIV. The MMR vaccine is generally administered to children around the age of one year, with a second dose before starting school (i.e. age 4/5). The second dose is a dose to produce immunity in the small number of persons (2–5%) who fail to develop measles immunity after the first dose.
  16. 16. Mumps spreads through contact with respiratory secretions, such as saliva from an infected person.   Mumps can also be spread by sharing food and drinks.  A person infected with mumps is contagious from approximately 6 days before the onset of symptoms until about 9 days after symptoms start. The incubation period (time until symptoms begin) is typically 16–18 days.
  17. 17. (up to 20% of persons infected with the mumps virus do not show symptoms, so it is possible to be infected and spread the virus without knowing it)  Fever  Headache  Malaise  Anorexia  Dry mouth  Sore face and/or ears  Loss of voice in serious cases  Males past puberty have a risk of orchitispainful inflammation of the testicles
  18. 18. The disease is generally self-limiting, running its course before receding, with no specific treatment apart from controlling the symptoms with pain medication. Symptoms may be relieved by the application of intermittent ice or heat to the affected neck/testicular area and by acetaminophen/paracetamol for pain relief. Warm saltwater gargles, soft foods, and extra fluids may also help relieve symptoms.