September 28 is World Rabies Day, which
promotes the information, prevention, and
elimination of the disease.
a contagious and fatal viral disease of dogs
and any other warm-blooded
mammals, transmissible through the saliva to
humans and causing madness and convulsions.
The most common mode of rabies virus transmission is
through the bite and virus-containing saliva of an infected
rabid host. Transmission by non-bite exposures
(scratches, open wounds, or mucous membranes
contaminated with saliva) is rare.
From the saliva's point of entry, the rabies virus travels along nerve
cells to the brain. It multiplies there and moves to the salivary glands.
first signs of rabies are seen
10 to 50 days after the
virus enters the body. The
first symptoms of the
disease in humans include:
pain at the bite site
a general feeling of
Nausea and vomitting
As the virus begins to multiply in
the spinal cord or
brain, neurological symptoms that
high level of excitement
paralysis of lower legs
due to painful throat
and voice box spasms
a vaccine was developed in 1885 by Louis
Pasteur and Émile Roux. Their original vaccine was
harvested from infected rabbits, from which the virus in
the nerve tissue was weakened by allowing it to dry for
five to 10 days. Similar nerve tissue-derived vaccines are
still used in some countries, as they are much cheaper
than modern cell culture vaccines.
The current rabies vaccine is available as:
Human diploid cell vaccine (HDCV)
Purified chick embryo cell vaccine (PCECV)
Thoroughly wash the wound as soon as possible with
soap and water for approximately five minute
apply a virucidal antiseptic such as povidoneiodine, iodine solution, or alcohol (ethanol) after
washing. Exposed mucous membranes such as eyes,
nose or mouth should be flushed well with water.
The incubation period for rabies is usually about 4 to 8
The first dose of rabies vaccine is given as soon as possible
after exposure, with additional doses on days 3, 7 and 14
after the first
Polio virus is a member of the enterovirus
subgroup, family Picornaviridae. Enteroviruses
are transient inhabitants of the gastrointestinal
tract, and are stable at acid pH. Picornaviruses
are small, ether-insensitive viruses with an RNA
genome. There are three poliovirus serotypes
(P1, P2, and P3). There is minimal heterotypic
immunity between the three serotypes. That
is, immunity to one serotype does not produce
significant immunity to the other serotypes. The
poliovirus is rapidly inactivated by
heat, formaldehyde, chlorine, and ultraviolet
dose of polio vaccine - shortly after
birth, usually between 1–2 months of age,
Second dose -at 4 months of age.
Third dose -depends on the vaccine
formulation, should be given between 6–18
months of age.
Booster vaccination - 4 to 6 years of age, for
a total of four doses at or before school
Fifth vaccination – during adolescence (in
symptoms of polio are caused by the
poliovirus, which is a small RNA virus that is
spread through contact with the oral mucosa
–the mouth , the nose etc..Most commonly,
the virus attaches to and infects cells in the
intestine, multiplies, and is excreted in the
stool of the infected individual.
These symptoms usually last for one or two weeks.
There is no cure for polio, so prevention is
very important. Patients with non-paralytic
polio need to be monitored for progression
to paralytic polio. Patients with paralytic
polio need to be monitored for signs and
symptoms of respiratory failure, which may
require lifesaving therapies such as
-- a well-known common childhood disease
characterized by swelling of the parotid glands,
salivary glands and other epithelial tissues,
causing high morbidity and in some cases more
serious complications such as deafness.
MMR vaccine is an immunization vaccine
against measles, mumps, and rubella . It is a mixture of
live attenuated viruses of the three diseases, administered via
injection. It was first developed by Maurice Hilleman while at Merck
is usually considered a childhood vaccination. However, it is also
recommended for use in some cases of adults with HIV.
MMR vaccine is generally administered to children around the
age of one year, with a second dose before starting school (i.e. age
4/5). The second dose is a dose to produce immunity in the small
number of persons (2–5%) who fail to develop measles immunity after
the first dose.
spreads through contact with respiratory secretions, such
as saliva from an infected person.
Mumps can also be spread by sharing food and drinks.
A person infected with mumps is contagious from approximately 6
days before the onset of symptoms until about 9 days after
symptoms start. The incubation period (time until symptoms
begin) is typically 16–18 days.
(up to 20% of persons infected with the mumps virus do
not show symptoms, so it is possible to be infected and
spread the virus without knowing it)
Sore face and/or ears
Loss of voice in serious cases
Males past puberty have a risk of orchitispainful inflammation of the testicles
disease is generally self-limiting, running its course
before receding, with no specific treatment apart from
controlling the symptoms with pain medication.
may be relieved by the application of
intermittent ice or heat to the affected neck/testicular
area and by acetaminophen/paracetamol for pain relief.
saltwater gargles, soft foods, and extra fluids may
also help relieve symptoms.