Definition and Etiology Mumps is a relatively mild short-term viral infection of the salivary glands that usually occurs during childhood. Typically, mumps is characterized by a painful swelling of both cheek areas, although the person could have swelling on one side or no perceivable swelling at all. The salivary glands are also called the parotid glands; therefore, mumps is sometimes referred to as an inflammation of the parotid glands (epidemic parotitis). The word mumps comes from an old English dialect, meaning lumps or bumps within the cheeks.
Signs and SymptomsThe symptoms of mumps are fatigue, slight feverishness and asore throat. This may precede the swelling in one’s body andtemperature up to 40°C.There may be swelling of the testiclesin males and the ovaries among females. The main symptomsof mumps are given below: - Sore Throat. - Swelling of the parotid glands. - Slight Feverishness (for two to three days). - Loss of appetite. - Headache. - Fatigue. - Dry mouth. - Earache. - Stiff neck. - Nausea and vomiting. - Lower Abdominal pain in Women.Mumps is usually harmless and its symptoms usually subsidewithin ten days if starting infection.
Mode of Transmission Mumps is a highly contagious disease so itcan be easily spread. The most commonmumps transmission method is throughcoughing or sneezing, which can spreaddroplets of saliva and mucus infected with themumps virus known as paramyxovirus. Transmission of the virus also occurs whensomeone touches an infected surface and thentouches the eyes, nose, or mouth. The timeperiod between transmission and theappearance of symptoms is anywhere from 12to 25 days.
Period of Communicability When a person becomes infected with the mumps virus, the virus begins to multiply within the nose, throat, and lymph glands in the neck. After 16 to 18 days, on average, symptoms can appear. This period between mumps transmission and the start of mumps symptoms is called the "incubation period." In some cases, the incubation period can be as short as 12 days or as long as 25 days. A person is not contagious during the early mumps incubation period. A person is most contagious about three days prior to the onset of the swelling of the salivary glands (called parotitis) to nine days after the onset of symptoms.
Susceptibility and Resistance Mumps can be caught at any age. Having mumps once usually confers lifelong immunity to catching it again. Most cases of mumps are mild, but when complications occur they can be serious. It is the most common cause of viral meningitis. Dont underestimate the potential of mumps to cause long term damage. A child must stay indoors and get a lot of rest to avoid complications. An adult with mumps is even more vulnerable to complications. Mumps affects the salivary glands so that the jowls swell up and the person looks hilarious. The virus can also cause inflammation in the pancreas, the ovaries, the testicles, the brain and the ears. Sterility, brain damage or deafness can result from improper care of a person with mumps.
By affecting the pancreas, the virus can cause diabetes. This was first documented in 1899. The ovaries and testicles cannot be damaged in a person who has not yet reached puberty, which is one good reason for getting mumps over with in childhood. An adult male is the most vulnerable to mumps, because men find it difficult to rest in bed for a few days.
Methods of Control Key infections, including mumps, are under constant surveillance, to detect significant trends, to evaluate prevention and control measures and to alert appropriate professionals and organizations to infectious disease threats. The most effective method of controlling mumps is by maintaining high levels of immunization among vulnerable groups or whole populations. Mumps can be prevented by a highly effective and safe vaccine. This is part of the measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) immunization.
A complete course of the two doses will protect over 95% of children against measles, mumps and rubella. The current immunization schedule recommends one dose to be given at around 13 months and a second dose given at between 3- 5 years of age. The MMR vaccine has been used for nearly 30 years (it was introduced in the US in the 1970s), is currently used in over 100 countries, and more than 500 million doses have been given. Studies from around the world have shown MMR to be a highly effective vaccine, with an excellent safety record
Program for Prevention American courts have addressed many times the legal issue of whether government can compel vaccination, and have repeatedly supported immunizations. States have many laws that spell out what types of vaccinations people must have in various circumstances. They also have federal laws that specify the type of information that must be given to parents before a child is immunized. Under the National Childhood Vaccine Injury Act, Section 2126 of the Public Health Service Act, all health care providers in the U.S. who administer any vaccine containing diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, measles, mumps, rubella, or polio vaccine shall, prior to administration of each dose of the vaccine, provide a copy of the relevant vaccine information materials that have been produced by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.
In the Philippines, Republic Act 101521 is providing formandatory basic immunization services for infantsand children, repealing for the purpose ofPresidential decree number No. 996 as amended: Beit enacted by the Senate and the House ofRepresentatives of the Philippines in Congress beassembled: Section 1: Title. This act shall be known as the Mandatory Infants and Children Health Immunization Act of 2011. Section 2: Declaration of Policy. In accordance with Article II, Section 15 of the Constitution, it is hereby declared to be the policy of the State to take a proactive role in the preventive health care of infants and children. Toward this end, the State shall adopt a comprehensive, mandatory and sustainable immunization program for vaccine preventable diseases for all infants and children.
Section 3: Coverage. The mandatory basicimmunization for all infants and childrenprovided under this act shall cover the followingVaccine Preventable Diseases: Tuberculosis Diphtheria Poliomyelitis Measles Mumps Rubella or German Measles Hepatitis B Influenza Such other types as may be determined by the Secretary of Health in a Department Circular.
Prevention and Control A vaccine exists to protect against mumps. The vaccine preparation (MMR) is usually given as part of a combination injection that helps protect against measles, mumps, and rubella. MMR is a live vaccine administered in one dose between the ages of 12-15 months, 4-6 years, or 11-12 years. Because mumps is still prevalent throughout the world, susceptible persons over age one who is traveling abroad would benefit from receiving the mumps vaccine. The mumps vaccine is extremely effective, and virtually everyone should be vaccinated against this disease. There are, however, a few reasons why people should not be vaccinated against mumps:
-Pregnant women who contract mumps during pregnancy have an increased rate of miscarriage, but not birth defects. As a result, pregnant women should not receive the mumps vaccine because of the possibility of damage to the fetus. Women who have had the vaccine should postpone pregnancy for three months after vaccination. -Unvaccinated persons who have been exposed to mumps should not get the vaccine, as it may not provide protection. The person should, however, be vaccinated if no symptoms result from the exposure to mumps. -Persons with minor fever-producing illnesses, such as an upper respiratory infection, should not get the vaccine until the illness has subsided.
-Because mumps vaccine is produced using eggs, individuals who develop hives, swelling of the mouth or throat, dizziness, or breathing difficulties after eating eggs should not receive the mumps vaccine. -Persons with immune deficiency diseases and/or those whose immunity has been suppressed with anti-cancer drugs, corticosteroids, or radiation should not receive the vaccine. Family members of immunocompromised people, however, should get vaccinated to reduce the risk of mumps.