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German measles


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German measles

  1. 1.  Also called as three-day measles/rubella  From Latin meaning "little red"  Discovered in 18th century - thought to be variant of measles  First described as distinct clinical entity in German literature  Congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) described by Gregg in 1941
  2. 2.  Causative agent: Rubella virus  Rna Virus of the Togaviridae Family genus Rubivirus  Spherical in shape  Highly sensitive to heat, extremes of pH  At 4°C, virus is relatively stable for 24 hours
  3. 3.  Occurs worldwide  The virus tends to peak in countries with temperate climates  Common in children ages 5-10 years old  Human are only known reservoir
  4. 4.  Airborne droplet emission  Infected person coughs or sneezes  Acquired during pregnancy (1st Trimester)  Virus can enter via the Placenta (Congenital Rubella Syndrome)
  5. 5.  between 14-21 days
  6. 6. Rubella Virus Developed in the nasopharynx Respiratory Tract Skin Lymph Nodes Joints Placent a or Fetus • Cough • Minor sore throat • Rashe s • Lesion s • Lymphadenophat y • Mild arthralgi a • arthritis • Placentiti s • Fetal Damage
  7. 7. Rubella virus Transmitted via respiratory droplets Infects cells in the upper respiratory tract Virus multiplie s Extends in the regional lymph nodes Virus replicates in the nasopahrnx Infection is established in the skin and other tissues including the respiratory tract Forscheime r’s Spot may develop Rashes develops, cough etc. Virus can be found in the skin, bloo d and respirator y tract
  8. 8. Diagnosis: doctor suspects whether patient has measles Virus culture/ blood test Recent infection With german measles vaccine Vaccination and proper intervention s German Measles left untreated, it may cause complications: Rubella Arthritis, Encephalitis, Purpura bronchitis, abscesses in the ears and pneumonia
  9. 9.  Aching joints  Enlarged lymph nodes  Headache  skin rashes that consists of small rounded spots  Fatigue  Inflamed red eyes  Runny nose  Cough  Sore throat
  10. 10. Forscheimer’s Spot  enanthem  seen as small, red spots (petechiae) in 20% of patients  similar spots can be seen in measles and scarlet fever
  11. 11.  Occurs during the first trimester of pregnancy  Affects the development of the fetus  may lead to several birth defects  Infection may affect all organs  May lead to fetal death or premature delivery  Severity of damage to fetus depends AOG.  Infants: virus is isolated from urine and feces
  12. 12.  Eye defects  Cataracts, glaucoma  Deafness  Cardiac defects  Patent ductus arteriosus..  Bone lesions  Psychiatric disoreder  Central Nervous system  Retardation, microcephaly
  13. 13.  Isolation and quarantine  Increase fluid intake  Encourage the patient to rest  Good ventilation  Encourage the patient to drink either lemon or orange juice  Provide health teaching about Rubella (cause, immunizations)
  14. 14.  There are no current treatments that can shorten the course of German measles infection.
  15. 15.  Mumps-Rubella Immunization (MMR)  Children 12 and 15 months and again between 3-6 years of age