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Colorado Master Gardener Training Pruning: Training Young Shade Trees
Training Young Trees <ul><li>Few cuts are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Training sets the structural integrity of the tree for...
Pruning at planting slows root regeneration. Gibberellins   produced in the root  growing tips  stimulate growth in the ca...
On new plantings, keep pruning to a minimum until significant canopy growth cycle begins. <ul><ul><li>Remove damaged & bro...
 
Overall best pruning time: late winter-early spring
Wound dressings/paints?
Growth habit determines training objectives. <ul><li>Excurrent </li></ul><ul><li>Central leader trees </li></ul><ul><li>De...
Excurrent  (central leader)   trees <ul><li>Pruning objectives to  develop structural integrity:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1....
Excurrent  (central leader) trees   Training objective #1 <ul><li>Remove branches that are:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken ...
Excurrent  (central leader) trees   Training objective #2 <ul><li>Single trunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If multiple trunks de...
Excurrent  (central leader) trees   Training objective #3 <ul><li>Diameter of branches  less than 1/2   the diameter of tr...
Excurrent  (central leader) trees   Training objective #4 <ul><li>Establish lowest  permanent branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li...
When pruning-up the trunk, always keep at least  1/2 of the foliage in lower 2/3s of tree . <ul><li>Pruning up too fast </...
Training Excurrent (central leader) trees <ul><li>Excurrent, central leader trees typically need little  training and prun...
Pruning objectives for training  excurrent   trees <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>...
Pruning objectives for training  excurrent   trees <ul><li>1. Removed broken, damaged and, competing branches. </li></ul><...
Training objectives:  Decurrent trees  (multiple  scaffold  branches) Lack of training when young predisposes  decurrent t...
Training objectives:  Decurrent trees  (multiple  scaffold  branches) <ul><li>5 pruning objectives to  develop structural ...
Decurrent Trees Training Objective #1 <ul><li>Remove branches that are:  </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken or damaged </li></ul...
Decurrent Trees Training Objective #2 <ul><li>Single, dominant trunk well into tree’s upper region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>B...
Decurrent Trees Training Objective #3 <ul><li>Establish lowest  permanent branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewalk:    7’ to...
When pruning-up the trunk, always keep at least  1/2 of the foliage in lower 2/3s of tree . <ul><li>Pruning up  too fast <...
Decurrent Trees Training Objective #4 <ul><li>Select  permanent  scaffold branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch spacing </...
Potentially permanent branches spaced 6” to 12” apart, moving up and around the trunk. <ul><li>Branch spacing </li></ul><u...
Multiple branches originating in the same area are structurally weak. <ul><li>Branch collars can not form completely </li>...
 
A narrow crotch angle means take a closer look for  included bark . <ul><li>V - Crotch  </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow angle wit...
 
 
Ash Aspen
Honeylocust Ash
Co-dominant leaders  (~ equal size)  are structurally weak . <ul><li>Co-dominant leaders develop  included bark . </li></u...
 
Decurrent Trees Training Objective #5 <ul><li>Remove temporary branches over time, but before they reach 2” (3” maximum) d...
Decurrent Trees Training Objective #5 <ul><li>Temporary branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><u...
Pruning objectives for training decurrent trees <ul><li>1. Remove broken, damaged and competing branches. </li></ul><ul><l...
Decurrent Trees Lateral branches along limbs <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1/2 diameter of parent branch </li></ul>...
Ash
Ash
Linden
Crabapple
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7b Pruning Young Trees

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7b Pruning Young Trees

  1. 1. Colorado Master Gardener Training Pruning: Training Young Shade Trees
  2. 2. Training Young Trees <ul><li>Few cuts are needed. </li></ul><ul><li>Training sets the structural integrity of the tree for life! </li></ul>
  3. 3. Pruning at planting slows root regeneration. Gibberellins produced in the root growing tips stimulate growth in the canopy. Auxins produced in the canopy growing tips stimulate root growth .
  4. 4. On new plantings, keep pruning to a minimum until significant canopy growth cycle begins. <ul><ul><li>Remove damaged & broken branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Maintain single trunk </li></ul></ul>1 year / inch of caliper
  5. 6. Overall best pruning time: late winter-early spring
  6. 7. Wound dressings/paints?
  7. 8. Growth habit determines training objectives. <ul><li>Excurrent </li></ul><ul><li>Central leader trees </li></ul><ul><li>Decurrent </li></ul><ul><li>Multiple scaffold branches </li></ul>
  8. 9. Excurrent (central leader) trees <ul><li>Pruning objectives to develop structural integrity: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Remove broken/problem branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Maintain single trunk to top </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Establish lowest permanent branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Remove lower branches over time, if desired </li></ul></ul>
  9. 10. Excurrent (central leader) trees Training objective #1 <ul><li>Remove branches that are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken or damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseased or dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing </li></ul></ul>
  10. 11. Excurrent (central leader) trees Training objective #2 <ul><li>Single trunk </li></ul><ul><ul><li>If multiple trunks develop, remove all but one. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If central leader is killed back, start, train a branch as a new central leader. </li></ul></ul>
  11. 12. Excurrent (central leader) trees Training objective #3 <ul><li>Diameter of branches less than 1/2 the diameter of trunk. </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less than 1/3 diameter preferred. </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>If larger branches develop </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>1. Remove </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>2. Prune back to slow growth </li></ul></ul></ul>
  12. 13. Excurrent (central leader) trees Training objective #4 <ul><li>Establish lowest permanent branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewalk:  7’ to 10’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street:  14’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooded area:  10” </li></ul></ul>
  13. 14. When pruning-up the trunk, always keep at least 1/2 of the foliage in lower 2/3s of tree . <ul><li>Pruning up too fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less trunk taper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunscald </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporary branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low vigor (horizontal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southwest side branches provide sunscald protection </li></ul></ul>1/3 1/3 1/3
  14. 15. Training Excurrent (central leader) trees <ul><li>Excurrent, central leader trees typically need little training and pruning. </li></ul>
  15. 16. Pruning objectives for training excurrent trees <ul><li>1. </li></ul><ul><li>2. </li></ul><ul><li>3. </li></ul><ul><li>4. </li></ul>
  16. 17. Pruning objectives for training excurrent trees <ul><li>1. Removed broken, damaged and, competing branches. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Maintain single trunk to top. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Branches less than 1/2 trunk diameter; less than 1/3 preferred. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Select lowest permanent branch, removing temporary branches over time, but before they reach 2” diameter. </li></ul>
  17. 18. Training objectives: Decurrent trees (multiple scaffold branches) Lack of training when young predisposes decurrent trees to wind and storm damage.
  18. 19. Training objectives: Decurrent trees (multiple scaffold branches) <ul><li>5 pruning objectives to develop structural integrity for life: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>1. Remove broken/problem branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>2. Single, dominant trunk well into tree’s upper region </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>3. Establish lowest permanent branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>4. Select permanent branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>5. Remove temporary branches over time </li></ul></ul>
  19. 20. Decurrent Trees Training Objective #1 <ul><li>Remove branches that are: </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Broken or damaged </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Diseased or dead </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Competing </li></ul></ul>
  20. 21. Decurrent Trees Training Objective #2 <ul><li>Single, dominant trunk well into tree’s upper region </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branches < 1/2 trunk diameter </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1/3 preferred </li></ul></ul>
  21. 22. Decurrent Trees Training Objective #3 <ul><li>Establish lowest permanent branch </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Sidewalk:  7’ to 10’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Street:  14’ </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Wooded area:  10” </li></ul></ul>
  22. 23. When pruning-up the trunk, always keep at least 1/2 of the foliage in lower 2/3s of tree . <ul><li>Pruning up too fast </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Less trunk taper </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Sunscald </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Temporary branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Low vigor (horizontal) </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Southwest side branches provide sunscald protection </li></ul></ul>1/3 1/3 1/3
  23. 24. Decurrent Trees Training Objective #4 <ul><li>Select permanent scaffold branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Crotch Angles </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Co-dominant trunks/branches </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Multiple branches at one spot </li></ul></ul>
  24. 25. Potentially permanent branches spaced 6” to 12” apart, moving up and around the trunk. <ul><li>Branch spacing </li></ul><ul><li>Mature height > 30’ tall </li></ul><ul><ul><li>18” minimum </li></ul></ul><ul><li>Mature height < 30’ </li></ul><ul><ul><li>6” minimum </li></ul></ul>Branches spaced around tree Branch directly above another: 60” minimum vertical spacing
  25. 26. Multiple branches originating in the same area are structurally weak. <ul><li>Branch collars can not form completely </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Branch defense zone incomplete </li></ul></ul><ul><li>This is a natural branching pattern for many trees, (elms, maple, crabapple, flowering plum) predisposing a mature tree to wind and storm damage. </li></ul>
  26. 28. A narrow crotch angle means take a closer look for included bark . <ul><li>V - Crotch </li></ul><ul><li>Narrow angle with included bark = weak </li></ul><ul><li>U - Crotch </li></ul><ul><li>Wide angle = strong </li></ul>Branch bark ridge sticks up in crotch like “mountain range in a valley” = strong attachment Branch bark ridge disappears in the crotch = weak attachment, may develop included bark
  27. 31. Ash Aspen
  28. 32. Honeylocust Ash
  29. 33. Co-dominant leaders (~ equal size) are structurally weak . <ul><li>Co-dominant leaders develop included bark . </li></ul><ul><li>1/2 (1/3 preferred) rule </li></ul><ul><li>Correct while small </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Remove one leader </li></ul></ul>
  30. 35. Decurrent Trees Training Objective #5 <ul><li>Remove temporary branches over time, but before they reach 2” (3” maximum) diameter. </li></ul>
  31. 36. Decurrent Trees Training Objective #5 <ul><li>Temporary branches </li></ul><ul><ul><li>Selection </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Small, less vigorous shoots </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>Prune larger, more vigorous shoots back to suppress growth </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>Spacing </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>4” to 6” minimum </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>>6” from potentially permanent branches </li></ul></ul></ul>
  32. 37. Pruning objectives for training decurrent trees <ul><li>1. Remove broken, damaged and competing branches. </li></ul><ul><li>2. Maintain single trunk into upper portion of mature tree. </li></ul><ul><li>3. Select lowest permanent branch. </li></ul><ul><li>4. Select scaffold branches. </li></ul><ul><li>5. Remove temporary branches over time, but before they reach 2” diameter. </li></ul>
  33. 38. Decurrent Trees Lateral branches along limbs <ul><li>Size </li></ul><ul><ul><li>< 1/2 diameter of parent branch </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><ul><li>< 1/3 diameter preferred </li></ul></ul></ul><ul><li>Spacing </li></ul><ul><ul><li>> 24” from trunk </li></ul></ul><ul><ul><li>> 6” spacing </li></ul></ul>
  34. 39. Ash
  35. 40. Ash
  36. 41. Linden
  37. 42. Crabapple

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