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Systemics and complexity:
concepts and approaches for
Architecture
Department ABC
PhD Program in Architecture, Built envir...
2
Introduction
Why are we interested in systems?
Entities are assumed to possess properties. Examples are
given by their w...
3
Complex Systems continuously acquires variable multiple
coherent instantaneous sequences of different
properties such as...
4
Systems
What are Systems?
A system has been intended as an entity having properties
different from those of what are con...
5
Interaction
We may assume, in short, that two or more elements
interact when one’s behaviour affects the other’s one as
...
6
Sets Structured Sets Systems Subsystems
Build
components
Buildings as
structures in
engineering
Building as
processes, t...
7
Design systems or model a phenomenon
as a system
1. Systems are considered in an objectivist way when they are
artificia...
8
What are non-systems?
Depending on the level of description and on the model
adopted by the observer, an entity is not a...
9
For instance, the property of a set of boids establishing a
flock is continuously established and this continuity is
con...
10
States are non-systemic properties, i.e. properties of non-
systems like a new colour obtained from mixing primary
colo...
11
A formal introduction
Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901 – 1972), considered to
be the father of General System Theory, descr...
12
Emergence of Systems
In general, systems may be established or modelled as
such by considering
a) structure between ele...
13
Systems are established by:
a) A structured functional way, when organisation is intended
as a network of pre-establish...
14
Examples include mechanical devices, such as engines,
and electronic devices, such as circuits.
Examples of non-designe...
15
b) Self-organisation processes considered as given by
continuous but stable, for instance, periodic, quasi-
periodic an...
16
c) Processes of Emergence considered as given by
continuous, irregular, unpredictable and coherent
sequences of process...
17
Complex Systems
There are different definitions of complex system.
For instance:
•a system is complex when coherent pro...
18
Coherence
Coherence in non-complex systems coincides with the
acquisition and keeping of the same property.
Coherence i...
19
Systemics
This term is used to denote a corpus of systemic concepts, extension of
systemic principles by using, for ins...
20
Approaches and models
1) DYnamic uSAge of Models (DYSAM)
The search for coherence
The concept of DYSAM applies when dea...
21
The DYSAM approach is based on approaches such as the
Bayesian method, the Pierce abduction, the so-called:
Machine Lea...
22
Dynamic models model dynamical properties of a specific
phenomenon,
while
DYSAM models change over time, i.e., the dyna...
23
2) Multiple Systems (MSs)
A MS is a set of systems established by the same elements
interacting in different ways, i.e....
24
Moreover, the action of concurrent interactions may be
neither simultaneous nor regular.
The same interacting component...
25
3) Collective Beings (CBs)
CBs are particular MSs established by agents possessing a
(natural or artificial) cognitive ...
26
Examples are Human CBs where:
(a)agents may simultaneously belong to different systems
(e.g., behave as components of f...
27
Concepts of MSs and CBs allow one to realize how
managing one influences elements and interactions
while establishing a...
28
4) Emergence between Architecture and social
systems
A line of research is studying architecture as the design of
suita...
29
The concept of field in classical Physics
In classical physics, a field is intended as made up of a
physical variable t...
30
Example of fields are, for instance:
the strength of the gravitational field in Newton's theory of
gravity;
the stren...
31
Social fields
In addition to the field of non autonomous elements we
should then consider other features peculiar to au...
32
In turn social fields act on social systems in a cybernetic
way:
Social Their social
Systems fields
The resulting socia...
33
The role of Architecture
The way of acting on the emergence of such social
fields through an explicit design of structu...
34
Continuity
The cybernetic loop mentioned above between social
systems and their social fields, including the one genera...
35
Examples
a)Homes, architecturally designed to be inhabited in
particular ways so that we live in our homes as they have...
36
The structure of space made by Architecture both
represents and induces the social field within inhabitants
behave.
On ...
37
Self-design relates to the transformation of emergent
social properties, e.g., life styles and customs, into
structural...
38
5) From Growth to development:
the logistic curve
introduced by the Belgian mathematician P. Verhulst
(1804-1849) for t...
39
We may consider the case when point e is reached.
40
Development
a) Development as harmonic processes of growth;
b) Development as subsequent processes of growth;
c) Develo...
41
References
Alexander, C., 1979, The Timeless Way of Building. Oxford University Press, New
York.
Barabási, A. L., 2002,...
42
Cozens, P.M., Saville, G. and Hillier, D., 2005, Crime prevention through
environmental design (CPTED): a review and mo...
43
Fontana, C., 2012, Re-tracing the systemic approach in architecture, and
developing working tools. In: Methods, Models,...
44
Mey, H., 1972, Field Theory: A Study of Its Applications in the Social Sciences.
Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, UK.
Mi...
45
Pessa, E., 2013, Emergenza, metastrutture e sistemi gerarchici: verso una nuova
teoria generale dei sistemi, in L. Uliv...
46
Starke, B. and Simonds, J. O., 2013, Landscape Architecture: A Manual of
Environmental Planning and Design. McGraw-Hill...
47
Web Resources
[1] Space Syntax Laboratory, http://www.spacesyntax.com/ and
http://www.spacesyntax.org/
[2] University C...
48
[9] Chenn, L, 2012, Agent-based modeling in urban and architectural research:
A brief literature review, Frontiers of A...
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Systemics and complexity: concepts and approaches for Architecture is an interactive seminar for ABCPhD, by Gianfranco Minati

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Minati 2015-slides-short

  1. 1. Systemics and complexity: concepts and approaches for Architecture Department ABC PhD Program in Architecture, Built environment and Construction engineering Politecnico di Milano Gianfranco Minati Milan, December 2015 1
  2. 2. 2 Introduction Why are we interested in systems? Entities are assumed to possess properties. Examples are given by their weight, age, and geometrical properties. Systems are entities that do not posses properties. Systems acquire properties. A non-complex system continuously acquires the same property. Systems may acquire stable properties through functioning such as devices. Examples are given by electronic circuits converting into systems such as radios, computers, amplifiers, and TV sets when powered, i.e., functioning.
  3. 3. 3 Complex Systems continuously acquires variable multiple coherent instantaneous sequences of different properties such as for the so-called emergent systems. Examples are given by flocks, swarms, anthills, road traffic, industrial districts, cells, markets, lasers, and ... ... cities and their properties, e.g., morphology, energetic behaviour, ecological behaviour, water management, transportation system behaviour of the inhabitants; building sites; and problems such as conservation, post-occupancy evaluation, building performance evaluation, reuse, urban models, evaluate ecological impacts, influence of architecture on emergence of social systems and vice- versa, resilience, etc.
  4. 4. 4 Systems What are Systems? A system has been intended as an entity having properties different from those of what are considered elements by the designer (for artificial systems) or by the observer (for natural systems). A necessary and sufficient condition for the establishment of systems is that elements, as designed (for artificial systems) or represented (for natural systems) by the observer, INTERACT in a suitable way.
  5. 5. 5 Interaction We may assume, in short, that two or more elements interact when one’s behaviour affects the other’s one as observed by the observer. Examples of such interactions are processes of mutual exchange of energy (e.g., collisions and magnetic fields, where vector fields exert a magnetic force on magnetic dipoles or moving electric charges), matter (e.g., economic interchange) or information (e.g., prey- predator). Very briefly, in architecture interaction is given by usage.
  6. 6. 6 Sets Structured Sets Systems Subsystems Build components Buildings as structures in engineering Building as processes, the usages Floors of building Students belonging to a specific school Students in alphabetical order or grouped by age School Classrooms Cells available for experiments Cells per dimension, age, type, etc., Living beings Organs Casual words Words in alphabetical order A story, poem Chapters, verses Electronic components listed by the designer Electronic components structured by the outline of an electronic circuit in an electronic device An electronic device assumes properties different from ones of components when interacting, i.e. when the board is powered Group of components classed by function such as power supply, regulators and decoders. Animals available for study Animals per age or illness Swarms, schools and flocks Groups of puppies, animals in reproduction and parents
  7. 7. 7 Design systems or model a phenomenon as a system 1. Systems are considered in an objectivist way when they are artificially designed, i.e., we know the component parts and how they interact because they were designed that way. 2. Systems are considered in a constructivist way (as for natural systems which have not been artificially designed) when the observer decides to apply a level of description (i.e., partitioning and interactions) to those systems, as if they had been designed as such. In this case, the observer constructivistically models phenomena as systems, by assuming elements and interactions. When this level of description works for applications, it is often assumed to be the true one within the conceptual framework of a discovery, thus resuming an objectivist approach.
  8. 8. 8 What are non-systems? Depending on the level of description and on the model adopted by the observer, an entity is not a system when its properties are states, considered as not necessarily being supported by a continuous process of interaction amongst its components. Non-systems are entities considered by the observer as possessing non-systemic properties. Only systems may acquire systemic properties, while systems and non-systems may possess non-systemic properties.
  9. 9. 9 For instance, the property of a set of boids establishing a flock is continuously established and this continuity is considered as the coherence of the collective or coherent behaviour of boids. It should be stressed that systemic properties are not the result of interactions. Systems and their properties are established by the continuous interaction among elements (e.g., an electronic device acquiring a property when powered on, leading to interactions amongst the component elements) and not as a state.
  10. 10. 10 States are non-systemic properties, i.e. properties of non- systems like a new colour obtained from mixing primary colours (e.g., Red-Green-Blue), and of entities possessing properties like weight, speed, the Avogadro number and age. When elements of a system stop to interact than the system degenerates into a set (the functioning stops).
  11. 11. 11 A formal introduction Ludwig von Bertalanffy (1901 – 1972), considered to be the father of General System Theory, described a system S as characterized by suitable macroscopic interdependent variables Q1 , Q2 , . . . , Qn, whose instantaneous values specify the evolutionary states of the system: dQ1 / dt = f1 (Q1 , Q2 , …, Qn ) dQ2 / dt = f2 (Q1 , Q2 , …, Qn ) …………………………. dQn / dt = fn (Q1 , Q2 , …, Qn )
  12. 12. 12 Emergence of Systems In general, systems may be established or modelled as such by considering a) structure between elements (structure is a specification of organisation. Organisation is a network of relationships or interactions), and as b) phenomenon of self-organisation and emergence (not emergency!!)
  13. 13. 13 Systems are established by: a) A structured functional way, when organisation is intended as a network of pre-established functional relationships which control the manners of interacting. Rules of interaction are either determined by following a design or constructivistically intended as such by the observer. In both cases they are sufficient conditions for establishing systems. Structured rules completely define the way in which elements interact, i.e., they define all the degrees of freedom possessed by interactions between elements at the specified level of description.
  14. 14. 14 Examples include mechanical devices, such as engines, and electronic devices, such as circuits. Examples of non-designed systems are natural entities modelled as organised systems by the observer, such as organs performing given functions in living beings and eco-systems.
  15. 15. 15 b) Self-organisation processes considered as given by continuous but stable, for instance, periodic, quasi- periodic and predictable, variability in the acquisition of new structures, as for Bènard rolls, structures formed in the Belousov-Zhabotinsky reaction, swarms having repetitive behaviour, lasers, ferromagnetic and superconducting systems, and dissipative structures such as whirlpools in the absence of any internal or external fluctuations. Stability of variability, e.g., periodicity and synchronicity, corresponds to stability of the acquired properties.
  16. 16. 16 c) Processes of Emergence considered as given by continuous, irregular, unpredictable and coherent sequences of processes of self-organisation, i.e., new coherent structures. Examples include: • flocking and swarming when having unpredictable behaviour in presence of perturbations. • communities of mobile phone networks, industrial districts, markets, morphological properties of cities and urban development, landscapes, networks like the Internet, and queues.
  17. 17. 17 Complex Systems There are different definitions of complex system. For instance: •a system is complex when coherent processes of emergence occur within it; •a system may be considered as complex when its evolutionary paths fall inside the basin of an attractor; •a system may be considered as complex when its evolutionary paths and properties are modeled by networks and related properties. They are multidimensional and coherent.
  18. 18. 18 Coherence Coherence in non-complex systems coincides with the acquisition and keeping of the same property. Coherence in self-organised systems is given, for instance, by the regularity, periodicity, and synchronicity of sequences of structures. Coherence in emergent systems is given by the keeping of properties acquired by multiple, continuously changing processes of self-organisations occurring within the same system. For instance, shapes, collective intelligence and behaviour.
  19. 19. 19 Systemics This term is used to denote a corpus of systemic concepts, extension of systemic principles by using, for instance, analogies and metaphors. Systemic Approach This expression is used to denote the general methodological aspects of Systemics, considering, for instance, identification of components, interactions and relationships (structure), levels of description, processes of emergence and role of the observer. General System(s) Theory This expression has been introduced in the literature to refer to the theoretical usage of systemic properties considered within different disciplinary contexts (inter-disciplinarity) and per se in general (trans- disciplinarity). Current research identifies it with the Theory of Emergence, i.e. acquisitions of properties, although it relates to science of complexity. Systems Theory This expression, often inappropriately used as shorthand for General Systems Theory, relates to First-order cybernetics and Systems Engineering for applications such as Control systems and Automata.
  20. 20. 20 Approaches and models 1) DYnamic uSAge of Models (DYSAM) The search for coherence The concept of DYSAM applies when dealing with complex systems, in which we cannot, in principle, resort to a unique model (assumed as the correct one) to describe the system being studied. Thus we are forced to allow for a multiplicity of different models (and modeling tools), all related to the same system. The purpose is not to select the best one but to use all of them together coherently). For instance, the use of the five senses in the child development age without the purpose of choosing the best one, but coherently using all of them.
  21. 21. 21 The DYSAM approach is based on approaches such as the Bayesian method, the Pierce abduction, the so-called: Machine Learning, Ensemble Learning, and the Evolutionary Game Theory. It was introduced to deal with the dynamical emergent properties of complex systems, i.e., when 1.the system to be studied is so complex (processes of emergence occur within it) that we cannot, in principle, describe it using a single or a sequence of models, refinement of the preceding one, and 2.the process of emergence gives rise to the dynamic establishment of different systems, Multiple-systems (MSs) and Collective Beings (CBs) introduced later.
  22. 22. 22 Dynamic models model dynamical properties of a specific phenomenon, while DYSAM models change over time, i.e., the dynamic acquisition of different, emergent properties and properties of MSs and CBs as well. It is not matter of different models of the same system but of different models of the same systems having common, interrelated variables, e.g., chemical, physical or psychological.
  23. 23. 23 2) Multiple Systems (MSs) A MS is a set of systems established by the same elements interacting in different ways, i.e., having multiple simultaneous or dynamical roles. The role of single systems in a MS must be not confused with that of subsystems related to different functions within the same system. Within the conceptual framework of MSs concurrent/cooperative effects of different interactions affecting the same elements perturb the effects of single interactions.
  24. 24. 24 Moreover, the action of concurrent interactions may be neither simultaneous nor regular. The same interacting components may establish different systems through organization or emergence and at different times (i.e., simultaneously or dynamically). Examples of MSs in systems engineering include networked interacting computer systems performing cooperative tasks, as well as the Internet, and electricity networks (an unfortunate emergent property is the black- out) where different systems play different roles in continuously new, emerging usages.
  25. 25. 25 3) Collective Beings (CBs) CBs are particular MSs established by agents possessing a (natural or artificial) cognitive system. In CBs the multiple belonging is active, i.e., decided by the component autonomous agents. In the process of emergence of CBs agents interact by simultaneously or dynamically using, in the model constructivistically designed by the observer, different cognitive models.
  26. 26. 26 Examples are Human CBs where: (a)agents may simultaneously belong to different systems (e.g., behave as components of families, workplaces, traffic systems, as buyers, of a mobile telephone network). Simultaneously is not only related to time, but also to agent behaviour, considering their simultaneous belonging, and their roles in other systems; and b) agents may dynamically give rise to different systems, such as temporary communities (e.g., audience, queues, passengers on a bus), at different times and without considering multiple belonging.
  27. 27. 27 Concepts of MSs and CBs allow one to realize how managing one influences elements and interactions while establishing another system. The usages in social systems It is related to inter-disciplinarity when: •a model of a discipline is used for another one by changing the meaning of variables; •a problem is transformed into another one such as military into political; social into economical; and geometrical into algebraic.
  28. 28. 28 4) Emergence between Architecture and social systems A line of research is studying architecture as the design of suitable boundary conditions influencing emergence of behaviour in human social systems (CBs). This vision may help to clarify the role of architecture in materializing structures leading to emergent social properties.
  29. 29. 29 The concept of field in classical Physics In classical physics, a field is intended as made up of a physical variable that has a value for each point in the entire space and time, termed spacetime. In other words, in a field a physical property is intended available having a specific value in each point in spacetime like the value of the temperature. The value may in case depend on the distance from a source -meant as generator of the field-.
  30. 30. 30 Example of fields are, for instance: the strength of the gravitational field in Newton's theory of gravity; the strength of the electrostatic field in classical electromagnetism; the weather map, where the surface wind velocity is described by assigning a vector to each point on a map. Properties of specific bodies, like weight and electrical conductivity, are examples of non-field properties.
  31. 31. 31 Social fields In addition to the field of non autonomous elements we should then consider other features peculiar to autonomous elements, i.e., possessing cognitive system, such as: •psychological, •functional, •social, •aesthetic, •and cultural aspects which are all interconnected and individually processed by the cognitive system of each autonomous element.
  32. 32. 32 In turn social fields act on social systems in a cybernetic way: Social Their social Systems fields The resulting social field, or social environment, is emergent from a variety of properties and actions having different natures.
  33. 33. 33 The role of Architecture The way of acting on the emergence of such social fields through an explicit design of structures with functional roles is typical of human systems. Briefly, this role refers to artificial interventions such as insertion of new structures and environmental changes.
  34. 34. 34 Continuity The cybernetic loop mentioned above between social systems and their social fields, including the one generated by Architecture, generates dynamical and variable continuity in both directions: Social Their social fields systems (materialised by Architecture)
  35. 35. 35 Examples a)Homes, architecturally designed to be inhabited in particular ways so that we live in our homes as they have been designed for; b) Schools, organized into classrooms for each specific subject separated from different disciplines, and then didactics is influenced by the school design; c) Hospitals, built to treat ill bodies (patients) to be repaired / cured and then medical treatments and activities are affected by hospitals structures and design; d) Roads shapes, street furniture, urban lighting, number of doors in a flat, details in baroque architecture and music, etc.
  36. 36. 36 The structure of space made by Architecture both represents and induces the social field within inhabitants behave. On the other side inhabitants behave by using such social field. In this conceptual framework we may hypothesise a process of self-architecture by social systems. We mention the coherence in such social field between different aspects such as architecture, design, fashion, music and painting.
  37. 37. 37 Self-design relates to the transformation of emergent social properties, e.g., life styles and customs, into structural constrains, aiming to acquire the same properties as structural and no longer as emergent ones.
  38. 38. 38 5) From Growth to development: the logistic curve introduced by the Belgian mathematician P. Verhulst (1804-1849) for the study of population growth It represents changing from an increasing growing to a decreasing growing.
  39. 39. 39 We may consider the case when point e is reached.
  40. 40. 40 Development a) Development as harmonic processes of growth; b) Development as subsequent processes of growth; c) Development as acquired emergent property of a system of coherent processes of growths.
  41. 41. 41 References Alexander, C., 1979, The Timeless Way of Building. Oxford University Press, New York. Barabási, A. L., 2002, Linked: The New Science of Networks. Perseus Publishing, Cambridge, MA, trad. it. Link, Einaudi, Torino 2002. Barnett, R., 2013, Emergence in Landscape Architecture. Routledge, Abingdon, OX. Batty, M., 2005, Cities and Complexity. MIT Press, Cambridge MA. Batty, M., 2013, The New Science of Cities. The MIT Press, Cambridge MA. Bertalanffy, L., 1967, General System Theory. Development, Applications. George Braziller, New York; trad. it. di E. Bellone, Teoria Generale dei Sistemi, Oscar Saggi Mondadori, Milano 2004. Bertuglia, C. S., Vaio, F., 2003, Non linearità, caos, complessità. Le dinamiche dei sistemi naturali e sociali, Bollati Boringhieri, Torino. Blyth, P., Gilby, A., and Barlex, M., 2006, Guide to post-occupancy evaluation. University of Westminster, UK. Carley, S.G., 2013, Environmental Psychology. SGC Publishing, Boston, MA, US. Collen A., 2009, Emergence of Architectural Phenomena in the Human Habitation of Space, In: Processes of emergence of systems and systemic properties. Towards a general theory of emergence (Minati G., Pessa E. and Abram M, Eds.), World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 51-66. Cooper, R., Burton, E. and Cooper, C. L. (Eds.), 2014, Wellbeing: A Complete Reference Guide, Wellbeing and the Environment. Wiley & Son-Blackwell, Hoboken, NJ.
  42. 42. 42 Cozens, P.M., Saville, G. and Hillier, D., 2005, Crime prevention through environmental design (CPTED): a review and modern bibliography. Property Management, Emerald, Vol. 23 No. 5, pp. 328-356. De Young, R., 2013, Environmental psychology overview. In: S.R.Klein, A.H. Huffman (Eds.), Green Organizations: Driving Change with IO Psychology (pp. 17-33). Routledge & Kegan Paul, New York. Del Giudice, E., 2010, Una via quantistica alla teoria dei sistemi, in L. Ulivi (ed.), Strutture di mondo. Il pensiero sistemico come specchio di una realtà complessa, Il Mulino, Bologna, pp. 47-70. Della Torre, S. and Canziani, A., 2009, Comprehensive plans for a culture–driven local development: emergence as a tool for understanding social impacts of projects on built cultural heritage, In: Minati, G., Abram, M. and Pessa, E., (Eds.), Processes of emergence of systems and systemic properties. Towards a general theory of emergence. World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 79-90. Di Battista, V., 2009, Environment and Architecture - A Paradigm Shift, In: Processes of emergence of systems and systemic properties. Towards a general theory of emergence, (Minati G., Pessa E. and Abram M, Eds.), World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 37-49. Federal Facilities Council, 2002, Learning from our buildings: A state-of-the- practice summary of post-occupancy evaluation. National Academy Press, Washington, DC.
  43. 43. 43 Fontana, C., 2012, Re-tracing the systemic approach in architecture, and developing working tools. In: Methods, Models, simulations and approaches towards a general theory of change, (Minati, G., Abram, M. and Pessa, E., Eds.), World Scientific, Singapore, pp. 541-550. Gelfand, L. and Freed, E. C., 2010, Sustainable School Architecture: Design for Elementary and Secondary Schools. Wiley & Sons, Hoboken, NJ. Gifford, R., 2007, Environmental Psychology: Principles and Practice (4th Ed.). Optimal Books, Colville, WA. Hensel, M., Menges, A., Weinstock, M., (Eds.), 2004, Emergence: Morphogenetic Design Strategies, Architectural Design, Vol. 74 No. 3, Wiley Academy, London. Johnson, S., 2004, La nuova scienza dei sistemi emergenti, Garzanti, Milano 2004. Kauffman, S., 2001, A casa nell'universo. Le leggi del caos e della complessità. Editori Riuniti, Roma. Keith S. R., 2005, Social Emergence: Societies as Complex Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge. Kelling, G. L. and Coles, C. M. 1998, Fixing Broken Windows: Restoring Order and Reducing Crime in Our Communities. Touchstone, New York. Lewin, K., 1951, Field theory in social science; selected theoretical papers. D. Cartwright (ed.). Harper & Row, New York. Marshall, S., 2008, Cities, Design and Evolution. Routledge, Abingdon, OX.
  44. 44. 44 Mey, H., 1972, Field Theory: A Study of Its Applications in the Social Sciences. Routledge & Kegan Paul, London, UK. Minati G., 2008, Cities as Collective Beings, World Futures, 64(8). pp. 577–589. Minati, G. and Collen, A., 2009, Architecture as the Cybernetic Self-Design of Boundary Conditions for Emergent Properties in Human Social Systems, Cybernetics & Human Knowing, Vol. 16, (1-2), pp. 101-123 Minati, G., 2010, Sistemi: origini, ricerca e prospettive, in L. Ulivi (ed.) Strutture di mondo. Il pensiero sistemico come specchio di una realtà complessa, Il Mulino, Bologna, pp. 15-46. Minati, G., 2013, Note di sintesi: novità, contributi, prospettive di ricerca dell’approccio sistemico, in L. Ulivi (ed.) Strutture di mondo. Il pensiero sistemico come specchio di una realtà complessa, Il Mulino, Bologna, pp. 315-336. Mostafavi, M., 2014, Ethics of the Urban: The City and the Spaces of the Political. Lars Muller, Zürich, Switzerland. Nickl-Weller, C. and Nickl, H., 2012, Hospital Architecture (Architecture in Focus). Braun Publish. Salenstein, Schweiz Germany. Oecd, 2013, Innovative Learning Environments (Educational Research & Innovation). Oecd Publishing, Paris, France.
  45. 45. 45 Pessa, E., 2013, Emergenza, metastrutture e sistemi gerarchici: verso una nuova teoria generale dei sistemi, in L. Ulivi (ed.), Strutture di mondo. Il pensiero sistemico come specchio di una realtà complessa, Il Mulino Bologna, pp. 73- 88. Portugali, J., Meyer, H., Stolk, E. and Ekim, T. (Eds.), 2012, Complexity Theories of Cities Have Come of Age: An Overview with Implications to Urban Planning and Design. Springer, New York. Preiser, W. F. E., Rabinowitz, H. Z., White, E. T., 1988, Post Occupancy Evaluation. Van Nostrand Reinhold, New York. Preiser, W.F.E., and Nasar, J.L., 2008, Assessing Building Performance: its Evolution from Post-Occupancy Evaluation, ArchNet-IJAR. International Journal of Architectural Research, Vol. 2, Issue 1,pp.84-99. Preiser, W.F.E., and Vischer, J. C., (Eds.), 2005, Building Performance Evaluation. Elsevier, New York. Robinson, K. and Gerver, R., 2010, Creating Tomorrow's Schools Today: Education - Our Children - Their Futures. Continuum, London, UK. Salingaros, N. A., 1997, Life and complexity in architecture from a thermodynamic analogy, Physics Essays, Vol. 10, pp. 165-173. Related to details as mentioned during the seminar Sawyer R. K., 2005, Social Emergence: Societies as Complex Systems. Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK.
  46. 46. 46 Starke, B. and Simonds, J. O., 2013, Landscape Architecture: A Manual of Environmental Planning and Design. McGraw-Hill. Marshall, S., 2008, Cities, Design and Evolution. Routledge – Taylor and Francis Group. Taylor, W. M. and Levine, M. P., 2011, Prospects for an Ethics of Architecture. Routledge, Abingdon, Oxon, US. Van Uffelen, C., 2010, Re-Use Architecture. Braun Publish,Csi, Weinstock, M., 2010, The Architecture of Emergence: The Evolution of Form in Nature and Civilisation. Wiley, London. Zeisel, J. and Eberhard, J. P., 2006, Inquiry by Design: Environment/Behavior/ Neuroscience in Architecture, Interiors, Landscape and Planning. W. W. Norton & Company; Rev. Ed edition, London - New York.
  47. 47. 47 Web Resources [1] Space Syntax Laboratory, http://www.spacesyntax.com/ and http://www.spacesyntax.org/ [2] University College London (UCL) Centre for Advanced Spatial Analysis (CASA), http://www.casa.ucl.ac.uk/ [3] The behavioural design lab, http://www2.warwick.ac.uk/fac/soc/wbs/subjects/bsci/about/behavioural_design_lab and http://www.designcouncil.org.uk/ [4] Morris, W., Hopes and Fears For Art, Five Lectures Delivered in Birmingham, London, and Nottingham, 1878-1881, http://www.marxists.org/archive/morris/works/1882/hopes/hopes.htm#footnot e11 [5] Mosha, L. H., 2012, Imposition of architectural and spatial planning concepts into local dwelling culture, Prime Journal of Business Administration and Management, Vol. 2 (69, pp. 596-603, http://www.primejournal.org/BAM/pdf/2012/jun/Livin.pdf [6] European Landscape Convention, 2000, http://www.coe.int/t/dg4/cultureheritage/heritage/Landscape/default_en.asp and http://www.coe.int/europeanlandscapeconvention [7] Complexity, Cognition, Urban Planning and Design, http://www.bk.tudelft.nl/index.php?id=75204&L=1 [8] Urbanism, http://www.urbansim.org
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