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De angelis 2019 the evolution of scientific literature and of the scientist in the digital era


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De angelis 2019 the evolution of scientific literature and of the scientist in the digital era

  1. 1. Illustration:DomMcKenzie,stolenhere, fromaGuardianPostbyStephenBuranyi
  2. 2. Part 4. DIGITAL (SCIENTIFIC) LITERATURE, BIBLIOGRAPHIES AND BIBLIOMETRICS • Tue 22 Jan, morning: The evolution of Scientific Literature (and of the scientist) in the digital era • Wed 23 Jan, morning: How to search (and to find) your scientific references and to realize a PhD Bibliography - a Workshop • Wed 23 Jan, afternoon: The workshop keeps on in the afternoon, for personal reviews (no obligation) • Fri 8 Feb, morning: How to be found (searched/found/quoted/...) and to become a valued scientist (nor necessary nor sufficient conditions, sorry!) • Fri 8 Feb, afternoon: Wednesday workshop goes on, for personal work review and to turn bibliographies in literature reviews (no obligation) • Mon 11 Feb, all day: From bibliographies to BIBLIOMETRIX (a freeware), with Massimo Aria (@unina) and Corrado Cuccurullo (@unina2)
  3. 3. The evolution of Scientific Literature (and of the scientist) in the digital era • A foreword • Some stories • Publishers • Trends (stories again)
  4. 4. A foreword
  5. 5. Problems (academia’s) • To access everything is worth to be known as soon as available (on a subject and about every topic that may interact with our research) • To publish in the most impacting journals (to be most quoted) • To measure our personal impact & authoritativeness • To enhance our visibility • To measure institutional impact and authoritativeness • To measure local or national impact and authoritativeness (i.e on a subject), to award the best researchers and institutions or to set policied for local/national growth
  6. 6. Problems (yours, as PhD) • To access everything is worth to be known as soon as available (on a subject and about every topic that may interact with our research) • To find the most impacting journals (and, hopefully, to publish, asap) (but also the most interesting conferences, the experts, the labs and institutions …): i.e. to establish a network • To build the most complete bibliographic collection (state of art) and to know the (hi)story of a discipline/field, the most contemporary possible … and to find your place in it • To enhance your visibility
  7. 7. Science, knowledge, publishing and citations «Science is a massively parallel human endeavor to explain and predict the nature of the physical world. In science, knowledge is acquired cumulatively and collaboratively – and the principal mode for sharing this knowledge is the institution of scholarly publishing. In science, ideas are built upon ideas, models upon models, verifications upon prior verifications. This cumulative process of construction leaves behind it a latticework of citations, from which we can reconstruct the geography of scientific thought and retrace the paths along which intellectual activity has proceeded». Publish or perish? Get cited or perish! A quotation about:
  8. 8. Why to publish?? Typical academic Job Post: • You must have a PhD (or equivalent) in a subject relevant to TOPIC together with a broad knowledge of SECOND TOPIC or SUBTOPIC, and a track record of high quality research activity and publishing technical papers in leading international peer-reviewed journals.
  9. 9. Don’t be obsessed with publishing (but write!)
  10. 10. Don’t be obsessed with publishing! Wait to be ready (don’t be scared) Do what you like (be an happy researcher) Loose yourself in your research (with pleasure) BUT Sooner or later, emerge and Publish something And keep on publishing. In any case find the right «BALANCE» Peter Higgs, emeritus professor at Edinburgh University, Nobel laureate 2013 in Physics, said that no university would employ him today, because he would not be considered "productive" enough by the actual academic system. In 30 years after the paper (1964) that took him to that prize, he published less than 10 others … But, he also never sent an email, browsed the internet or even made a mobile phone call. See here. Another quotation (a colleague, Valeria Pracchi)
  11. 11. You may choose to go deep
  12. 12. … but come out ASAP
  13. 13. You may choose to surf the waves of the last scientific fashion …
  14. 14. … if you get the right wave, if you are lucky and brave enough …
  15. 15. … if you get the right wave, you are lucky and brave enough … … you might succeed in surfing it (research) wave!
  16. 16. In any case, you will always need to sit down, think, re-elaborate your ideas, confront yourself (your dream of the FUTURE) with the PAST (literature), expose your ideas to PRESENT, actual scientific community: WRITING, i.e. PUBLICATION is the only reasonable way to do it
  17. 17. Histories
  18. 18. The first journals (1665) Before, scholarly communication only through personal letters and meetings in scientific societies. Commercial editors for science started in 19° century
  19. 19. Moore’s Law of Scientific Publication The number of scientific papers has doubled every nine years since World War II Chandra Bhagavatula (2016) Research Scientist (Semantic Scholar) presentation about Accelerating Science Information Overload From Derek J. de Solla Price (1960), Little Science, Big Science, Columbia UP, quoted by P.O. Larsen, M. von Ins (1960), “The rate of growth in scientific publication and the decline in coverage provided by Science Citation Index”, Scientometrics, 84(3): 575–603 doi:10.1007/s11192-010-0202-z
  20. 20. GDP Gross domestic product market value of all the goods and services produced in a period GERD Gross domestic product spent in R&D UNESCO science report: towards 2030 (2015)
  21. 21. How many researchers? UNESCO science report: towards 2030 (2015)
  22. 22. How many publs/yr? UNESCO science report: towards 2030 (2015)
  23. 23. No one can read everything
  24. 24. Challenge: how can we read all papers without reading them? Opportunity: someone says we need AI to combat information overload
  25. 25. Now? • Journals are no more time-series of papers but data review systems + a copyright. • Publishers let basic info free to all, to improve citations of their papers • Search utilities are disclosed from publishers and may give data to eval. the impact of papers • Scientific metrics is still fully citation-based but, as there is a shift from science to biblio-scores, among researcher, the tendence is to go … from bibliometrics to scientometrics or altmetrics «The Internet is for everyone» Vint Cerf (1991)
  26. 26. Robert Maxwell 1954: PP = 40 journals 1960: 150 journals End of sixties: The big change in publication industry as financial venture is on, everyone happy w/it! ’80ies: full competition makes the whole less happy and people start thinking that the system is somehow corrupted
  27. 27. Robert Maxwell He «turned scientific journals into a spectacular money-making machine» as a tycoon [Stephen Buranyi on the Guardian, 2017-06-27]. Just after the WWII, British scientific science was very good but publishing very low (Royal Society only). The government decided to take together German (Springer) expertise in UK: Butterworths (UK) is chosen and R.Maxwell hired: he is an Ukrainan-Czech jew, decorated during WWII, already helping Springer to “export” its scientific products in UK After few years, he becomes Butterworths’s owner and boss (for very few money) and a new name is set: Pergamon Press. Pergamon start new journals; old ones are bought or contracted (even the Russian Academy of Sciences); the best scientists scooped up (brashly and predatorly) and contracted. The dimension of scientific publishing is definitely global (and English based). 1954: PP = 40 journals 1960: 150 journals End of sixties: The big change in publication industry as financial venture is on, everyone happy w/it! ’80ies: full competition makes the whole less happy and people start thinking that the system is somehow corrupted
  28. 28. Elsevier One of the world's major scientific publisher, main competitor of ISI for publication analytics. Born as publisher in the Nederlands in 1880, now it has the name Reed Elsevier. We will be interested to ScienceDirect (since 2007, collection of electronic journals), Scopus (online citation database) and Mendeley (software, acquired in 2013) After Maxwell death (1991), Elsevier buys Pergamon Press (400 Journals), becoming a group with 1.000 new/old titles. In 1993 there is the Reed-Elsevier fusion In 1997, they were ready for www (not exactly the first ones)
  29. 29. Pierre Vinken Neurosurgeon, editor of Excerpta Medica, and chairman of Reed Elsevier. After buying Pergamon, he said «You have no idea how profitable these journals are once you stop doing anything … s – Pergamon did the job of journals business – ... then we buy it and we stop doing all that stuff and then the cash just pours out and you wouldn’t believe how wonderful». [from The Guardian]
  30. 30. Thomson Reuter (T-R) It is a big corporation owning newspapers – The Times (UK) – TV companies etc, who has been the main competitor of Reed-Elsevier in buying scientific journals in the 90ies, with the competitive advantage of the ISI trademark. (ISI Journal Citation Reports ©) Main info from Fudinguniverse and Britannica Paul Julius, baron von Reuter, alias Israel Beer Josaphat Reuters is a British news/e-info icon leading news services company, one of the most famous in the world, founded by Paul Julius Reuter, a german publisher of revolutionary pampleths, who started trading and delivering infos with pigeons, in 1849, about, and then by telegraph).
  31. 31. Thomson Reuter (T-R) It is a big corporation owning newspapers – The Times (UK) – TV companies etc, who has been the main competitor of Reed-Elsevier in buying scientific journals in the 90ies, with the competitive advantage of the ISI trademark. (ISI Journal Citation Reports ©) Main info from Fudinguniverse and Britannica Paul Julius, baron von Reuter, alias Israel Beer Josaphat Reuters is a British news/e-info icon leading news services company, one of the most famous in the world, founded by Paul Julius Reuter, a german publisher of revolutionary pampleths, who started trading and delivering infos with pigeons, in 1849, about, and then by telegraph).
  32. 32. Samuel Clement Bradford S.C. Bradford, British mathematician, librarian and documentalist at the Science Museum in London, recognized that if journals, in a field, are sorted by number of articles, the distribution would be exponentially diminishing (Bradford law see also Pareto distribution). In other terms statistics says that: • The more we publish, the less the percentage of accountable papers will be • The more we search, the less we find (in percentage) (the older you are the less optimistically nice you will be, evaluating other’s work) • The more researchers we have, the less satisfied they will be, in average
  33. 33. Derek John de Solla Price • Physicist, historian of science, is credited as the father of scientometrics • Price's Law (Little Science, Big Science, C.U.P, 1965): productivity in science is unequally distributed and few good researchers are authors of a lot of papers (true) [given a group of n authors, less than (n)0,5 of them produce 50% of the papers (too precise to be true: the nature of productivity varies a lot following author population)]. See him here, in Science, but also the founder of the main model: Lotka, A. J. “The frequency distribution of scientific productivity”, Journal of the Washington Academy of Science 16(12): 317-323; 1926, and the work of Paul Travis Nicholls (1998)
  34. 34. Eugene Garfield & ISI Wikipedia: «American linguist and businessman, one of the founders of bibliometrics and scientometrics» He founded the Institute for Scientific Information (1960) that offered information services (like Current Contents, informing about published papers, and the Science Citation Index (1964) informing about who cited who and the most cited papers): it is the basis for the IF calculation. ISI (a private company) was acquired by Thompson in 1992 and has been sold with the whole Intellectual Property & Science group, becoming Clarivate Analytics «ISI had the effect of making it easy to identify exactly which scientists did science that had an impact, and which journals that science appeared in. It also caused the discovery, which some did not expect, that a few journals, such as Nature and Science, were core for all of hard science. The same pattern does not happen with the humanities or the social sciences». From Bradford's law Obituary
  35. 35. See the linked videos and Garfield himself
  36. 36. ProQuest Created by Eugene Power, as microfilm producer (University Microfilms) and doctoral thesis publisher, in 1938-39, the company grown as information provider, now as part of Cambridge Information Group (US). During World War II, ProQuest microfilmed thousands of rare books in UK, earning rights to sell copies in USA to American libraries. Queen Elizabeth knighted Power in the 1970s for this preservation work.
  37. 37. publishers
  38. 38. The main (private owned) publishers Reed-Elsevier
  39. 39. Universities and scientific associations as publishers (few examples) • American Medical Association • Annual Reviews • Cambridge University Press • IEEE • Johns Hopkins University Press • MIT Press • Oxford University Press • … • Penn State Press • Royal Society of Chemistry • University of California Press • University of California Press • University of Chicago Press • University of Chicago Press • University of Texas Press • …
  40. 40. Springer Originally a German publisher (Berlin 1842, published master journals like Matematische Zeitschrift and Mathematische Annalen, edited by Klein, Einstein, Hilbert, …), recognized soon that German had no more chance to compete to be the language of science (before WWII was somehow possible). In less than 20 years after the war, they were again competing for leadership in scientific publishing at a world level (1964: Springer Verlag NewYork was started). Now it is owned by Holtzbrinck H.Sarkowski, H.Götze, Springer-Verlag: History of a Scientific Publishing House 1964 Springer Verlag 1999 Bertelsmann Springer 2003 Bougth and fused together with part of Wolter Kluwer 2015 Merged with Holtzbrinck (Nature)
  41. 41. Springer Applied Spatial Analysis and Policy Building Simulation City, Territory and Architecture Construction Robotics European Transport Research Review Fire Technology Frontiers of Structural and Civil Engineering Future Cities and Environment Glass Structures & Engineering International Journal of Advanced Structural Engineering International Journal of Civil Engineering International Journal of Environmental Research International Journal of Steel Structures Journal of Civil Structural Health Monitoring Journal of Geographical Systems Journal of Material Cycles and Waste Management Journal of Urban Health Landscape and Ecological Engineering Materials and Structures Review of Regional Research The Annals of Regional Science The Urban Review Welding International
  42. 42. Nature Nature was founded in 1869 and is the most known, weekly, international scientific journal. The group publishes Nature research journals including society-owned publications. It also have online databases and services like: news and comment, NatureJobs and Nature Education's (see the A-Z index or the catalog) and Scientific American for the general public.
  43. 43. Wiley-Blackwell Blackwell is the name of an UK family of 19th century booksellers, Oxford based (with shops all over UK), who become publishers and scientific publishers (1939). In 2006, before merging with Wiley&Sons, the Blackwell Publishing was publishing 805 journals, most of which diffused at an international level. Wiley too is an old name (librarian and publishers in NewYork since the beginning of 1800), and is quoted as one of the world's oldest independent one, with strong links and roots in the various US professional and scholarly societies network. Wiley&sons bought Blackwell in 2006, and started Wiley- Blackwell (1,400+ journals) 2008: Wiley InterScience (online access) 2002: forDummies goes digital 2010: Wiley Online Library 4M articles, 1,500+ journals 14,000+ books, ref. works, lab protocols, databases WileyPLUS: + media resources for instructors and students
  44. 44. Architectural Design Bauphysik Bautechnik Beton- und Stahlbetonbau Design Management Journal Design Management Review Journal of Architectural Education Journal for Eighteenth-Century Studies Journal of Forecasting Journal of Interior Design Structural Concrete City & Community Development and Change Development Policy Review Disasters International Journal of Urban and Regional Research Journal of International Development Journal of Urban Affairs Public Administration and Development Real Estate Economics Sustainable Development
  45. 45. Thomson Reuter (T-R) The Canadian company Thomson was a very big financial group dealing with information services (newspaper – owned The Times (UK) – broadcasting companies, scientific journals) but not only, very soon active on digital media (before internet!). Between 80ies an 90ies it bought little publishers and groups like Derwent Publications and Chapman & Hall, JPT Publishing Group (ISI) and many other little and big companies, competing with Reed-Elsevier. It acquired (2008) the British news/e-info icon Reuters, leading newswire services in the world (founded by Paul Julius Reuter, a german publisher of revolutionary pampleths, who started trading and delivering infos with pigeons, about in 1849 and then by telegraph) changing its name in Thomson Reuters Main info from Fudinguniverse and Britannica Paul Julius, baron von Reuter, alias Israel Beer Josaphat
  46. 46. Thompson Reuter (T-R) Publishing is no more the main business model:
  47. 47. Thompson Reuter (T-R) T-R owned (up to 2016) the Institute for Scientific Information (ISI), the only institution aggregating and analyzing scholarly publications data at a global scale up to 2004, the year when Elsevier’s Scopus, entered the field in. Such a data-base, associated to Chinese, Russian, Korean, Brasilian (SciELO) and other databases, now constitutes the Web of Science (WOS) – previously the Web of knowledge and is now part of the Clarivate group ISI has been sold by T-R to create CLARIVARIATE
  48. 48. Wolter-Kluwers Started as schoolbook publisher in the Netherlands in 1836, it merged with ohter ones from the 60ies (Wolters-Noordhoff, Wolters-Samson and, at the end, Wolters Kluwer) to the end of 80ies. Wolters Kluwer become the second publisher in the NL (against the main competitor Elsevier), also acquiring other groups to become a fully international education and information company, with a specific interest on legal topics.
  49. 49. WW own and manage journals mainly about Medical and Health Care topics … see here
  50. 50. Taylor & Francis Started with a venture (1852) between William Francis (a chemist) and Richard Taylor (naturalist and editor of the Philosophical Magazine) to start a wide publising company about every tecnical topic: agriculture, chemistry, education, engineering, geography, law, mathematics, medicine, …, in UK. Also T&F had a growth policy from the 60ies (Wykeham, Hemisphere, Routledge and Informa) to the end of the millenial and, now, it publishes more than 2,500 journals, and approximately 6,500 new books each year, in every subject, humanities (here the biggest among the big four) and STEM. Cogent Open Access journals imprint.
  51. 51.  Built Environment  Engineering & Technology  Environment and Sustainability  Museum and Heritage Studies  Social Sciences  Urban Studies
  52. 52. … and trends
  53. 53. See also this PhD Comics VIDEO (2012)
  54. 54. scientific publishing is a commercial enterprise Services are useful, commercial is not a problem. But questions arose: • Is the big publishers lobby operating in a really competitive, perfect market? • Is the commercial logic interfering with our values and objectives? • Is bibliometry influencing the way we publish (salami slice/autoplagiarism/self quoting?) • Is bibliometry influencing the way we make research? (are the really important data and conclusions reported?) • Are bibliometric data well used by institutions etc? • Is Open Access the solution? What about Predatory Journals?
  55. 55. Percentage of Natural and Medical Sciences (left panel) and Social Sciences and Humanities (right panel) papers published by the top 5 publishers, 1973–2013, from LARIVIERE 2015, PLoS One. 2015; 10(6): e0127502. Number of journals changing from small to big publishers, and big to small publishers per year of change in the Natural and Medical Sciences and Social Sciences & Humanities. IBID.
  56. 56. Percentage of papers published by the five major publishers, by discipline in the Natural and Medical Sciences, 1973–2013.
  57. 57. Percentage of papers published by the five major publishers in Physics, 1973–2013
  58. 58. Operating profits (million USD) and profit margin of Reed-Elsevier as a whole (A) and of its Scientific, Technical & Medical division (B), 1991–2013.
  59. 59. scientific publishing It is an industry like many others but … … while publishing have very high costs (writers/journalists + editors choosing, reviewing and shaping articles/books) and, if successful, in average have a relatively low revenue («successful magazines typically make profits of around 12-15% of their cost», Stephen Buranyi) … … scientific publishing don’t: Scientists are funded by governments and are happy to disseminate their results; the main checking activity (peer review) is doneon a volunteer basis, only few scientific editors are payed, eventually, journals are sold (mainly) to government-funded institutions and libraries, to be read by the same scientists.
  60. 60. Profit and academic life: are them compatible? «The profit motive is fundamentally misaligned with core values of academic life, potentially corroding ideals like unfettered inquiry, knowledge-sharing, and cooperative progress. There are obstacles to forging a non-profit alternative, from sustainable funding to entrenched cynicism, but such a goal is worthy and within reach» [Jefferson Pooley, LSE blog] Let’s go OPEN ACCESS
  61. 61. OPEN ACCESS (but … who pays costs?) • Servers, some staff, some basic communication activities … cost • We can find other kinds of revenue if pulication is not our core business (university, association, …) • We can ask money for service (pay for reviewing and hosting a publication) PREDATORY JOURNALS (SEE THE BEALL LIST) Originally started as a personal endeavor (2008), is widely followed since 2010, up to January 2017 (they say, “under pressure of Editors”). Similar lists have been started by others, see Stop Predatory Journals and Cabell International black list.
  62. 62. DOAJ It is a community-curated online directory indexing and providing access to a selected (quality) set of open access resources, funded by donations (50% from sponsors and 50% from members and publishers).
  63. 63. arXiv and open access While internet still doesn’t exist … Joanne Cohn, an American astrophysicist, in 1989, started an electronic mailing list for sharing theoretical physics preprints.
  64. 64. arXiv and open access • In the summer of 1991, Paul Ginsparg, a physicist, created the first system for sharing preprints: the papers sent were too many and he created an open central repository at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, soon reachable via: FTP, Gopher and the World Wide Web (1993) • The term e-print started to be used • Actually, the ArXiv servers (Cornell University) host 1,294,510 e-prints in Physics, Mathematics, Computer Science, Quantitative Biology, Quantitative Finance and Statistics See also wikipedia arXiv
  65. 65. SSRN Social Science Research Network (SSRN) was created by Michael C.Jensen, and Wayne Marr, US economist, in 1994. SSRN collect and circulates (publishes?) preprints an other research papers within the scholarly community of law, economics and sociial sciences, colleting comments and reviews, worldwide. Moreover, publishers and institutions too can upload papers charging fees. Recently bought by Elsevier (2016)
  66. 66. Topology The rising cost of journals concern academics and librarians (more journals to buy, more and more expansive journals). The first are also those who write, review and edit the Journals, while publishers just lend a data base management service (and some general management) They want to be “free” In 2006, the Oxford University's members of the board of the mathematics journal Topology resign and start a new journal in 2008, the Journal of Topology (oxford University press), while the first ended its publication in 2009 (2012).
  67. 67. Sci-hub • In 2011 Russian (kazach/armenyan) neuroscientist Alexandra Elbakyan, who could not afford buying the papers she needed for her research, created Sci-Hub, now supported by user donations • The site claims to have links to 65 million pirated and open papers (check for updates here). • Elbakyan lives hidden, because of a lawsuit with Elsevier, that granted a $15 million injunction against her. • In December 2016, Nature Publishing Group named Alexandra Elbakyan as one of the 10 people who most mattered in 2016 (not for her research …) … imagine the world with free access to knowledge for everyone ‐ a world without any paywalls
  68. 68. Data: Sci-Hub; Images: adapted by Grullón/Science, according to data on download requests from September 2015 to February 2016, in a post by Chris Woolston: Paper piracy sparks online debate … on the Nature’s blog
  69. 69. open-access mega-journal (OAMJ) • PLOS (2001) means Public Library of Science, and is a nonprofit Open Access publisher that launched its first journal in 2003 (PLOS Biology) • 2006 PLOS ONE (science and medicine) opens: it is the first OAMJ multidisciplinary Open Access Mega journal. • They want primary, original, unpublished research products, evidence based, ethically proof, well written (appropriate fashion and in standard English), with non ambiguous hypothesis and justifiable conclusions. • They practice a Rigorous Peer Review • They ask US$ 1,495 per paper, if accepted (after the review process)
  70. 70. PeerJ We have two peer-reviewed publications: • "PeerJ" serving the Biological and Medical sciences and • "PeerJ Computer Science.» Additionally we publish "PeerJ Preprints", which is an innovative ‘preprint server’ covering both Biology and Computer Science. Authors can pay either a low-cost per article publication fee (i.e. APC) or for a lifetime publishing membership, which gives them the ability to publish their articles with us for free. The Q&A + annotations platform provides a second route to recognizing contributions for knowledge-share.
  71. 71. Other open-access mega-journal (OAMJ) • AIP Advances • Open Library of the Humanities • SAGE Open • Scientific Reports (Nature: see here for the subjects)
  72. 72. bepress Founded in 1999, bepress’s Business Core is helpling academic communities to give evidence of their works and expertise, linking scholars and communities and supporting the emersion of academic missions and goals. It has been recently acquired by Elsevier.
  73. 73. O’Reilly Media It begun as consulting firm and soon (1984) started publishing fundamental books (the first about WWW, in 1992, then about coding and all nerds) about programming and computer technology. This name is also linked to the first the first big transactions of the dot com boom (Global Network Navigator bought by Yahoo), the first internet site to support advertising (GNN), the organization of the first “Open Source Software” convention (the O’Reilly Open Source Convention), the first use of the phrase “Web 2.0” and the first Web 2.0 Summit, the Maker Movement … O’Reilly sells online books (Safari Books Online), connected to training videos: it provides knowledge and expertise related to digitalization.
  74. 74. ICE
  75. 75. ICE Proceedings of the Institution of Civil Engineers: • Bridge Engineering • Civil Engineering • Construction Materials • Energy • Engineering and Computational Mechanics • Engineering Sustainability • Forensic Engineering • Geotechnical Engineering • Ground Improvement • Management, Procurement and Law • Maritime Engineering • Municipal Engineer • Smart Infrastructure and Construction • Structures and Buildings • Transport • Urban Design and Planning • Waste and Resource Management • Water Management • Water Maritime and Energy • Surface Innovations Advances in Cement Research Bioinspired, Biomimetic and Nanobiomaterials Dams and Reservoirs Emerging Materials Research Environmental Geotechnics Geosynthetics International Geotechnical Research Géotechnique Géotechnique Letters Green Materials Infrastructure Asset Management Intl J.of Physical Modelling in Geotechnics J. of Environmental Engineering and Science Magazine of Concrete Research Nanomaterials and Energy
  76. 76. Open access publisher (2007) • Founded by Henry and Kamila Markram, neuroscientists in EPFL Switzerland, who launched Frontiers in Neuroscience in 2007, realizing a specific proprietary platform to manage the whole process: submissions, review, publication and evaluation. • They use the concept of Research Topics: thematic article collections and organize also a Research Network (Loop) • In 2013 they started a collaboration with the Holtzbrinck Group, owner of Nature Publishing Group (NPG) • Now they have Journal Citation Reports (2017) by Clarivate Analytics
  77. 77. altmetrics and Webometrics It means ALTernativeMETRICS (of articles, researchers, institutions …): i.e. non-traditional (as citation index, impact factor and h-index) ways to measure how much a paper (and any other object that is related to science) is influential. 2008: the Journal of Medical Internet Research start to collect tweets 2009: the Public Library of Science (PLoS) introduced its own metrics, based on a count of n. of views, downloads, the entity of the discussions about the paper, its citation and its recommendation (based on analytics available through PubMed Central, Nature Blogs, Mendeley, Twitter, CrossRef, CiteULike, Facebook, ScienceSeeker, DataCite,, Wikpedia, Reddit , OpenEdition …)
  78. 78. figshare • figshare is a repository where users can share their research outputs «in a citable shareable and discoverable manner»
  79. 79. The Beall opinion about scholarly publishing’s future preprint servers + overlay journals • Preprint servers (i.e., green OA, that do minimal vetting and review, without any fee (and no conflict): they publish quite everything viable • Overlay journals that select (experts in their field) the best articles: methodologically sound, novel, scientific, and of importance to the field. Let me add: social based open review of preprints is another very interesting option
  80. 80. Open or closed? Nature Trend watch says that almost half of the scholarly papers accessed online are legally available for free Half of papers searched for online are free to read