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Vitamin & Vitamin
containing Drugs
Pharmacognosy
lec 5
Vitamins
prepared by :Dr Faruq
Vitamin & Vitamin
containing Drugs
Vitamin Facts
Vitamins are essential organic nutrients, required in
small amounts.
They cannot be synthesized by the body. Must be
obtained by outside sources like diet, bacteria & sun.
Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and
lactation.
Classes of Vitamins
Fat Soluble Vitamins:
stored in tissues
Examples
A
D
E
K
Water Soluble Vitamins:
not stored in tissues, must have
constant supply
Examples
Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12
C
Function, Deficiency Signs & Sources
Vitamin A
Function: development healthy skin and nerve tissue. Aids
in building up resistance to infection. Functions in eyesight
and bone formation. All animals require a source of Vitamin
A. It is important in the ration of pregnant females.
Deficiency signs: retarded growth in the young, the
development of a peculiar condition around the eyes known
as Xerophthalmia, night blindness and reproductive
disorders.
Sources: whole milk, carotene, animal body oils (cod fish
and tuna), legume forages and can be synthetically
produced.
Vitamin D
Function: is essential for the proper utilization of calcium
and phosphorus to produce normal, healthy bones.
Deficiency signs: retarded growth, misshapen bones
(rickets), lameness and osteoporosis.
Sources: Whole milk, sun-cured hays, forage crops, fish
liver oils, irradiated yeast.
Vitamin E
Function: Normal reproduction.
Deficiency signs: poor growth, "crazy chick" disease, Muscular
Dystrophy, "white muscle" disease in ruminants and swine and
"stiff lamb" disease (affects the nerves and muscles).
Sources: synthetic for poultry and swine, cereal grains and
wheat germ oil, green forages, protein concentrates, oil seeds
(peanut and soybean oil).
Vitamin K
Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that
the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins
that are prerequisites for blood coagulation and which the body also
needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues.
vitamin K2
Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (3-)
derivatives. Vitamin K includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2
Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 into vitamin K2
Sources: Green leafy forages, fish meal, liver, soybeans, rumen and
intestinal synthesis, and the synthetic compounds.
Function: Necessary for the maintenance of normal blood
coagulation.
Deficiency signs: Blood loses its power to clot or the time needed
for clotting is longer and serious hemorrhages can result from slight
wounds or bruises. uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical
research indicates that deficiency of vitamin K may weaken bones,
potentially leading to osteoporosis, and may promote calcification of
arteries and other soft tissues
Warfarin overdose and coumadin poisoning
v Vitamin K is one of the treatments for bleeding events caused by
overdose of the anticoagulant drug warfarin (Coumadin®).
v Vitamin K is also part of the suggested treatment regime for poisoning
by rodenticide (coumarin poisoning)
vVitamin K1 should be given as a single intramuscular dose of 0.5
mg (birth weight 1500 g or less) or 1.0 mg (birthweight greater
than 1500 g) to all newborns within the first 6 h after birth
following initial stabilization of the baby.
vFor newborn infants whose parents refuse an intramuscular
injection, the physician should recommend an oral dose of 2.0 mg
vitamin K1 at the time of the first feeding.
vHemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDNB) was first identified
over 100 years ago by Townsend; it presents as unexpected
bleeding, often with gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ecchymosis,
and, in many cases, intracranial hemorrhage.
Routine administration of vitamin K to newborns
vRecommended daily intake (RDA)
Males: 120 mcg/day PO
Females: 90 mcg/day PO
Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid
is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement.
Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid)
vVitamin C is an essential nutrient
involved in the repair of tissue and the
enzymatic production of certain
neurotransmitters.
vIt is required for the functioning of
several enzymes and is important for
immune system function.
vIt also functions as an antioxidant.
Deficiency signs: Human deficiency: scurvy
(swollen and painful joints and bleeding gums) and
brittleness of bones.
vScurvy is an avitaminosis resulting from lack of vitamin C,
since without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too
unstable to perform its function.
vScurvy leads to the formation of brown spots on the skin,
spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes. The
spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person
with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially
immobilized.
Sources: citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables and
potatoes.
Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C
content in foods.
US vitamin C recommendations (mg per day)
RDA (children ages 1–3 years) 15
RDA (children ages 4–8 years) 25
RDA (children ages 9–13 years) 45
RDA (girls ages 14–18 years) 65
RDA (boys ages 14–18 years) 75
RDA (adult female) 75
RDA (adult male) 90
RDA (pregnancy) 85
RDA (lactation) 120
UL (adult female) 2,000
UL (adult male) 2,000
Vitamin B1 (Thiamine)
Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in
food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat
and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it,
including beriberi, Korsakoff's syndrome, and Korsakoff's
psychosis. Other uses include treatment of maple syrup urine
disease and Leigh's disease. This neurological disorder is caused by a
lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain, and is also often exacerbated
by the neurotoxic effects of alcohol.
ØFunction: required for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates.
Thiamine is essential for the decarboxylation of pyruvate, and deficiency
during this metabolic process is thought to cause damage to
the medial thalamus and mammillary bodies of the posterior
hypothalamus, as well as generalized cerebral atrophy. These brain
regions are all parts of the limbic system, which is heavily involved in
emotion and memory.
Deficiency signs: loss of appetite, muscular weakness,
severe nervous disorders, general weakness and
Beriberi.
Sources: raw, whole grains and especially their seed
coats and embryos; fresh green forage; and yeast, milk
and rumen synthesis.
It is needed to maintain the health of the nerves and
the heart. Low levels of vitamin B1 may cause heart
failure and mental/nerve problems.
Take this vitamin by mouth with or without food, usually 1
to 3 times daily
How to use
Vitamin B2, also called Riboflavin, is an important vitamin
that also acts as an antioxidant within the body. Vitamin B2
is responsible for maintaining healthy blood cells, helping to
boost energy levels, facilitating in a healthy metabolism,
preventing free radical damage, contributing to growth,
protecting skin and eye health, and even more.
Vitamin B2
Function: B2 is necessary for normal embryo
development, important in the metabolism of amino
acids and carbohydrates.
Deficiency signs: poor reproduction , curly toe paralysis
in chicks, digestive disturbances, general weakness and
eye abnormalities.
Sources: milk and dairy by-products, yeast, green
forages, whole grains, wheat bran and synthetic
riboflavin rumen synthesis.
Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic Acid)
Niacin also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and
is, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential
human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group
known as vitamin B3 complex.
vNiacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both
compounds are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine
dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide
phosphate (NADP) in vivo.
vNAD converts to NADP by phosphorylation in the presence of the
enzyme NAD+ kinase. NADP and NAD are coenzymes for
many dehydrogenases, participating in many hydrogen transfer
processes.
vNAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and
alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly
in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis.
vHigh energy requirements (brain) or high turnover rate (gut, skin)
organs are usually the most susceptible to their deficiency.
Function: has antipellagra activity.
Deficiency signs: pellagra, which is characterized by diarrhea,
dermatitis, and dementia, hyperpigmentation, thickening of the
skin, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, digestive
disturbances, amnesia, delirium, and eventually death, if left
untreated.
Sources: milk and dairy by-products, yeast, green forages,
whole grains, wheat, meat ,fish
Vitamin B4 is a former designation given to several
distinct chemical compounds, none of which is
currently considered a true vitamin:
Adenine
Carnitine
Choline
Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient. It is a basic
constituent of lecithin, which is present in many plants and animal
organs. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium
salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation (X− on the
right denotes an undefined counteranion)
Adenine
Carnitine
Choline
ØThe cation appears in the head groups of and sphingomyelin, two
classes of phospholipid that are abundant in cell membranes. Choline is
the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is
involved in many functions including memory and muscle control.
ØSome animals cannot produce choline, but must consume it through
their diet to remain healthy.
ØHumans make a small amount of choline in the liver. In the United
States, choline is recommended as an essential nutrient after research
proved that humans need to receive choline through the diet or
by supplementation for proper health.
Ø Possible benefits include reducing the risk of neural tube defects and
fatty liver disease. It has also been found that intake of choline during
pregnancy can have long-term beneficial effects on memory for the
child. Choline deficiency is rare in the general population.
The European Food Safety Authority states there are no Recommended
Daily Intakes in the EU and "no indications of inadequate choline
intakes available in the EU
Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid)
Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water-
soluble vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals
require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as
well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats.
The anion is called pantothenate.
Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoic acid and β-alanine..
Function: Assists in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins,
fatty acids. Essential for cell metabolism
Deficiency signs: Paresthesia
Sources: Meat, broccoli, avocados, cereal grains, animal
organs(heart , kidney , liver)
Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine)
Function: Enabling red blood cell metabolism, Enabling the
breakdown of glycogen to glucose, helping amino acid and protein
metabolism.
Deficiency signs: Anemia peripheral neuropathy, skin lesions
(glossitis, dermatitis, stomatitis), neurologic abnormalities
Sources: Meat, vegetables, tree nuts , bananas
Vitamin B7 (Biotin)
Function:Used in fatty acid synthesis, also other functions.
Deficiency signs: Dermatitis, enteritis
Sources: Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
Vitamin B9 (Folic acid, folinic acid)
Function: Red blood cell formation, development of brain
spinal cord, skeletal and foetus , play role in preventing heart
attacks , stroke ,cancer.
Deficiency signs: Megaloblastic anemia and Deficiency
during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as
neural tube defects.
Sources: Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
Vitamin B10, also known as PABA (para amino benzoic
acid), is an essential vitamin belonging to the class of B
complex vitamins.
vVitamin B10, commonly referred to as PABA (para-
aminobenzoic acid), is typically used to protect the skin from
sun damage.
vIt has anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory properties that
are extremely important for the growth and maintenance of
skin cells.
vVitamin B10 is actually part of vitamin B9 and is needed by
the body in order to absorb vitamin B5. With that said, it’s no
surprise the B-complex vitamins are closely tied with each
other. Eggs, Bran, Whole grains, Leafy green vegetables
Yogurt, Mushrooms
Salicylic acid is an important beta hydroxy vitamin also
known as Vitamin B11.
It is a crystalline and organic acid. Salicylic acid is
obtained from the metabolism of salicin.
Vitamin B11functions in the DNA and RNA syntheses,
essential for the body. It is necessary for cell division.
This vitamin is also found in plants where it plays role in the
growth and development of the plants as well as in various
other functions such as photosynthesis, ion uptake and in
transpiration. It is synthesized in the human body by the
phenylalanine amino acid.
Vitamin B12
(Cyanocobalamin/Hydroxocobalamin/Methylcobalamin)
Sources:Meat and other animal products
Function: it is essential for production of RBCs ,it improves
concentration, memory and balance of nervous system. It is
important for metabolism of fat , proteins , carbohydrate and folic
acids.
Deficiency signs: Megaloblastic anemia
Megaloblastic anemia is a condition in which the bone marrow
produces unusually large, structurally abnormal, immature red blood
cells (megaloblasts). Bone marrow, the soft spongy material found
inside certain bones, produces the main blood cells of the body -red
cells, white cells, and platelets.
Cod liver oil
Cod liver oil is a nutritional supplement derived from
liver of cod fish .As with most fish oils, it has high levels
of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)
and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA).
Cod liver oil also contains vitamin A and vitamin D.
Shark liver oil
Shark liver oil is an oil obtained from
the livers of sharks. Principal component
of many shark oils is squalene,
a triterpenoid (C30H50)-90%
Vocabulary Review
Nutrients: chemical substances in food that are
used by the body to produce energy and tissues.
Vitamins: Essential organic nutrients, required in
small amounts, that cannot be synthesized by the
body.Required forgrowth, maintenance,
reproduction and lactation.
Vitamin deficiency: Decline in health due to the
lack of a vitamin in a ration.
Vocabulary Review
Fat soluble vitamin: a vitamin that can be stored and
accumulated in the liver and other fatty tissues.
Water soluble vitamin: a vitamin that cannot be
stored in the tissues. Must be provided regularly as
deficiencies can develop in a short time.
Minerals: essential inorganic compounds, required
in small amounts. Required for growth,
maintenance, reproduction and lactation.

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Vitamins.lec-5-sem-8-pharmacognosy-PHC.pdf

  • 4. Vitamin Facts Vitamins are essential organic nutrients, required in small amounts. They cannot be synthesized by the body. Must be obtained by outside sources like diet, bacteria & sun. Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.
  • 5. Classes of Vitamins Fat Soluble Vitamins: stored in tissues Examples A D E K Water Soluble Vitamins: not stored in tissues, must have constant supply Examples Vitamin B1, B2, B3, B5, B6, B7, B9, B12 C
  • 6. Function, Deficiency Signs & Sources Vitamin A Function: development healthy skin and nerve tissue. Aids in building up resistance to infection. Functions in eyesight and bone formation. All animals require a source of Vitamin A. It is important in the ration of pregnant females. Deficiency signs: retarded growth in the young, the development of a peculiar condition around the eyes known as Xerophthalmia, night blindness and reproductive disorders. Sources: whole milk, carotene, animal body oils (cod fish and tuna), legume forages and can be synthetically produced.
  • 7. Vitamin D Function: is essential for the proper utilization of calcium and phosphorus to produce normal, healthy bones. Deficiency signs: retarded growth, misshapen bones (rickets), lameness and osteoporosis. Sources: Whole milk, sun-cured hays, forage crops, fish liver oils, irradiated yeast.
  • 8. Vitamin E Function: Normal reproduction. Deficiency signs: poor growth, "crazy chick" disease, Muscular Dystrophy, "white muscle" disease in ruminants and swine and "stiff lamb" disease (affects the nerves and muscles). Sources: synthetic for poultry and swine, cereal grains and wheat germ oil, green forages, protein concentrates, oil seeds (peanut and soybean oil).
  • 9. Vitamin K Vitamin K is a group of structurally similar, fat-soluble vitamins that the human body requires for complete synthesis of certain proteins that are prerequisites for blood coagulation and which the body also needs for controlling binding of calcium in bones and other tissues. vitamin K2 Chemically, the vitamin K family comprises 2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (3-) derivatives. Vitamin K includes two natural vitamers: vitamin K1 and vitamin K2 Bacteria in the gut flora can also convert K1 into vitamin K2
  • 10. Sources: Green leafy forages, fish meal, liver, soybeans, rumen and intestinal synthesis, and the synthetic compounds.
  • 11. Function: Necessary for the maintenance of normal blood coagulation. Deficiency signs: Blood loses its power to clot or the time needed for clotting is longer and serious hemorrhages can result from slight wounds or bruises. uncontrolled bleeding occurs. Preliminary clinical research indicates that deficiency of vitamin K may weaken bones, potentially leading to osteoporosis, and may promote calcification of arteries and other soft tissues Warfarin overdose and coumadin poisoning v Vitamin K is one of the treatments for bleeding events caused by overdose of the anticoagulant drug warfarin (Coumadin®). v Vitamin K is also part of the suggested treatment regime for poisoning by rodenticide (coumarin poisoning)
  • 12. vVitamin K1 should be given as a single intramuscular dose of 0.5 mg (birth weight 1500 g or less) or 1.0 mg (birthweight greater than 1500 g) to all newborns within the first 6 h after birth following initial stabilization of the baby. vFor newborn infants whose parents refuse an intramuscular injection, the physician should recommend an oral dose of 2.0 mg vitamin K1 at the time of the first feeding. vHemorrhagic disease of the newborn (HDNB) was first identified over 100 years ago by Townsend; it presents as unexpected bleeding, often with gastrointestinal hemorrhage and ecchymosis, and, in many cases, intracranial hemorrhage. Routine administration of vitamin K to newborns vRecommended daily intake (RDA) Males: 120 mcg/day PO Females: 90 mcg/day PO
  • 13. Vitamin C, also known as ascorbic acid and L-ascorbic acid is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. Vitamin C (Ascorbic acid) vVitamin C is an essential nutrient involved in the repair of tissue and the enzymatic production of certain neurotransmitters. vIt is required for the functioning of several enzymes and is important for immune system function. vIt also functions as an antioxidant.
  • 14. Deficiency signs: Human deficiency: scurvy (swollen and painful joints and bleeding gums) and brittleness of bones. vScurvy is an avitaminosis resulting from lack of vitamin C, since without this vitamin, collagen made by the body is too unstable to perform its function. vScurvy leads to the formation of brown spots on the skin, spongy gums, and bleeding from all mucous membranes. The spots are most abundant on the thighs and legs, and a person with the ailment looks pale, feels depressed, and is partially immobilized. Sources: citrus fruits, tomatoes, leafy vegetables and potatoes. Prolonged storage or cooking may reduce vitamin C content in foods.
  • 15. US vitamin C recommendations (mg per day) RDA (children ages 1–3 years) 15 RDA (children ages 4–8 years) 25 RDA (children ages 9–13 years) 45 RDA (girls ages 14–18 years) 65 RDA (boys ages 14–18 years) 75 RDA (adult female) 75 RDA (adult male) 90 RDA (pregnancy) 85 RDA (lactation) 120 UL (adult female) 2,000 UL (adult male) 2,000
  • 16. Vitamin B1 (Thiamine) Thiamine, also known as thiamin or vitamin B1, is a vitamin found in food and used as a dietary supplement. As a supplement it is used to treat and prevent thiamine deficiency and disorders that result from it, including beriberi, Korsakoff's syndrome, and Korsakoff's psychosis. Other uses include treatment of maple syrup urine disease and Leigh's disease. This neurological disorder is caused by a lack of thiamine (vitamin B1) in the brain, and is also often exacerbated by the neurotoxic effects of alcohol. ØFunction: required for the normal metabolism of carbohydrates. Thiamine is essential for the decarboxylation of pyruvate, and deficiency during this metabolic process is thought to cause damage to the medial thalamus and mammillary bodies of the posterior hypothalamus, as well as generalized cerebral atrophy. These brain regions are all parts of the limbic system, which is heavily involved in emotion and memory.
  • 17. Deficiency signs: loss of appetite, muscular weakness, severe nervous disorders, general weakness and Beriberi. Sources: raw, whole grains and especially their seed coats and embryos; fresh green forage; and yeast, milk and rumen synthesis.
  • 18. It is needed to maintain the health of the nerves and the heart. Low levels of vitamin B1 may cause heart failure and mental/nerve problems. Take this vitamin by mouth with or without food, usually 1 to 3 times daily How to use
  • 19. Vitamin B2, also called Riboflavin, is an important vitamin that also acts as an antioxidant within the body. Vitamin B2 is responsible for maintaining healthy blood cells, helping to boost energy levels, facilitating in a healthy metabolism, preventing free radical damage, contributing to growth, protecting skin and eye health, and even more. Vitamin B2
  • 20. Function: B2 is necessary for normal embryo development, important in the metabolism of amino acids and carbohydrates. Deficiency signs: poor reproduction , curly toe paralysis in chicks, digestive disturbances, general weakness and eye abnormalities. Sources: milk and dairy by-products, yeast, green forages, whole grains, wheat bran and synthetic riboflavin rumen synthesis.
  • 21. Vitamin B3 (Nicotinic Acid) Niacin also known as nicotinic acid, is an organic compound and is, depending on the definition used, one of the 20 to 80 essential human nutrients. Together with nicotinamide it makes up the group known as vitamin B3 complex.
  • 22. vNiacin cannot be directly converted to nicotinamide, but both compounds are precursors of the coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADP) in vivo. vNAD converts to NADP by phosphorylation in the presence of the enzyme NAD+ kinase. NADP and NAD are coenzymes for many dehydrogenases, participating in many hydrogen transfer processes. vNAD is important in catabolism of fat, carbohydrate, protein, and alcohol, as well as cell signaling and DNA repair, and NADP mostly in anabolism reactions such as fatty acid and cholesterol synthesis. vHigh energy requirements (brain) or high turnover rate (gut, skin) organs are usually the most susceptible to their deficiency.
  • 23. Function: has antipellagra activity. Deficiency signs: pellagra, which is characterized by diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia, hyperpigmentation, thickening of the skin, inflammation of the mouth and tongue, digestive disturbances, amnesia, delirium, and eventually death, if left untreated. Sources: milk and dairy by-products, yeast, green forages, whole grains, wheat, meat ,fish
  • 24. Vitamin B4 is a former designation given to several distinct chemical compounds, none of which is currently considered a true vitamin: Adenine Carnitine Choline Choline is a water-soluble vitamin-like essential nutrient. It is a basic constituent of lecithin, which is present in many plants and animal organs. The term cholines refers to the class of quaternary ammonium salts containing the N,N,N-trimethylethanolammonium cation (X− on the right denotes an undefined counteranion) Adenine Carnitine Choline
  • 25. ØThe cation appears in the head groups of and sphingomyelin, two classes of phospholipid that are abundant in cell membranes. Choline is the precursor molecule for the neurotransmitter acetylcholine, which is involved in many functions including memory and muscle control. ØSome animals cannot produce choline, but must consume it through their diet to remain healthy. ØHumans make a small amount of choline in the liver. In the United States, choline is recommended as an essential nutrient after research proved that humans need to receive choline through the diet or by supplementation for proper health. Ø Possible benefits include reducing the risk of neural tube defects and fatty liver disease. It has also been found that intake of choline during pregnancy can have long-term beneficial effects on memory for the child. Choline deficiency is rare in the general population. The European Food Safety Authority states there are no Recommended Daily Intakes in the EU and "no indications of inadequate choline intakes available in the EU
  • 26. Vitamin B5 (pantothenic acid) Pantothenic acid, also called vitamin B5 (a B vitamin), is a water- soluble vitamin. Pantothenic acid is an essential nutrient. Animals require pantothenic acid in order to synthesize coenzyme-A (CoA), as well as to synthesize and metabolize proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. The anion is called pantothenate. Pantothenic acid is the amide between pantoic acid and β-alanine..
  • 27. Function: Assists in the metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, fatty acids. Essential for cell metabolism Deficiency signs: Paresthesia Sources: Meat, broccoli, avocados, cereal grains, animal organs(heart , kidney , liver)
  • 28. Vitamin B6 (pyridoxine) Function: Enabling red blood cell metabolism, Enabling the breakdown of glycogen to glucose, helping amino acid and protein metabolism. Deficiency signs: Anemia peripheral neuropathy, skin lesions (glossitis, dermatitis, stomatitis), neurologic abnormalities Sources: Meat, vegetables, tree nuts , bananas
  • 29. Vitamin B7 (Biotin) Function:Used in fatty acid synthesis, also other functions. Deficiency signs: Dermatitis, enteritis Sources: Raw egg yolk, liver, peanuts, leafy green vegetables
  • 30. Vitamin B9 (Folic acid, folinic acid) Function: Red blood cell formation, development of brain spinal cord, skeletal and foetus , play role in preventing heart attacks , stroke ,cancer. Deficiency signs: Megaloblastic anemia and Deficiency during pregnancy is associated with birth defects, such as neural tube defects. Sources: Leafy vegetables, pasta, bread, cereal, liver
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  • 33. Vitamin B10, also known as PABA (para amino benzoic acid), is an essential vitamin belonging to the class of B complex vitamins. vVitamin B10, commonly referred to as PABA (para- aminobenzoic acid), is typically used to protect the skin from sun damage. vIt has anti-allergenic and anti-inflammatory properties that are extremely important for the growth and maintenance of skin cells. vVitamin B10 is actually part of vitamin B9 and is needed by the body in order to absorb vitamin B5. With that said, it’s no surprise the B-complex vitamins are closely tied with each other. Eggs, Bran, Whole grains, Leafy green vegetables Yogurt, Mushrooms
  • 34. Salicylic acid is an important beta hydroxy vitamin also known as Vitamin B11. It is a crystalline and organic acid. Salicylic acid is obtained from the metabolism of salicin. Vitamin B11functions in the DNA and RNA syntheses, essential for the body. It is necessary for cell division. This vitamin is also found in plants where it plays role in the growth and development of the plants as well as in various other functions such as photosynthesis, ion uptake and in transpiration. It is synthesized in the human body by the phenylalanine amino acid.
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  • 37. Function: it is essential for production of RBCs ,it improves concentration, memory and balance of nervous system. It is important for metabolism of fat , proteins , carbohydrate and folic acids. Deficiency signs: Megaloblastic anemia Megaloblastic anemia is a condition in which the bone marrow produces unusually large, structurally abnormal, immature red blood cells (megaloblasts). Bone marrow, the soft spongy material found inside certain bones, produces the main blood cells of the body -red cells, white cells, and platelets.
  • 38. Cod liver oil Cod liver oil is a nutritional supplement derived from liver of cod fish .As with most fish oils, it has high levels of the omega-3 fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA). Cod liver oil also contains vitamin A and vitamin D.
  • 39. Shark liver oil Shark liver oil is an oil obtained from the livers of sharks. Principal component of many shark oils is squalene, a triterpenoid (C30H50)-90%
  • 40. Vocabulary Review Nutrients: chemical substances in food that are used by the body to produce energy and tissues. Vitamins: Essential organic nutrients, required in small amounts, that cannot be synthesized by the body.Required forgrowth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation. Vitamin deficiency: Decline in health due to the lack of a vitamin in a ration.
  • 41. Vocabulary Review Fat soluble vitamin: a vitamin that can be stored and accumulated in the liver and other fatty tissues. Water soluble vitamin: a vitamin that cannot be stored in the tissues. Must be provided regularly as deficiencies can develop in a short time. Minerals: essential inorganic compounds, required in small amounts. Required for growth, maintenance, reproduction and lactation.