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Rubber Paver blocks


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Rubber Paver blocks

  1. 1. SUBMITTED TO - SUBMITTED BY – Er. Himanshu Saurav (100550107573) Junaid (100550107553) Ranjeet (100550107566) Manish (100550107555) Hunny (100550107551) Wasim (100550107581) Deepak (100550107545) Sajan (100550107571) Vikas (100550107580) Gursimran (1185333) Ankush (1185329)
  2. 2. ACKNOWLEDGEMENT We would like to express our deepest appreciation to all those who provided us the possibility to complete this Project. A special gratitude we give to our HOD & our guide Er. Himanshu, whose contribution in stimulating suggestions and encouragement, helped us to coordinate our project. Furthermore we would also like to acknowledge with much appreciation the crucial role of the staff of Civil Engineering Department, who gave the permission to use all required equipments and the necessary materials to complete the task “RUBCRETE PAVER BLOCK”. We have to appreciate the guidance given by other supervisor as well as the panels especially in our project presentation that has improved our presentation skills thanks to their comment and advices. We have taken efforts in this project. However, it would not have been possible without the kind support and help of many individuals and organizations. We would like to extend my sincere thanks to all of them. We would also like to express our gratitude towards our parents & friends for their kind cooperation and encouragement which help us in completion of this project report. Our thanks and appreciations also go to our colleague in developing the project and people who have willingly helped me out with their abilities.
  3. 3. TABLE OF CONTENTS SR. NO. CONTENTS A. Abstract B. Introduction C. Experimental investigation Cement Aggregate – Coarse & Fine Water Rubber D. Concrete mix design (is method) E. Experimental procedure, materials and mixes F. Result & Result Discussion G. Conclusion H. Advantages of Rubber paver blocks I. Disadvantages of Rubber paver blocks J. Summary K. References L. Teacher Evaluating Report
  4. 4. ABSTRACT With the growth and development on all fronts in our country, economic and infrastructural, there is an increasing need for new facilities, buildings, roads etc. This has in turn resulted in a huge demand for the materials of construction and the raw materials from which these are obtained or made, thus putting an increasing pressure on the natural environment around us. Also the disposal of residual waste, domestic as well as industrial, has become a major concern and a challenge for the authorities and care-takers. Ironically, inspite of each one of us being the source and victim of this problem, very few amongst us have ventured their time, knowledge and expertise into addressing this issue and arriving at universal solutions. Some of these initiators have laid an example that large quantities and varieties of wastes and industrial by-products have a potential for use in the construction industry. The utilization of these waste materials may therefore reduce the need to quarry natural materials and minimize the hazards caused by the tipping or other method of disposal of the waste material. One such material which has tremendous potential for recycle and reuse in construction related activities is tyre rubber. Appropriate recycling of rubber waste can help in resolving a challenging environmental, economical, and social problem. This project is an attempt at documenting the prevalent applications of rubber waste, and also bringing forth various innovative and path breaking products and solutions. Concrete is considered the world’s most used construction materials. The consumption of waste material can be increased manifold if these are used as aggregate into concrete. This type of use of waste material can solve problems of lack of aggregate in various construction sites & also reduce sort of concrete production. This Project focuses on the coarse aggregate in concrete. Rubber is used because of their easy availability & non-biodegradable waste. Not only in India but in other countries also, the amount of waste tyres is increasing due to increased number of vehicles. The waste tyres are produced every day, therefore the demand for more effective applications for recycling waste them is intense.
  5. 5. The development of environmentally accepted methods of used tire disposal is one of the greatest challenges that we face today. Using of wastes and by-products as concrete aggregate has attained great potential in the last few years. The aim of this work is to investigate the possibility of the usage of ground waste tire rubber in the civil construction as a partial replacement for coarse aggregates and the influence of these wastes on the properties of ordinary concrete. In this study an attempt has been made to identify the various properties necessary for the design of concrete mix with the coarse tyre rubber chips as aggregate in a systematic manner. In the present experimental investigation, the M25 grade concrete has been chosen as the reference concrete specimen. Scrap tyre rubber chips, in sizes 20-10 mm, 10-4.75 mm has been used as coarse aggregate with the replacement of conventional coarse aggregate in concrete paver. Rubberized concrete incorporating treated rubber particles gives better results than concrete incorporating normal rubber. Here one treated material, Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl 4) is used for treatment the ground waste tire rubber to improve the interface friction between rubber particles and cement matrix. This work is conducted to evaluate the behavior and performance of rubber-concrete in comparison with the traditional one. PAVER BLOCKS
  6. 6. INTRODUCTION There is considerable national interest in using waste or recycled materials as aggregates for cement concrete. The pressures experienced on landfills and the hazardous nature of some of these materials makes the use of these materials as aggregates a very attractive option. The scarcity and availability at reasonable rates of sand and aggregate are now giving anxiety to the construction industry. Over years, deforestation and extraction of natural aggregates from river beds, lakes and other water bodies have resulted in huge environmental problems. Erosion of the existing topography usually results in flooding and landslides. Moreover, the filtration of rain water achieved by deposits of natural sand is being lost, thereby causing contamination of water reserves used for human consumption. Hence, to prevent pollution authorities are imposing more and more stringent restrictions on the extraction of natural aggregates and its crushing. The aggregates typically account for 70–80 % of the concrete volume and play a substantial role in different concrete properties such as workability, strength, dimensional stability and durability. Conventional concrete consists of sand as fine aggregate and gravel, limestone or granite in various sizes and shapes as coarse aggregate. There is a growing interest in using waste materials as alternative aggregate materials and significant research is made on the use of many different materials as aggregate substitutes such as coal ash, blast furnace slag, fibre glass waste materials, waste plastics, rubber waste, sintered sludge pellets and others. The consumption of waste materials can be increased manifold if these are used as aggregate into cement mortar and concrete. This type of use of a waste material can solve problems of lack of aggregate in various construction sites and reduce environmental problems related to aggregate mining and waste disposal. The use of waste aggregates can also reduce the cost of the concrete production. As the aggregates can significantly control the properties of concrete, the properties of the aggregates have a great importance. Therefore a thorough evaluation is necessary before using any waste material as aggregate in concrete. Significant work has been done on the use of several types of waste materials as an aggregate in preparation of cement mortar and concrete. In this section, various properties of some waste materials used as aggregate will be presented.
  7. 7. According to the consensus, the total waste generated by the people in urban areas is around 40 million tones per year. The composition of this waste varies from biodegradable organic vegetable matter to inorganic materials like metal and rubber. No official or enforced system of segregation at source has been put in place, either by recycling or reuse, but some persons have found great use for the waste and thus nowadays whatever can be used or recycled is taken out of the garbage before throwing it away Rubber is one of the most difficult materials to recycle and the safe disposal and reuse of industrial and consumer rubber waste continues to pose a serious threat to environmental safety and health. Dumping of heaps of mountains of used tires confirm the belief that chemically cross linked rubber is one of the most difficult materials to recycle. That coupled with a long history of failed attempts to create quality products from rubber has resulted in such a resistance to new ideas concerning rubber recycling. Rubber waste has basically three main sources in India namely: Used Automobile Tyres, Rubber scrap and Foot wear. In the past few decades India has witnessed an increasing number of initiatives and programs by the government as well as individuals , community organizations, NGO’s and private companies towards improving the existing waste management systems in the country. But the fact is these efforts are not enough and much more needs to be done. Apart from the domestically generated waste, there are severe problems being faced by developing countries like ours regarding waste being dumped by developed nations. Due to the short sighted understanding of the authorities regarding is long term ecological impacts, the waste from land starved developed nations is imported as a trade of land for returns in kind. These are largely in terms of recyclable/reusable materials, but in some cases they may also contain toxic and hazardous waste. Average import of rubber waste in India from other countries is around 11 tons which is 5 million rupees in value. The best way to overcome this problem is to find alternate aggregates for construction in place of conventional natural aggregates. Rubber aggregates from discarded tyre rubber in sizes 20-10 mm, 10-4.75 mm can be partially replaced natural aggregates in cement concrete construction. About one crore 10 lakhs all types of new vehicles are added each year to the Indian roads. The increase of about three crore discarded tyres each year poses a potential threat to the environment.
  8. 8. Most publications in the field of rubber concrete dealt with this subject as an environmental issue to utilize and recycle waste rubber tires. Inspite of this fact, rubber concrete could be regarded as a special concrete manufactured due to its enhanced toughness and ductility properties that are required in many applications like in railway buffers, jersey barriers and bunkers. Early investigations on the use of waste rubber tires in concrete or mortar mixtures had been very encouraging. Therefore it was decided to produce rubber-concrete mixtures with optimized mechanical properties. And further to verify its behavior when employed in a full-scale structural beam element tested statically in flexure and its contribution to the dynamic characteristics of the structural beam element tested dynamically by modal testing. Also, the waste tyre rubbers are used as a fuel in many of the industries such as thermal power plant, cement kilns and brick kilns etc. Unfortunately, this kind of usage is not environment friendly and requires high cost. Thus, the use of waste tyre rubber in the preparation of concrete has been thought as an alternative disposal of such waste to protect the environment. It has been observed that the rubberized concrete may be used in places where desired deformability or toughness is more important than strength like the road foundations and bridge barriers. Apart from these the rubberized concrete having the reversible elasticity properties may also be used as a material with tolerable damping properties to reduce or to minimize the structural vibration under impact effects. The difficulties associated to the theoretical investigations to identify the mechanical properties of the rubberized concrete have necessitated the need for the experimental investigations on rubberized concrete. Therefore, in this study an attempt has been made to identify the various properties necessary for the design of concrete mix with the coarse tyre rubber chips as aggregate in a systematic manner. There are numerous research reports available on the mechanical and chemical properties of cement concrete. However, the research works carried out for the rubberized cement concrete are found to be limited. The available results indicate that the influence of the size, proportion and surface texture of rubber particle on the strength of concrete contaminating tyre rubber is significant.
  9. 9. During the last three decades, there have been dramatic changes in the way of thinking about industrial processes and the approach and evaluation of new and innovative materials. Concrete, in its most basic form, is one of the world’s oldest building materials. Concrete is a substance composed of only a few simple and commonly available ingredients that when properly mixed and cured, may last for centuries. Concrete is an evolving material as well. New techniques and methods for selecting the right quantities of those simple components are continually being presented to he design community. New ingredients to include in concrete mixes are also constantly being researched and developed. In general, concrete has low tensile strength, low ductility, and low energy absorption. Concrete also tends to shrink and crack during the hardening and curing process. These limitations are constantly being tested with hopes of improvement by the introduction of new admixtures and aggregates used in the mix. One such method may be the introduction of rubber to the concrete mix. Shredded or crumbed rubber is waste being of non-biodegradable and poses severe fire, environmental and health risks. Rubber filled concrete tends to have a reduction in slump and density compared to ordinary concrete. The reduction is very much on slump has been reported when comparing with the conventional concrete. Concrete containing rubber aggregate has a higher energy absorbing capacity referred as toughness. A typical passenger car tyre contains 24 to 28% of carbon black, 40 to 48% of natural rubber and 36 to 24% of synthetic rubber including Styrene Butadiene Rubbers (SBR) and Butyl Rubber (BR). These need to be recovered back from tyres least they are wasted away. Currently India producing 90 thousand metric ton of the reclaimed rubber, which is sold at Rs. 25 to 30 per kg but does not produced carbon black and oil from used tyres.
  10. 10. The objective of this study is to test the properties of concrete when waste tyre rubber used as aggregate by partial replacement of natural aggregates. The parameters of this investigation are compressive strength. Moulds of Paver Block are casted for the testing of concrete. The concrete having compressive strength of 25 N/mm2 (M25) is used and percentages of rubber aggregates are 2, 4 & 8 of normal aggregates. The natural aggregates are replaced by rubber aggregates on weighing basis. The strength performance of modified concrete specimens was compared with the conventional concrete. Before the plant trial production, preliminary laboratory trials were conducted. The results in laboratory trials are further given. Rubberized concrete incorporating treated rubber particles gives better results than concrete incorporating normal rubber. Here one treated materials, Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) are used for treatment the ground waste tire rubber to improve the interface friction between rubber particles and cement matrix. CAR TYRE USED
  11. 11. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS – Cement – The cement used for the present investigation was Ordinary Portland Cement Grade – 43. It is conformed to the requirement of Indian Standard specification IS 456 (2000). The results are given in Table below. Sr.No. Name of Test IS Standard Result 1 Fineness 7.83 % - 2 Standard Consistency 32 % Calculated according to clause 11.3 IS - 269. 3 Initial Setting Time Minimum 30 minutes 110 minutes 4 Final setting Time Maximum 600 minutes - 5 Compressive Strength 16 18 22 24.5 33 36 after 3 days MPa 6 Compressive Strength after 7 days MPa 3 Compressive Strength after 28 days MPa OPC – 43 GRADE (JAYPEE CEMENT)
  12. 12. Fineness of Cement Sr.No. Description Unit Trail 1 Trail 2 Trail 3 1 Weight of cement W1 gm 100 100 1 00 2 Weight of cement retained on gm 8 7.5 8 90 micron sieve W2 3 Sieve Time min 15 15 15 4 Retained Percentage % 8 7.5 8 (W1/W2)*100 5 Average Percentage of fineness % 7.83 of cement Standard Consistency of Ordinary Portland cement Sr.No. Wt. of cement Volume of % of water Needle Duration of (gm) water (ml) in mix Penetration Time (min) 1 400 112 28 28 3.5 2 400 120 30 31 4 3 400 128 32 34 4 Standard Consistency = 32 % According to clause 11.3 IS 269 the quantity of water required to produce a paste of standard consistency, to be used for the determination of water content of mortar for compressive strength tests and for the determination of Soundness and Setting time shall be obtained by the method described in IS 4031 (Part 4): 1988.
  13. 13. Initial & Final Setting Time Wt. of cement = 400 gm Wt. of water = 0.85 P = 108.8 gm Where P is the standard Consistency of cement Sr.No. Time (min) Penetration (mm) 1 10 40 2 20 40 3 30 40 4 50 40 5 110 35 Initial Setting Time = 110 min Final Setting Time = According to clause 6.3 of IS 269 the setting time of the cements, when tested by the Vicat apparatus method described in IS 4931 (Part 5): 1988 shall conform to the following requirements: a) Initial setting time in minutes, not less than 30; and b) Final setting time in minutes, not more than 600. VICAT APPRATUS
  14. 14. Compressive Strength of Ordinary Portland cement Sr. No. Compressive Strength Value in MPa 1 Compressive Strength after 3 days MPa 18 2 Compressive Strength after 7 days MPa 24.5 3 Compressive Strength after 28 days MPa 36 According to Clause 6.4 of IS 269 the average compressive strength of at least three mortar cubes (area of face 50 cm) composed of one part of cement, three parts of standard sand (conforming to IS 650: 1966) by mass and {(P/4) +3} percent (of combined mass of cement plus sand) water and prepared, stored and tested in the manner described in IS 4031 (Part 6): 1988 shall be as follows: a) 72 hour: not less than 16 MPa, b) 168 hours: not less than 22 MPa, and c) 672 hours: not less than 33 MPa. NOTE: P is the percentage of water required to produce 3 paste of standard consistency. COMPRESSION TESTING MACHINE (CTM)
  15. 15. Aggregates Natural river sand with a maximum size of 4.75 mm was used as fine aggregate. Crushed stone with a maximum size of 20 mm was used as coarse aggregate. It was tested as per Indian Standard specification IS: 383(1970). The physical properties of aggregate were tested according to IS: 2386(1963). The physical properties of fine and coarse aggregate are presented in table below. Coarse Aggregates – COARSE AGGREGATES Sieve Analysis of Coarse Aggregate Sample No.:1 Weight of sample = 5000 gm Sieve Size Weight Cumulative weight % Cumulative % Passing (mm) Retained (gm) retained (gm) weight retained 40 0 0 0 100 20 57.5 57.5 1.15 98.85 10 3169 3226.5 64.53 35.47 4.75 1663 4889.5 97.79 2.21 2.36 110.5 5000 100 0
  16. 16. Sample No.:2 Weight of sample = 5000 gm Sieve Size Weight Cumulative weight % Cumulative % Passing (mm) Retained (gm) retained (gm) weight retained 40 0 0 0 100 20 73.5 73.5 1.47 98.53 10 3296 3369.5 67.39 32.61 4.75 1573.5 4943 98.86 1.14 2.36 57 5000 100 0 % Passing Sample No.:3 Weight of sample = 5000 gm Sieve Size Weight Cumulative weight % Cumulative (mm) Retained (gm) retained (gm) weight retained 40 0 0 0 100 20 68.5 68.5 1.37 98.63 10 3575.5 3644 72.88 27.12 4.75 1284.5 4928.5 98.57 1.43 2.36 71.5 5000 100 0 Grading Limits of 20 mm nominal size for coarse aggregate (IS: 383-1970 Table 3) IS sieve size 40 20 10 4.75 2.36 100 95-100 25-55 0-10 - (mm) % Passing This is the graded aggregate of 20 mm nominal size.
  17. 17. Aggregate Impact Value Sr.No. Description Test 1 Test 2 Test 3 1 Weight of sample passing 341 343 341 66 70 66.5 19.35 20.41 19.59 through 12.5 mm and retained on 10 mm IS sieve W1 in gm 2 Weight of fraction passing 2.36 mm sieve after test W2 in gm 3 Aggregate Impact Value (A.I.V) = (W2/W1)*100 in % 4 Average value of A.I.V 19.75 According to clause 3.4 of IS 383 the aggregate impact value shall not exceed 45 percent by weight for aggregates used for concrete other than for wearing surfaces and 30 percent by weight for concrete for wearing surfaces, such as runways, roads and pavements. IS SIEVES USED
  18. 18. Bulk Density of Coarse Aggregate Dia. Of cylinder = 15 cm Ht. of cylinder = 17.5 cm Vol. of cylinder (V) = 3092.505 Cu. Cm Sr.No. Description Trail 1 Trail 2 1 Loaded Weight W1 gm 5173.5 5147 2 Loose Weight W2 gm 4708 4715 3 Loaded Bulk Density = 1.67 1.66 1.52 1.52 W1 / V (gm / cu. cm) 4 Loose Bulk Density = W2 / V (gm / cu. cm) 5 Avg. Loaded Bulk Density 1.665 (gm / cu. cm) 6 Avg. Loose Bulk Density 1.52 (gm / cu. cm) The aggregate has unit weight of 1520 – 1680 kg/cu. m is Normal Weight aggregate. WEIGHING BALANCE
  19. 19. Specific Gravity & Water Absorption of Coarse Aggregate Sr.No. Description Test 1 Test 2 1 Weight of saturated aggregate and 1350 1400 basket in water W1 in gm 2 Weight of basket in water W2 in gm 500 500 2 Weight of saturated surface dry 1352 1425 1334.5 1409 2.66 2.68 1.3 1.13 aggregate in air W3 in gm 3 Weight of oven dry aggregate in air W4 in gm 4 Specific Gravity = W4/[W3-(W1 – W2)] 5 Water Absorption (%) = 100*(W3 – W4)/W4 6 Average Specific Gravity 2.67 7 Average Water Absorption (%) 1.2 1. The specific gravity of aggregates ranges from 2.5 to 3.0. The aggregate has specific gravity between 2.5 – 2.7 is Normal Weight aggregate. 2. The water absorption of aggregates ranges from 0.1 to 2.0%. STORED COARSE AGGREGATES
  20. 20. Fine Aggregate Specific Gravity of Fine Aggregate Sr.No. Description Unit Trail 1 Trail 2 Trail 3 1 Wt of Empty Pycnometer gm 618.5 644.5 644.5 gm 1061.5 1068.5 1078.5 gm 1790 1774.5 1784.5 gm 1518.5 1516 1514.5 (W1) 2 Wt of Pycnometer + Dry Sand (W2) 3 Wt of Pycnometer + Soil + Water (W3) 4 Wt of Pycnometer + Water (W4) 5 W2 – W1 gm 449 424 434 6 W3 – W4 gm 271.5 258.5 270 7 Specific Gravity = _ 2.52 2.56 2.64 (5) / (5 – 6) 8 Avg. Specific Gravity 2.57 The aggregate has specific gravity between 2.5 – 2.7 is Normal Weight aggregate. FINE SAND
  21. 21. Water – Water used in concrete is free from sewage, oil, acids, strong alkalies or vegetable matter, clay & loam. The water used is Potable, and is satisfactory to use in concrete. POTABLE WATER Rubber – Tyre used was of car tyres. Car tyres are different from other tyres with regard to constituent materials & properties. Rubber aggregates from discarded tyre rubber in sizes 20-10 mm, 104.75 mm are used as replacement for natural aggregates in cement concrete. The percentage of rubber mixed is 2, 4 & 8 of normal aggregates. The natural aggregates are replaced by rubber aggregates on weighing basis. The strength performance of modified concrete specimens was compared with the conventional concrete. Here one treated materials, Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) are used for treatment the ground waste tire rubber to improve the interface friction between rubber particles and cement matrix.
  23. 23. Concrete Mix Design (IS Method) The concrete mix is designed as per IS 456-2000. Below Table presents the quantities of mix proportions for one cubic meter of concrete & one cement bag. Designing M25 Concrete Mix – Grade Designing M25 Type of Cement OPC – 43 Grade conforming to IS 8112 Degree of workability Medium slump – 75 to 100 mm or 0.9 CF Degree of quality control Weigh batching occasional supervision no past experience S= 5.5 MPA Fine Aggregate Coarse Aggregate Specific Gravity 2.57 2.67 Bulk Density - 1520 Free surface moisture - 1.2 % 20 mm Maximum nominal size River sand Crushed Rock (Zone IV) Type (Angular) Solution Target mean strength ft = fck + hs = 25 + (1.65 x 5.5) = 34 MPa Water Cement Ratio From compressive strength curve = 0.42 Durability consideration = 0.50
  24. 24. Selection water cement Ratio = 0.42 For 20 mm - Water content = 186 kg/m3 Proportion of sand = 35 % For medium strength concrete (For medium strength concrete i.e. Water cement ratio = 0.6 and workability = 0.8 CF) Adjustments Water Sand For reduction in water cement ratio by 0.18 - - 3.6 For increase in compaction factor by 0.1 CF +3 - - - +3 - 6.6 For sand conforming to Zone IV Total adjustment Therefore Water content = 186 x 1.03 = 192 Kg/m3 Sand proportion = 35 – 6.6 = 28.4 % Air entrapped content for 20 mm aggregate is 2% Hence, cement content = (192 /0.42) = 457.14 = 457 kg/m3 As calculated cement content is more than then the minimum cement content of 300 kg/m 3 for RCC. Proportions of fine and coarse aggregate Total absolute volume of aggregate Va = 1 – = 0.643 0.02 + {4.57 / (3.15 x 1000)} + {192 / 1000}
  25. 25. For ratio of fine aggregate to total aggregate by absolute volume of 0.284, the absolute volumes of fine and coarse aggregate per unit volume of concrete are Vfa = pVa = 0.284 x 0.643 = 0.183 m3 Vca = (1-p) Va = (1 - 0.284) 0.643 = 0.460 m3 Therefore quantities of saturated surface dry fine and coarse aggregates are Mix proportions by (Saturated surface dry) mass Cement Water Fine Aggregates Coarse Aggregates 4.57 192 470 1228 1 0.42 1.03 2.69 Adjustment for aggregate moisture Weight of fine aggregate = 470 x 1.02 = 480 kg Weight of coarse aggregate = 1228 x 1.01 = 1240 kg Free water present in fine and coarse aggregates = 470x 0.02 + 1228 x0.01 = 21.7 kg Therefore, the amount of water to be added = 192 – 21.7 = 170 kg
  26. 26. EXPERIMENTAL PROCEDURE, MATERIALS AND MIXES A. Ordinary Portland Cement (OPC) 43-Grade as per IS: 456-2000 Compressive strength: 7Days = 18 N/mm2, 28- days = 36 N/mm2. B. River sand and 20 mm crushed aggregate as given in table above. C. Waste tyre rubber of car is obtained from local market.
  27. 27. D. Rubber from tyre is then cut into sizes of 20-10 mm, 10-4.75 mm which used as replacement for natural aggregates. E. These pieces were cleaned with soap water and rinse with clean water. After drying under sun at open place, these pieces were then cut as per the grading. F. The Plastic molds are washed with movable oil so as concrete and colour pigments (if added) do-not stick to the inner surface of molds. These should apply to the inner surface of the plastic molds including its wall and all corners using a cotton swab or cloth.
  28. 28. G. Concrete mix is then prepared with different proportions 2, 4 & 8 percentages of rubber in natural aggregates. H. During mixing one treated material, Carbon Tetrachloride (CCl4) is used for treatment the ground waste tire rubber to improve the interface friction between rubber particles and cement matrix. I. The water used is Potable during mixing, and is satisfactory to use in concrete. WEIGHING WATER CONTENT J. Plastic molds now filled with concrete mix having rubber and passed through the vibrating table to release any entrapped air to increase its strength. VIBRATING MACHINE K. Plastic molds are levelled properly to ensure that it is completely filled with the concrete mix.
  29. 29. L. These molds are finally kept for final setting time for about 10 – 12 hours. M. After final setting time, the rubber concrete paver blocks are carefully released from the plastic molds N. Observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage sign. O. These now kept for curing for the required number of days (7, 14 or 28) P. Every time, observe the finish of concrete paver block and its corners for any damage sign. Q. In case the quality of concrete paver block is fine, continue producing concrete paver blocks, until it is found to be non-satisfactory in terms of proper release.
  30. 30. R. After curing these are tested for the Compressive strength in Compression Testing Machine (CTM). S. All results are then collected and compared with the ordinary strength of concrete.
  31. 31. Conclusion – 1. Slump value is decreased as the percentage of replacement of scrap tyre rubber increased. So decrease in workability. 2. The compressive strength is decreased as the percentage of replacement increased. 3. Lack of proper bonding between rubber and cement paste matrix hence the Carbon Tetrachloride chemical used for adhesive bonding between cement & rubber. 4. Movable oil showed good release properties when Plastic molds was used. 5. May lead to cost reduction on wastage, damaged concrete block inventory and its disposal. 6. The addition of rubber aggregate in concrete mixes reduces the concrete density, which can be utilized in light weight concrete. 7. From experimental study and literature review it can be concluded that despite the reduced compressive strength of rubberized concrete in comparison to conventional concrete there is a potential large market for concrete products in which inclusion of rubber aggregates would be feasible which will utilize the discarded rubber tyres the disposal of which is a environment pollution problem. 8. In India out of 36 tyre manufacturers the tyre recyclers are very few. 9. The tyre recycling factories should supply quality rubber aggregates in 20-10mm, 10-4.75mm and 4.75mm down sizes to be used as cement concrete aggregate. 10. The light unit weight qualities of rubberized concrete may be suitable for architectural application, stone baking, interior construction, in building as an earthquake shock wave absorber, where vibration damping is required such as in foundation pads for machinery railway station, where resistance to impact or explosion is required. 11. The mixtures exhibited high impact resistance up to 2.8 times that of the control (ordinary) mixtures. 12. The beam showed highly extensibility and ductility, and gave sample warning prior to failure. 13. The use of residues is also beneficial to environment, as it can greatly reduce the accumulation of discarded waste tyre
  32. 32. Advantages of Rubber Paver Blocks – A. These articles are gaining importance and popularity in building material segment. Currently used for many purposes like, concrete/plaster castings, precast tiles, stones and bricks, concrete splash blocks, gutter block molds, precast concrete paver blocks etc. B. Recycled rubber pavers can be ordered in custom colours and shapes, so they are versatile. They can be manufactured to be flexible, and so can be a more resilient surface over tree roots than traditional paving materials. C. The benefits of using it instead of conventional construction materials are amongst others are reduced density, improved drainage properties and better thermal insulation. D. Among the wide variety of commercial applications, the following prevalent applications have exhibited a growing market potential: I. II. Flooring for pavements, athletic fields & industrial facilities Acoustic barriers III. Rail crossings, ties and buffers IV. Lightweight fill for embankments and retaining walls V. Insulating layer beneath roads and behind retaining walls E. They work as well as a surface for both indoor and outdoor play areas. F. They can provide an easily cleaned surface for animal walkways and bedding, particularly for horse barns and kennels. G. They are also useful in deck surfacing, walkways, and garden paths and as flooring material for exercise spaces. H. Recycled rubber paver blocks are easy to install. They do not require pouring, and the modular nature of the product allows for easy estimation of the amount needed to cover a surface. I. They are eco-friendly, as rubber paver blocks remove excess waste tires from landfills and put them to good use. The forgiving nature of the rubber surface makes it a safe material, particularly for flooring for children and the elderly and in areas where there is the risk of long drops or falls. J. Eliminate usual laborious construction process, wherever not required. K. Eliminate extra cost. L. Very smooth finish possible can be matte or gloss finish; good aesthetic look and serve as a decorative article.
  33. 33. M. Save time and energy as these paver blocks are ready to use therefore overall cost effective process. N. Generally self - cleansing. O. Markings on concrete block surfaces have been done using traditional paint or thermoplastic materials. Maintenance of these markings is difficult and costly. The frequency at which repainting has to be done is very high. Further more the visibility of these markings was poor during night due to lack of luminance factor. Reflective rubber pavers can be used for various applications, in both commercial and residential constructions. P. Pavers have become so popular for use around the house and gardens, due to the increasing varieties available on the market today. There are hundreds of colors and shades available in pavers, as well as, shapes, designs and sizes. Q. Paver walkways are versatile, durable, long lasting and heavy duty. Walkways provide practical guidance to your visitors, offering a safe direction around your property. They are safe, slip resistant and easy to maintain with sweeping and washing. R. Interlocking Paver blocks has the unique ability to transfer loads and stresses laterally by means of an arching of bridging between units. It’s most popular because of the unlimited variety of pleasing patterns and coloured schemes. S. Paving blocks are increasingly used not only in walks ways & jogging tracks but also in entire building compounds, storage yards, petrol stations, swimming pool decks, parking lots and other landscaping areas. T. Highly wear-resistant in nature, durability and economy, spreading the load over a large area, reduces the stress thereby allowing heavier loads and traffic over sub-bases which normally would require heavily reinforced concrete. U. Paving blocks floors can be made in any design or shape desired. The blocks are made in both single and double layers to endure both beauty and strength of the product. V. Within each of the paver categories, the main considerations of cost are determined by the cost of the materials, the processes involved, and the labor or man hours that are required to complete the job. W. Adequate skid resistance for vehicles and anti-slip element for pedestrian areas. X. Immediate use after laying and large life spans. Y. These are unaffected by oil and other toxic substances. Z. The maintenance requirements are low. Where maintenance must be carried out, it can be done with a minimum of equipment.
  34. 34. Disadvantages of Rubber Paver Blocks – A. The white patches, colour variation were observed on the paver block surface. B. Customer was unhappy as the damaged concrete paver block inventory kept increasing over time. It resulted into short supply of finished products and increase in delivery time to their end users. C. Rubber paver blocks do not appear as natural as stone paving materials. D. Like all paving materials, recycled rubber pavers will eventually degrade, and their colours will fade with time. E. They are harder to find than traditional paving materials, and may have to be ordered online. F. Since recycled paver blocks are modular, debris will accumulate in the seams as they are trafficked, and this can be difficult to remove. G. Customer using different solvent and chemicals from the local formulator. However, release properties were poor and consistency was the issue. CURING OF PAVER BLOCKS
  35. 35. SUMMARY – The review presented in this report clearly indicates an increasing trend and incentive for the greater use of recycled aggregates in construction. There are, however, limitations to the use such materials. This report focuses on known benefits and limitations of a range of manufactured and recycled aggregates. Successful strategy must be based on both cost and performance. In terms of performance, many countries are focusing on recycled concrete aggregates (RCA) which is proven to be practical for non-structural concretes and to a limited extent for some structural-grade concrete. However, the processing and quality control cost associated with their use plus the premium paid for mix design adjustment to achieve the same strength grade as concrete with natural aggregates can vary considerably. In India, recycling of waste tyre rubber is not done in large amount. Hence there is continues increase in the non-biodegradable waste. So these should be used by different method so as to not only safe our environment but also utilize it for our day to day needs.
  36. 36. REFERENCES IS: 456 (2000). Indian Standard Plain and Reinforced Concrete Code of Practice. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS: 383 (1970). Indian Standard Specification for Coarse and Fine aggregates from Natural Sources for Concrete (Second Revision). Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS: 10262 (1982). Recommended Guidelines for Concrete Mix Design. Bureau of Indian standards, New Delhi. IS: 516 (1959). Indian Standard Method of Tests for Strength of Concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS: 5816 (1999). Indian Standard Splitting Tensile Strength of Concrete-Methods of Test. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS: 2386 (1963). Indian Standard Methods of Test for Aggregates for Concrete. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS: 455 (1989). Indian Standard Specification for Portland Slag Cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. IS: 4031(1996). Indian Standard Method of Physical Tests for Hydraulic Cement. Bureau of Indian Standards, New Delhi. Eldin N.N. & Senouci A.B. - “Rubber tire particles as concrete aggregates”, ASCE Journal of materials in Civil Engineering, 1993, 5(4), 478-496. Topeu I.B. “The properties of rubberized concrete” cement and concrete research 1995, 25(2), 304-310. IS: 8112-1989 - “Specifications f or 43 Grade ordinary Portland cement” (First revision) BIS, New Delhi. Fatuli, N.L. and Clark, N.A. “Cement Based materials containing tire rubber” construction building materials, 1996, vol. 10, No. 4, pp229-236. concrete. Kishore Kaushal - “Manual of Concrete Mix Design based on IS: 456-2000”. Standard Publishers Distributors, 1705-B, Nai Sarak, New Delhi-110006.