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Atelectasis (collapse)

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Atelectasis (collapse)

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Atelectasis (collapse)

  1. 1. ATELECTASIS (COLLAPSE) RESPIRATORY SYSTEM
  2. 2. ATELECTASIS • Defined as the – “Collapse of pulmonary parenchyma” – Loss of lung volume • Caused by inadequate expansion of airspaces. • Results in shunting of inadequately oxygenated blood from pulmonary arteries into veins • Giving rise to a ventilation-perfusion imbalance and hypoxia.
  3. 3. ATELECTASIS • Could be due to – Incomplete expansion of a lung or part of a lung in the newborn • Primary atelectasis OR Neonatal atelectasis – The collapse of previously inflated lung • Secondary atelectasis OR Acquired atelectasis
  4. 4. ATELECTASIS Secondary atelectasis / Acquired atelectasis According to the underlying mechanism Three forms 1. Resorption Atelectasis 2. Compression Atelectasis 3. Contraction Atelectasis
  5. 5. ATELECTASIS • Resorption Atelectasis
  6. 6. RESORPTION ATELECTASIS • Due to obstruction that prevents air from reaching distal airways. • Air already present gradually absorbed- alveolar collapse follows. • Depending on the level of obstruction, –an entire lung, –a complete lobe, –or one or more segments may be involved.
  7. 7. RESORPTION ATELECTASIS • Common cause; obstruction of a bronchus by a mucous or mucopurulent plug in; –Postoperative states –Bronchial asthma –Bronchiectasis –Chronic bronchitis –Or the aspiration of foreign bodies, particularly in children.
  8. 8. COMPRESSION ATELECTASIS
  9. 9. COMPRESSION ATELECTASIS; Also c/a passive or relaxation atelectasis Pleural effusions: –congestive heart failure (CHF), neoplastic effusions, tuberculosis • Basal atelectasis; resulting from the elevated position of the diaphragm in; • bedridden patients, patients with ascites, and patients during and after surgery.
  10. 10. CONTRACTION ATELECTASIS
  11. 11. CONTRACTION ATELECTASIS –Local or generalized fibrotic changes in the lung or pleura may prevent full expansion
  12. 12. ATELECTASIS • Atelectasis (except that caused by contraction) –is potentially reversible due to collapse lung parenchyma can be re-expanded –and should be treated promptly to prevent hypoxemia and superimposed infection of the collapsed lung.
  13. 13. Pulmonary Edema
  14. 14. Left Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema • LVF occurs when the left ventricle fails to function as an effective forward pump, causing a back-pressure of blood into the pulmonary circulation • May be caused by a variety of forms of heart disease including ischemic, valvular, and hypertensive heart disease • Untreated, significant LVF culminates in pulmonary edema
  15. 15. Left Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema • Signs and symptoms – Severe respiratory distress – Severe apprehension, agitation, confusion – Cyanosis (if severe) – Diaphoresis – Adventitious lung sounds – JVD – Abnormal vital signs
  16. 16. Left Heart Failure and Pulmonary Edema • Signs and symptoms – Severe respiratory distress – Severe apprehension, agitation, confusion – Cyanosis (if severe) – Diaphoresis – Adventitious lung sounds – JVD – Abnormal vital signs
  17. 17. Acute Pulmonary Edema • May be CARDIAC or NON-CARDIAC in origin. • Results from conditions such as: – Increased pulmonary capillary pressure – Increased pulmonary capillary permeability – Decreased oncotic pressure – Lymphatic insufficiency – mixed or unknown mechanisms

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