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By: M. Suleiman Aljajeh
1
2014-2015
1. Definition
2. Types
3. Clinical features
4. Risk factors
5. Diagnosis
6. Treatment
7. Complications
2
 “Pneumothorax : is an abnormal
collection of air or gas in the pleural
space separating the lung from
the chest wall whi...
1. Spontaneous pneumothorax:
 Primary: It occurs in young healthy
individuals without underlying lung
disease. It is due ...
2. Traumatic pneumothorax:
 Open: Chest wall is damaged by any wound -
-outside air enters pleural space and causes
lungs...
3. Tension pneumothorax:
 It is life threatening condition…The pleural
pressure is more than the atmospheric pressure.
 ...
7
The pleural cavity
pressure is < the
atmospheric
pressure
The pleural cavity
pressure is = the
atmospheric
pressure
The pl...
 Predominant symptom is acute pleuritic chest pain
 Dyspnoea results form pulmonary compression
 On physical examinatio...
10
11
 Sex : men are far more likely to have a pneumothorax than
are women.
 Smoking.
 Age.The type of pneumothorax caused by...
 The characteristics of
pneumothorax
 Pleural line
 No lung markings in
pneumothorax
13
 A further use of CT is in the identification of
underlying lung lesions
14
Goals :
To promote lung expansion.
To eliminate the pathogenesis.
To decrease pneumothorax
recurrence.
 Treatment options...
16
17
18
Complications of pneumothorax
Recurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax
Tension pneumothorax
Hydropneumothorax
Encysted pneum...
20
21
1. Kumar and Clark Clinical Medicine
2. USMLE Step 2 CK
3. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
22
23
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Pneumothorax

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Pneumothorax

  1. 1. By: M. Suleiman Aljajeh 1 2014-2015
  2. 2. 1. Definition 2. Types 3. Clinical features 4. Risk factors 5. Diagnosis 6. Treatment 7. Complications 2
  3. 3.  “Pneumothorax : is an abnormal collection of air or gas in the pleural space separating the lung from the chest wall which may interfere with normal breathing, causing the lungs to collapse.” 3
  4. 4. 1. Spontaneous pneumothorax:  Primary: It occurs in young healthy individuals without underlying lung disease. It is due to rupture of apical sub- pleural bleb.  Secondary: occurs in the presence of pre- existing lung pathology. Ex : Cystic lung disease ,COPD, LUNG CANCER &T.B 4
  5. 5. 2. Traumatic pneumothorax:  Open: Chest wall is damaged by any wound - -outside air enters pleural space and causes lungs to collapse.  Closed: here chest wall is punctured or air leaks from a ruptured bronchus  Iatrogenic : Ex. Postoperative Mechanical ventilation ,Thoracocentesis & Central venous cannulation . 5
  6. 6. 3. Tension pneumothorax:  It is life threatening condition…The pleural pressure is more than the atmospheric pressure.  Radiological manifestations of large pneumothorax : Mediastinal shift, Flattening of the hemidiaphragm & Lung collapse. Associated with clinical manifestations of circulatory collapse (tachycardia, hypotension & sweating). It is more common with  Positive pressure ventilation &  Traumatic pneumothorax. 6 ER
  7. 7. 7
  8. 8. The pleural cavity pressure is < the atmospheric pressure The pleural cavity pressure is = the atmospheric pressure The pleural cavity pressure is > the atmospheric pressure 8
  9. 9.  Predominant symptom is acute pleuritic chest pain  Dyspnoea results form pulmonary compression  On physical examination:  Breath sounds may be diminished on the affected side  Percussion of the chest may be perceived as hyperresonant.  Physical signs include  Tachypnoea  Increased resonance  Absent breath sounds  Hypoxemia  Cyanosis  Hypercapnia 9
  10. 10. 10
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12.  Sex : men are far more likely to have a pneumothorax than are women.  Smoking.  Age.The type of pneumothorax caused by ruptured air blisters is most likely to occur in people between 20 and 40 years old, especially if the person is a very tall and underweight man.  Genetics.  Lung disease. Having an underlying lung disease — especially chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) — makes a collapsed lung more likely.  Mechanical ventilation.  A history of pneumothorax. 12
  13. 13.  The characteristics of pneumothorax  Pleural line  No lung markings in pneumothorax 13
  14. 14.  A further use of CT is in the identification of underlying lung lesions 14
  15. 15. Goals : To promote lung expansion. To eliminate the pathogenesis. To decrease pneumothorax recurrence.  Treatment options :  Simple aspiration  Intercostal tube drainage  Guidewire tube thoracostomy  Surgical treatment 15
  16. 16. 16
  17. 17. 17
  18. 18. 18
  19. 19. Complications of pneumothorax Recurrence of spontaneous pneumothorax Tension pneumothorax Hydropneumothorax Encysted pneumothorax Failure of expansion of the collapsed lung Re-expansion pulmonary edema Broncho-pleural fistula Pneumomediastinum 19
  20. 20. 20
  21. 21. 21 1. Kumar and Clark Clinical Medicine 2. USMLE Step 2 CK 3. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine
  22. 22. 22
  23. 23. 23

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