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Axial skeleton

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Axial skeleton

  1. 1. The Skeletal SystemComposed ofthe 206 bonesin the humanbody!!
  2. 2. Skeletal SystemFunctions:1. Support – bears the weight of the body2. Protection- skull the brain, ribs=lungs3. Movement – muscles attach
  3. 3. Skeletal SystemFunctions:4. Storage*minerals such as calcium &phosphorus are stored andreleased from bone *fat in yellow bone marrow5. Hemopoiesis – makes blood cells in red bone marrow
  4. 4. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:1. Long bones  Longer than wide  Bear weight  Ex. femur
  5. 5. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:2. Short bones  About same length as width  Bear weight  Ex. Carpels of wrist and tarsals of ankle
  6. 6. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized byshape:3. Flat bones  Thin and usually curved  Protect brain and thoracic organs  Provide wide area muscle attachment  Ex. Ribs, skull, shoulder
  7. 7. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:4. Sesamoid  Small and round  Ex. Patella of knee
  8. 8. Skeletal System5 Types of bones categorized by shape:5. Irregular  Odd shaped and doesn’t fit other categories  Ex. vertebra
  9. 9. Skeletal SystemParts of the long bone:Two main parts:1. Epiphysis*Found on the ends*Spongy/Cancellous bone
  10. 10. Skeletal SystemParts of the long bone:Two main parts:2. Diaphysis• Shaft or long part• Is compact bone
  11. 11. Skeletal SystemTypes of bone tissue:1. Spongy bone/Cancellous bone  contains networks of bony plates with spaces - trabeculae  not as dense a compact bone
  12. 12. Skeletal SystemTypes of bone tissue:2. Compact bone  dense and hard  Shaft of bone
  13. 13. Skeletal SystemOther parts of long bone:Epiphyseal plate or growth plate:Is hyaline tissue where growth originates in those under 25 yrsEpiphyseal line – in adults the epiphyseal plate ossifies or hardens to bone tissue
  14. 14. Skeletal SystemOther parts of long bone:Sheaths – cover the bone a. endosteum – inner most; lines the medullary cavity b. periosteum – outer most; which contains blood vessels and nerves
  15. 15. Skeletal SystemMedullary cavity – central cavity of long bone where you find yellow or red bone marrow.Types of Marrow:1. Yellow bone marrow – stores fat2. Red bone marrow – produces red and white blood cells
  16. 16. Skeletal system is divided intotwo major sections: 1. Axial skeleton – • bones of central axis • Includes 80 bones • Includes: the skull, vertebral column, and thoracic cage
  17. 17. skullVertebral column Thoracic cage Vertebral column
  18. 18. Skeletal system divided into two major sections: 2. Appendicular skeleton – bones of upper and lower appendages and bones that attach them to the axial skeleton
  19. 19. Upper appendages and girdlesLower appendages and girdles
  20. 20. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ The Skeletal System Appendicular Skeleton includes: 1. Pectoral girdle  joins the upper limbs to the axial skeleton  Includes the clavicle (collar bone) and scapula(shoulder blade)
  21. 21. Appendicular skeleton includes: Pectoral Girdle
  22. 22. ______________________________________________________________________________________________________ Appendicular Skeleton includes : 2. Pelvic girdle  joins the lower limbs to the axial skeleton  Includes the 2 coxae , sacrum, coccyx  Coxae is formed by the fusion of 3 bones (ilium, pubis, and ischium)
  23. 23. Appendicular skeleton includes:Pelvic gridleNote three bones of coxae Coxae
  24. 24. Appendicular skeleton includes:Pelvic gridle Sacrum
  25. 25. Appendicular skeleton includes:Pelvic gridle coccyx
  26. 26. Appendicular skeleton includes:Lower appendages include:1. Femur Connects to pelvic girdle Strongest bone in body2. Tibia – larger inner bone of lower leg3. Fibula – smaller outer bone of lower leg
  27. 27. Bones of Lower Appendage
  28. 28. Appendicular skeleton includes:Lower appendages include:4. Patella Knee cap Acts as a lever to help move the leg
  29. 29. Appendicular skeleton includes:5. Bones of ankle and foot:•7 tarsus (ankle)•5 metatarsus (foot)•5 digits (foot) each with 3 phalanges– proximal, middle and distalphalanges except the big toe thathas only 2 phalanges only proximaland distal
  30. 30. Ankle and foot: Tarsus Tarsals proximal middle distal
  31. 31. Appendicular skeleton includes:Upper appendage includes:1. Humerus – upper bone that attaches limb to pectoral girdle2. Radius – small bone of lower arm that attaches to the thumbs3. Ulna – small bone that attaches to the little finger and the humerus
  32. 32. Bones of upper appendageHumerus
  33. 33. Appendicular skeleton includes: :Upper appendage includes4. Bones of wrist and hand• 8 carpals • 4 distal carpals • 4 proximal carpals • Articulation of carpals allows you to move the wrist
  34. 34. 5 Bones of the wrist and hand Carpels
  35. 35. Appendicular skeleton includes:Upper appendage includes :4. Bones of wrist and hand• 8 carpals• Metacarpals – 5 long bones of the hand numbered I-V from the medial to lateral(thumb to little finger)• Digits – made of phalanges • Three phalanges/finger except thumb has only 2 • Proximal, middle, distal
  36. 36. 5 Bones of the wrist and handMetacarpals
  37. 37. 5 Bones of the wrist and hand distal middle proximalPhalanges
  38. 38. Terminology:Proximal – means nearest thebodyDistal – means distant (away)from the body
  39. 39. Proximal and Distal
  40. 40. The Skeletal SystemDifferences between skeleton ofchild and adult:More bones in youth and fusetogether as adultEpiphyseal plate becomes lineRed bone marrow to yellowArticular cartilage thickens
  41. 41. The Skull or CraniumThe skull protects the brainand entrances to respiratoryand digestive systems.The skull has 28 bones.
  42. 42. The Skull Terminology: Posterior – back  Frontal – front Lateral - side Inferior – below Superior - above
  43. 43. Bones of the Cranium
  44. 44. Parietal There are twoLateral View
  45. 45. Occipital Only oneLateral View
  46. 46. Temporal There are twoLateral View
  47. 47. Sutures – lines or joints between theflat bones of the skulll
  48. 48. Sagittal suture – suture between thetwo parietal bones, space betweenwhen born that closes as develop.
  49. 49. PROCESSES – APROJECTION OF THE BONE MASTOID PROCESS –FOUND ON THE TEMPORALBONES WHERE MUSCLESATTACH.
  50. 50. Mastoid ProcessLateral View
  51. 51. Frontal View
  52. 52. FrontalFrontal View
  53. 53. NasalFrontal View
  54. 54. Vomer Frontal View
  55. 55. Zygomatic boneFrontal View
  56. 56. ZYGOMATIC ARCH –A PROCESS FROM THE ZYGOMATICBONE WHICH JOINS A PROCESS OF THETEMPORAL BONE FORMING AN ARCH.
  57. 57. Maxilla Frontal View
  58. 58. MandibleFrontal View
  59. 59. MANDIBLE MOVES - only movablebone in the skull.MAXILLA AND MANDIBLE AREUSED FOR CHEWING YOUR FOOD
  60. 60. Two bones of eyessocket: Ethmoid bone andlacrimal bone
  61. 61. Nasal Septum: Vomer and ethmoid boneform nasal septum whichdivides the nasal cavity intwo .
  62. 62. Frontal ParietalTemporal Nasal Vomer Zygoma Maxilla Mandible Frontal View
  63. 63. Mastoid ProcessLateral View
  64. 64. Frontal Lateral View
  65. 65. Nasal Lateral View
  66. 66. Zygomatic Lateral View
  67. 67. Maxilla Lateral View
  68. 68. Mandible Lateral View
  69. 69. SphenoidLateral View
  70. 70. Terminology:Meatus – a passagewayExternal auditory meatus – isthe passage way that soundwaves travel to reach theeardrum.
  71. 71. External Auditory MeatusPassageway through which sound waves travel. Lateral View
  72. 72. Frontal Parietal Sphenoid Nasal TemporalZygoma OccipitalMaxilla Mastoid ProcessMandible External Auditory Meatus Lateral View
  73. 73. A few more things:Foramen – a holeMental foramen – is in themandible and where the mentalnerve passes through.
  74. 74. Sinus – a hollowed out space inthe bone.
  75. 75. Nasal cavity – hollowed out,fluid filled regions coveredwith a thin mucous membranedivided by the vomer andethmoid bone (septum).
  76. 76. Paranasal sinuses – air-filledspaces connected to the nasalcavities.
  77. 77. Sinuses reduce the weight of theskull, warm air entering body, andaffect sound of the voice.Orbits = eye sockets, house andprotect the eye.
  78. 78. Using page 84 in your text labelthe bones of the cranium
  79. 79. Vertebral ColumnFunctions:•Protects the spinal cord•Supports the head and neck•Bears body weight
  80. 80. Vertebral ColumnIt is “S” shaped andacts as a spring orshock absorber toabsorb the impactwhen we walk.
  81. 81. Vertebral ColumnIt is composed of a series ofbones called vertebrae
  82. 82. Vertebral ColumnIt is marvelously designed toprovide strength yet flexibility.The way the vertebrae fittogether the columnis strong yet onecan bend and rotatethe back.
  83. 83. Vertebral ColumnIt is marvelously designed toprovide strength yet flexibility.The way the vertebrae fit togetheror interlock gives it strengthflexibility so can bendand rotate.
  84. 84. Vertebral ColumnIt is composed of 5 sections:7 cervical vertebrae12 thoracic vertebrae5 lumbar vertebraeSacrum – 5 fused vertebraeCoccyx – 3 fused vertebrae
  85. 85. sacrumcoccyx
  86. 86. Vertebral ColumnDisorders:At birth vertebral column in concave, ands shape develops.Scoliosis – abnormal sideways curve ofvertebral column.
  87. 87. Vertebral ColumnDisorders:At birth v. column in concave, and s shape developes-Scoliosis – abnormal sideways curve of v. columnLordosis – exaggerated curve oflumbar – swayback
  88. 88. Vertebral ColumnDisorders:At birth v. column in concave, and s shape developes-Scoliosis – abnormal sideways curve of v. columnLordosis – exaggerated curve of lumbar – swaybackKyphosis – exaggerated curve ofthoracic vertebrae = hunchback
  89. 89. Vertebral Column Shape of the VertebraeBody – bears weight, bodies rest on eachother.
  90. 90. Vertebral Column Shape of the VertebraeVertebral Foramen – opening throughwhich the spinal cord travels.
  91. 91. Vertebral Column Shape of the VertebraeVertebral Arch – surrounds the foramen.
  92. 92. Vertebral Column Shape of the VertebraeProcesses – bone extensions of thevertebrae for muscle attachment andinterlock to give mobility.Transverse process – extends to thesides of each vertebrae,place for muscle/ligament attachment.
  93. 93. Vertebral Column Shape of the VertebraeTransverse process – extends to the sides of each vertebrae, place for muscle/ligamentattachment.Spinous process – extends backwardand downward, place for muscleattachment.
  94. 94. Vertebral Column Shape of the VertebraeTransverse process – extends to the sides of each vertebrae, place for muscle/ligamentattachment.Superior and inferior articularprocesses – interlock the vertebrae
  95. 95. Intervertebral Disc - fibrous cartilagefound between the vertebraedistributing pressure evenly across thedisc.
  96. 96. Herniated Disc - when a disc pushesoutside its normal area. Oftenpinching the nerves causing pain andnumbness.
  97. 97. Thoracic CageCommonly called the rib cageProtects the heart, lungs, andother organs of the thoraciccavityEncloses the thoracic cavity
  98. 98. Thoracic CageCommonly called the rib cageProtects the heart, lungs, and other organs of the thoracic cavityEncloses the thoracic cavityComposed of twelve pairs ofribs and the sternum (breastplate or bone)
  99. 99. Thoracic Cage Types of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs – 1st 7 pairsthat attach directly to thesternum by the coastalcartilage
  100. 100. Thoracic Cage Types of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs – 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternumby the coastal cartilage
  101. 101. Thoracic Cage Types of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs – 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage 2. False ribs – inferior 5pairs that connect indirectly(first 3 pairs) to the sternumor do not attach at all to thesternum (last two pairs)
  102. 102. Thoracic Cage Types of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs – 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage 2. False ribs – inferior 5 pairs that connect indirectly (first 3 pairs)to the sternum or do not attach at all to the sternum (last two pairs)
  103. 103. Thoracic Cage Types of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs – 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage 2. False ribs – inferior 5 pairs that connect indirectly (first 3 pairs)to the sternum or do not attach at all to the sternum (last two pairs) 3. Floating ribs – the lasttwo pairs of false ribs that arenot attached at all
  104. 104. Thoracic Cage Types of RibsThe classification of ribs: 1. True ribs – 1st 7 pairs that attach directly to the sternum by thecoastal cartilage 2. False ribs – inferior 5 pairs that connect indirectly (first 3 pairs)to the sternum or do not attach at all to the sternum (last two pairs) 3. Floating ribs – the last two pairs of false ribs that are notattached at all
  105. 105. Thoracic Cage SternumConnects to the ribs viacoastal cartilageShaped like a capital TFound on the ventral/frontsurface
  106. 106. Thoracic Cage SternumConnects to the ribs via coastal cartilageShaped like a capital TFound on the ventral/front surfaceIt consists of three parts, from abovedownward:ManubrumBodyXiphoid process

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