Lesson 9.1 Nutrition/Digestions2 reasons we need to intake anddigest food:Need structural materialsNeed Energy for life processes
Structural needs:•Need to rebuild cells, etc. thatare breaking down
Types of materials needed:•97% body is composed ofcarbon, hydrogen, oxygen, andnitrogen•3% composed ofcalcium, phosphorus, iron, magnesium, sulfur and chlorine
Energy needs:•Oxidation = is the process where asubstance is combined with oxygen•Food you eat is oxidized andbroken down into smaller units•Then energy is released•Energy is captured in a moleculeknown as ATP
ATP:•ATP = adenosine triphosphate•Has 3 phosphate groups•When energy is needed onephosphate bond is broken andenergy that can be used by cell isreleased.
ATP continued:•Results in ATP becoming ADP.•ADP can be recycled to ATP againby adding a phosphate group.
Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:•60% daily caloric intake•Main source of energy for ATP•Molecules are 1:2:1 C:H:0example glucose is C6H12O6
:Carbohydrates continued•Includes: •Simple sugars •Starches – long chains of simple sugars •Glycogen – animal starch •Cellulose – plants use in cell wall; good source of dietary fiber
:Carbohydrates continuedEat whole grains as a source ofcarbs to get vitamins, minerals, andnutrients that your body needs
Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:2. Proteins:Building blocks of the cell and itspartsMade of smaller units calledamino acids22 different amino acids thatmake up all proteins
Proteins continued:Composed of Amino acidsAmino acid structure:R = functionalgroup thatchanges fromamino acidto amino acidmaking them different; rest same
Proteins continued:•Should be 10% of daily caloric intake•Found in leanmeats, milk, cheese, eggs, soybeans, legumes•Best if eaten in three meals•Need essential amino acids = onesthe body can’t make & U must get
Nine essential amino acidsFYI DON’T NEED TO COPY! Phenylalanine, valine, threonine, tryptophan, isoleucine, methionine, histidine, leucine, and lysine
Copy - Basically: when you eat yourprotein food source yourbody breaks the proteindown into amino acids andthen uses them to rebuildthings
Molecules important to your body:1. Carbohydrates:2. Proteins:3. LIPIDS (FATS, OILS)Should be less than 25% of dailycaloric intakeShould avoid saturated andhydrogenated oils
Lipids continued:Why we need:Stored energy sourceUsed for building materialsespecially cell membraneTransport fat soluble vitaminsMake up some hormones likecholesterol
Types of lipids:Fatty acids – most basictype, carbon chain withHydrogen
Types of lipids:Fatty acids – most basic type, carbon chain with HTriglycerides – largermolecules three fatty acidswith one glycerol
Lipids continued: Saturated vs. UnsaturatedSaturated fats have more hydrogenatoms attached than unsaturatedfats.Saturated are solid at Room TempEx. ButterUnsaturated are liquid at RoomTemp ex. canola oil - are healthier
Lipids continued:Hydrogenation – process of addinghydrogen atoms to an unsaturatedfat to saturate it ex. margarineExtra fat in the body is stored inadipose cells under the skin andaround body organs.
Lipids continued:Lipoproteins – transfer fats in thebody3 categories of lipoproteins:1. Very low density (VLDLS)2. Low density (LDL’s) high in cholesterol (bad)3. High density (HDL’s) high in proteins (good)