Chapter 6-Bones and Skeletal Tissues•Histology of cartilage andbone•Function of the skeletalsystem•Bone terminology•Bone d...
The skeletal system (like others) ismultifunctional p 125•   Support•   Storage of minerals and lipid•   Blood cell prolif...
Cartilage: Connective tissue•Chondroblasts lay down thematrix,    •become chondrocytes when    surrounded by EC matrix•Cho...
Cartilage, cont’dElastic: More flexible,  e.g., ear, larynx                                      Hyaline                  ...
Types (shapes) of Bones• Long           • Flat  – Femur           – Scapula• Short          • Sutural  – Carpal          –...
Typical (Long) Bone Structure                                Page 129
Types of Osseous Tissue1. Compact Bone  1. Dense, found in the walls, or cortex2. Spongy or Cancellous Bone  1. Network of...
1. Compact Bone• Osteon = functional unit of  bone• The mineral matrix is  hydroxyapatite• Osteoblasts lay down the  matri...
2. Spongy Bone• No osteons• Lacy network of struts  called trabeculae  reinforce the bone• Covered by endosteum
3. Marrow• Red Marrow  – Active  – Blood Precursors• Yellow Marrow  – Inactive  – Mostly fat
Bone markings                 Table 6.1, p 131• Projection and Process   – Tuberosity, tubercle   – Trochanter (only one!)...
Internal Organization of aTypical Bone                                       Fig 6.7, p 132    Osteon = Functional unit of...
Bone Development• Osteoblasts produce hydroxyapatite• Osteoclasts break down the  hydroxyapatite• Intramembranous Ossifica...
Intramembranous Ossification
Endochondral Ossification
Endochondral Ossification
Bone CirculationNutrient arteryMetaphyseal arteries (2)
Bone Remodeling•   Bones are metabolically very active•   Osteoid becomes hydroxyapatite•   Site for calcium, phosphorus s...
Fractures• Young vs. old patients• Simple vs. open (compound)  fractures• Healing:   – Reduction and stabilization   – For...
Osteoporosis           (p 141)• Loss of bone mass  weakness• Both compact and spongy  bone• Post-menopausal women,  some m...
Osteoporosis   (p 141)
Chapter6 bonesmarieb
Chapter6 bonesmarieb
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Chapter6 bonesmarieb

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Chapter6 bonesmarieb

  1. 1. Chapter 6-Bones and Skeletal Tissues•Histology of cartilage andbone•Function of the skeletalsystem•Bone terminology•Bone development andgrowth Developed by John Gallagher, MS, DVM
  2. 2. The skeletal system (like others) ismultifunctional p 125• Support• Storage of minerals and lipid• Blood cell proliferation (red marrow)• Protection (heart, brain, etc.)• Leverage, Movement• Metabolic role recently discovered – Osteocalcin
  3. 3. Cartilage: Connective tissue•Chondroblasts lay down thematrix, •become chondrocytes when surrounded by EC matrix•Chondrocytes do not mitose •Poor healing•No nerves, avascular•On aging, cartilage becomescalcified •Less flexible •Not bone
  4. 4. Cartilage, cont’dElastic: More flexible, e.g., ear, larynx Hyaline Especially articular Fibrocartilage Resists compression—IV Disk, menisci
  5. 5. Types (shapes) of Bones• Long • Flat – Femur – Scapula• Short • Sutural – Carpal – Skull• Sesamoid • Irregular – Patella – Vertebra
  6. 6. Typical (Long) Bone Structure Page 129
  7. 7. Types of Osseous Tissue1. Compact Bone 1. Dense, found in the walls, or cortex2. Spongy or Cancellous Bone 1. Network of struts and thin plates (trabeculae)3. Marrow 1. Red and Yellow
  8. 8. 1. Compact Bone• Osteon = functional unit of bone• The mineral matrix is hydroxyapatite• Osteoblasts lay down the matrix in layers (lamellae) – Become osteocytes when surrounded by EC matrix – Lacunae• Osteoclasts break down bone – Often multinucleated
  9. 9. 2. Spongy Bone• No osteons• Lacy network of struts called trabeculae reinforce the bone• Covered by endosteum
  10. 10. 3. Marrow• Red Marrow – Active – Blood Precursors• Yellow Marrow – Inactive – Mostly fat
  11. 11. Bone markings Table 6.1, p 131• Projection and Process – Tuberosity, tubercle – Trochanter (only one!) • Mostly a lab – Lines and spines exercise – Epicondyles• Surfaces for Joints – Head, facet, condyle• Depressions and holes – Foramen – Fossa
  12. 12. Internal Organization of aTypical Bone Fig 6.7, p 132 Osteon = Functional unit of bone
  13. 13. Bone Development• Osteoblasts produce hydroxyapatite• Osteoclasts break down the hydroxyapatite• Intramembranous Ossification – Spongy bone – Plates of Bone e.g. skull• Endochondral Ossification – Long Bones
  14. 14. Intramembranous Ossification
  15. 15. Endochondral Ossification
  16. 16. Endochondral Ossification
  17. 17. Bone CirculationNutrient arteryMetaphyseal arteries (2)
  18. 18. Bone Remodeling• Bones are metabolically very active• Osteoid becomes hydroxyapatite• Site for calcium, phosphorus storage• Structure and strength are altered by need
  19. 19. Fractures• Young vs. old patients• Simple vs. open (compound) fractures• Healing: – Reduction and stabilization – Formation of hematoma – Callus— • fibrocartilagenous and • bony – Remodeling—months later
  20. 20. Osteoporosis (p 141)• Loss of bone mass weakness• Both compact and spongy bone• Post-menopausal women, some men – Estrogen replacement?? – Other newer modalities
  21. 21. Osteoporosis (p 141)

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