A and P Notes217 228

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A and P Notes217 228

  1. 1. The Brain – Module #8•Weighs about 3 pounds•Composed of bundles ofneurons•Processes information•Need lots of oxygen and glucose•Needs ATP to run sodium-potassium pump
  2. 2. Hypoxia – the condition inwhich inadequate oxygen isavailable to tissue.Hypoglycemia – conditionwhere blood glucose levelsdrop symptom -can’t thinkclearly
  3. 3. Stroke – most commonbrain injury/disorderTwo types of strokes
  4. 4. Two types of strokes:1. Ischemic stroke – blood clot blocks blood flow
  5. 5. Two types of strokes:1. Ischemic stroke – blood clot blocks blood flow2. Hemorrhagic stroke – blood vessels burst – most fatal
  6. 6. The brain requires:OxygenGlucoseVitamin A, B complex, C & EFolic acidFatty acids for myelin
  7. 7. Brain Anatomy: White matterNeurons of brain wrapped inmyelin make it look whiteIs found in the inside area ofthe brain
  8. 8. Brain Anatomy:White matter Gray matterneurons of brain that arenot wrapped in myelin makeslook grayFound on the outside areaof the brain (cerebral cortex)
  9. 9. Brain Anatomy:Magnetic Resonance Imaging(MRI) - instrument that willgive you images of the brain
  10. 10. Brain Anatomy: Four major divisions:1. Brain stem cerebrum diencephalon2. Diencephalon brain stem cerebellum3. Cerebellum4. Cerebrum
  11. 11. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions:1. Brain stem located between cerebrum and spinal cord
  12. 12. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem3 parts to brain stem: A. medulla oblongata • section closest to spinal cord • regulates vital functions (i.e. breathing, blood pressure) • where decussation occurs • can be fatal if injured
  13. 13. Decussation = crossing overVasomotor area – area ofmedulla that controls thedilation and constriction ofblood vessels to regulate bloodpressure.
  14. 14. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 3 parts to brain stem: A. medulla oblongaB. Ponslinks cerebrum & cerebellumassist in regulating breathingcoordinates eye movement
  15. 15. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 3 parts to brain stem: A. medulla oblonga B. Pons3. Midbrain• located above the pons• coordinates eye movements and pupil dilation• hearing center• contains reticular formation
  16. 16. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem2. DiencephalonLocated between midbrain andcerebrumIncludes the thalamus andhypothalamusis part of the limbic system
  17. 17. 2. Diencephalon Limbic SystemStructures involved in emotions andmotivations related to survivalinclude fear, anger, and emotionsrelated to reproduction and eatingIncludes amygdala, hippocampus,thalamus and hypothalamus
  18. 18. 2. Diencephalon ThalamusActs as a relay or switch boardsending impulses to right place inbrainInvolved in pain & temperatureOrigin of fear and anger
  19. 19. 2. Diencephalon HypothalamusRelay between thalamus andcerebrumControls hormones throughpituitary glandInvolved in emotions and modesControls hunger, body weight,body temperature, water balance
  20. 20. 2. Diencephalon Reticular Formation:•Regulates sleep and awake cyclesand level of alertness of cerebrum•Located in brain stem &diencephalon• If damaged may lead to anirreversible coma
  21. 21. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon3. Cerebellum second largest brain region Latin for little brain Has right and left hemispheres Composed of white and gray matter
  22. 22. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon 3. Cerebellum tightly packed, convoluted mostly unconscious thought
  23. 23. 3. CerebellumFunctions:A. Regulates and coordinatecomplex voluntary muscularmovement (often once trained bycerebrum).
  24. 24. 3. CerebellumFunctions:B. Equilibrium – maintainsproper muscle tone to keepyou up right.C. Muscle preset – it presetsthe muscles for the amount ofstrength you might need
  25. 25. 3. CerebellumFunctions:D. Dampening – keeps upperlimbs from swinging wildlywhen you run or walk.E. Muscle tone - continuousand passive partialcontraction of the muscles
  26. 26. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon 3. Cerebellum4. CerebrumoLargest part of brainoDivided into two hemispheres oRight – creative, big picture oLeft – logical, mathematical
  27. 27. Brain Anatomy:Four major divisions: 1. Brain stem 2. Diencephalon 3. Cerebellum 4. CerebrumoRight side of braincontrols the leftside of the bodyoLeft side of thebrain controls theright side of the body
  28. 28. 4. CerebrumoLongitudinal fissure - divides twohalves of cerebrum
  29. 29. 4. CerebrumoTwo sides connected by thecorpus callosum the largestcommissure.oCommissure –connection ofnerve fibersbetween 2hemispheres
  30. 30. 4. Cerebrumoconsist of both gray matter andwhite matteroGray matter on the outsidecalled cerebral cortex and whitematter on the inside
  31. 31. 4. Cerebrumois convoluted or folded to getmore in a tight space.oFolds are called gyrioGrooves are called sulci
  32. 32. 4. CerebrumoCarries on higher –level brainfunctions such as: Thought Voluntary movement Language Reasoning Perception
  33. 33. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum:
  34. 34. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum:A. Temporal lobe:•separated by lateral fissure• sense of hearing, smell andtaste•Place of memory (hippocampus)and abstract thought
  35. 35. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum: A. Temporal lobe:B. Frontal lobe:• site of personality, judgment,long term memory, attention, selfcontrol and some skeletal musclecontrol.•Boundary is the lateral fissure andcentral sulcus.
  36. 36. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum: A. Temporal lobe B. Frontal lobeC. Occipital lobe:• visual center contains theprimary visual cortex•Is hard to differentiate, nofissures or sulcus to divide it
  37. 37. 4. CerebrumFour lobes of the cerebrum: A. Temporal lobe B. Frontal lobe C. Occipital lobe:D. Parietal lobes:• analyzes sensory information,knowledge of numbers and theirrelations, spatial perception andmanipulation of objects (mapreading)
  38. 38. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area orcortex •Receives sensory info from all over the body •Located on the central gyrus •Mapped in 1950’s through shock therapy •Localizes where sensation came from
  39. 39. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortexB.Somatic Sensory Association Area•Determines nature of thesensation and puts it in propercontext
  40. 40. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association Area C. Visual cortex Located in the occipital lobe Receives action potentials from the optic nerve Interprets basic shape, size and color Passes info to visual association area
  41. 41. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortex D. Visual Association Area  Compares the basic image from the visual cortex to historic past for recognition  Always is developing (how baby recognizes mom)
  42. 42. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortexD. Visual Association Area E. Primary Auditory Area  located on temporal lobe  Responds to basic sound determining volume and pitch  Passes signal to auditory association area
  43. 43. Functional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortexD. Visual Association AreaE. Primary Auditory Area F. Auditory Association Area • Puts sound in historic context • If speech sends to Wernicke’s area
  44. 44. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:A. Primary somatic sensory area or cortex.B. Somatic Sensory Association AreaC. Visual cortexD. Visual Association AreaE. Primary Auditory AreaF. Auditory Association AreaG. Broca’s (front) and Wernicke’s Area - center of motor speech and speech comprehensionH. Insular cortex - interprets tasteI. Olfactory bulb – interprets smell
  45. 45. Insular cortex
  46. 46. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:G. Broca’s and Wernicke’s AreaH. Insular cortexI. Olfactory bulbJ. Primary Motor Area/cortexo Located on precentral gyruso Controls basic skeletal muscle movement
  47. 47. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:G. Broca’s and Wernicke’s AreaH. Insular cortexI. Olfactory bulbJ. Primary Motor Area/cortexK. Premotor areaoWorks out motor sequences beforehand for fine motor skills for the primary motor cortex
  48. 48. 4. CerebrumFunctional areas in the cerebrum:I. Olfactory bulbJ. Primary motor area/cortexK. Premotor areaL. Prefrontal areao Largest part of cerebrumo Center for ability to reason and motivation (personality)o Lobotomy – procedure to control violent behavior

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