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The DID Report 1: The First Official W3C DID Working Group Meeting (Japan)- Drummond Reed/Markus Sabadello

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https://ssimeetup.org/did-report-1-first-official-w3c-did-working-group-meeting-japan-drummond-reed-webinar-36/
The DID Report 1 about the First Meeting of the New W3C DID Working Group with Drummond Reed, co-author of the W3C DID specification, and Markus Sabadello from Danube Tech. Headline news in SSI land: this month W3C members approved forming a full W3C Working Group for Decentralized Identifiers (DIDs).

DID spec co-author Drummond Reed has been in Fukuoka Japan for the first official meeting of this new Working Group and he will share highlights of the meeting and the roadmap for taking DIDs to a full Web standard.

Published in: Internet
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The DID Report 1: The First Official W3C DID Working Group Meeting (Japan)- Drummond Reed/Markus Sabadello

  1. 1. The DID Report—September 2019 First Meeting of the New W3C DID Working Group in Japan Drummond Reed W3C DID specification co-author Chief Trust Officer Evernym This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org Markus Sabadello W3C DID specification co-author Founder Danube Tech
  2. 2. 1. Empower global SSI communities 2. Open to everyone interested in SSI 3. All content is shared with CC BY SA SSIMeetup.org Alex Preukschat @SSIMeetup @AlexPreukschat Coordinating Node SSIMeetup.org https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-sa/4.0/ SSIMeetup objectives
  3. 3. Your Reporters Drummond Reed ● 20 years in Internet ID standards ● Co-Editor W3C DID Spec— Initial spec author ● Sovrin Foundation Trustee & Chair of Governance WG ● Evernym Chief Trust Officer 3 Markus Sabadello ● 15 years in Internet ID standards ● Co-Editor W3C DID Spec and DID Resolution Spec ● Sovrin Foundation Technical Gov Board ● Danube Tech Founder This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  4. 4. Where does the story start? 4 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  5. 5. ● Work on DIDs began four years ago ● A first draft spec gained real momentum ● It was contributed to the W3C Credentials Community Group for further incubation ● After two years, the W3C membership voted to form a full W3C Working Group ○ https://www.w3.org/2019/did-wg/ ● This is a report on the first meeting that just took place at W3C TPAC in Fukuoka Japan 5 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  6. 6. Part One: Background 6 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  7. 7. Let’s begin at the beginning: What is a DID? 7 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  8. 8. 8 A DID is a new type of globally unique identifier (URI) that does not require a centralized registration authority because control of the identifier can be proved using cryptography This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  9. 9. Where did the term “DID” come from? 9 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  10. 10. 10 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  11. 11. 11
  12. 12. How long have you been working on DIDs? 12 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  13. 13. Timeline 13 2015 2016 2017 2018 2019 Spring IIW: First blockchain identity discussions Fall IIW: Decision to begin blockchain ID projects W3C VCTF: A Decentral- ized Hash Table for the Web DHS: Awards 1st blockchain Identity R&D contracts IIW+RWOT: DID Spec work fully underway IIW+RWOT: First DID Spec nearly complete DHS: First DID Spec published & contract complete DHS: DKMS contract awarded; work begins W3C CCG: DID Spec contributed DHS: DKMS Design & Architec- ture V3 published W3C CCG: Second draft of DID Spec W3C CCG: Work on DID WG Charter begins W3C: DID WG Charter approved W3C CCG: Community Final Draft of DID Spec DHS: DKMS Design & Architec- ture V4 published This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  14. 14. How widely are DIDs in use today? 14 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  15. 15. Some statistics ● There are currently 32 DID methods registered in the informal W3C Credentials Community Group DID Method Registry ○ https://w3c-ccg.github.io/did-method-registry/ ○ Three for Bitcoin ○ Six for Ethereum ● The Sovrin Foundation currently has 71 stewards around the world hosting a public permissioned distributed ledger for DIDs ● The Canadian provinces of British Columbia and Ontario have issued over 1.4 million verifiable business license credentials based on DIDs 15 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  16. 16. Part Two: Understanding DIDs 16 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  17. 17. Why did the U.S. Department of Homeland Security fund the initial development of the DID spec? 17 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  18. 18. The four core properties of a DID 1. A permanent (persistent) identifier It never needs to change 2. A resolvable identifier You can look it up to discover metadata 3. A cryptographically-verifiable identifier You can prove control using cryptography 4. A decentralized identifier No centralized registration authority is required 18 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  19. 19. What does a DID look like? 19 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  20. 20. URNs (Uniform Resource Names, RFC 8141) 20 DIDs
  21. 21. What is a DID method? 21 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  22. 22. A DID Method... Defines how to perform the four CRUD operations on a DID 1. Create: How to generate a new DID 2. Read: How to resolve a DID into a DID document 3. Update: How to write a new version of a DID document 4. De-activate: How to revoke (terminate) a DID so it no longer functions 22 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  23. 23. What is a DID document? 23 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  24. 24. A DID Document... Contains metadata for describing and interacting with the DID subject (the entity identified by the DID) 1. Public keys or other cryptographic proof material 2. Service endpoints for engaging in trusted interactions 3. Authentication mechanisms for proving control of the DID 4. Other metadata 24 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  25. 25. Example DID Document in JSON-LD 25 { "@context": "https://w3id.org/did/v1", "id": "did:example:456", "publicKey": [ { "id": "did:example:456#key-1", "type": "Ed25519VerificationKey2018", "publicKeyBase58": "H3C2AVvLMv6gmMNam3uVAjJCwDmqPV" } ], "service": { "type": "hub", "serviceEndpoint": "https://cloud.service.com/hub/did:example:456" }, "authentication": { "did:example:456#key-1" } }
  26. 26. What is DID resolution? 26 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  27. 27. DID Resolution... Is the process of using the DID to look up and retrieve a copy of the DID document ● How this is done depends on the DID method ○ Defined by the Read operation ● Different DID methods do this in different ways ● DID Resolution is a separate specification ○ Not in scope for the W3C DID Working Group 27 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  28. 28. Who is defining DID Resolution? 28 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  29. 29. What will happen where? DID Spec (DID Working Group) DID URI Scheme DID Document Data Model DID Document Syntax(es) Requirements for DID Methods Security+Privacy Considerations DID Resolution Spec (Credentials Community Group) DID Resolution Algorithm DID URL Dereferencing Algorithm HTTP(S) Binding Input Options Result Metadata DID Method Specs (by anyone) Method Name Method-specific Identifier Create, Read, Update, Deactivate Security+Privacy Considerations This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  30. 30. Part Three: The W3C DID Working Group 30 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  31. 31. Who is in the DID Working Group? 31 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  32. 32. ● Chairs ○ Dan Burnett (ConsenSys), Brent Zundel (Evernym) ● Editors ○ Manu Sporny (Digital Bazaar), Drummond Reed (Evernym), Markus Sabadello (Danube Tech) ● 54 participants from 18 member orgs ○ AKASHA, BrightLink, Conexxus, Credly, Etri, GS1, Microsoft, Scottish Government, SecureKey, Sovrin Foundation, Surf Net, Transmute, Universities Admissions Centre, Wiley 32 W3C DID Working Group This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  33. 33. What are the deliverables of the WG? 33 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  34. 34. Deliverables ● Recommendation-Track Specification ○ Decentralized Identifiers v1.0 ● W3C Notes ○ Decentralized Identifier Use Cases v1.0 ○ Decentralized Characteristics Rubric v1.0 ● Other Deliverables ○ Test Suite and Implementation Report 34 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  35. 35. What is the proposed schedule? 35 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  36. 36. Aug 2021Jul 2021 March 2021 (CR2) Nov 2020 (CR1) . Nov 2019 (FPWD) Timing of the DID 1.0 Spec 36 May 2020 (Feature freeze) This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  37. 37. Part Four: DID Deep Dive 37 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  38. 38. How many types of DIDs are there? 38 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  39. 39. There are at least four categories of DIDs 1. Ledger-based: DIDs that are registered and resolved using blockchains or distributed ledgers 2. Peer-to-peer: DIDs that are shared directly peer-to-peer and do not require a public ledger 3. Layer 2: DIDs that leverage a blockchain or DLT but are not registered on it directly 4. Alternative: interesting new types of DIDs that do not meet all four core properties 39 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  40. 40. Aren’t most DIDs based on blockchains and distributed ledgers? 40 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  41. 41. Ledger-Based DIDs ● Over 90% of current DID methods are ledger-based ○ Based on those in the W3C DID Method Registry: https://w3c-ccg.github.io/did-method-registry/ ● Two basic subtypes ○ DID is based on a blockchain address ○ DID is derived from a public/private key pair and then registered on the blockchain using the private key 41 This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  42. 42. How are peer DIDs different? 42 [Slides credit: Ken Ebert, Sovrin Foundation] This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  43. 43. ● Anywise DID ○ Unknowable parties ○ Publicly resolveable ● N-wise DID ○ N enumerated parties ○ Privately resolveable ● Pairwise DID ○ 2 parties ○ Privately resolveable ... DIDs Are About Relationships Government DID Alice DID Blockchain Alice DID Bob DID Carol DID Alice DID Bob DID Bob DID This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  44. 44. Sample did:peer:11-479cbc07c3f991725836a3aa2a581ca2029198aa420b9d99bc0e131d9f3e2cbe ABNF peer-did = "did:peer:" numalgo encalgo "-" numbasis numalgo = "1" encalgo = "1" numbasis = 64*HEXDIGCI HEXDIGCI = HEXDIG / "a" / "b" / "c" / "d" / "e" / "f” What's a Peer DID Look Like? This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  45. 45. ● Cheap: no transaction costs ● Fast ● Scalable: as a function of the participants ● Secure ● Reduced PI and privacy concerns ● Independent of any ledger: minimal political or technical baggage ● Graftable into other DID ecosystems Benefits of Peer DIDs This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  46. 46. What is a “public key DID”? 46 [Slides credit: Ken Ebert, Sovrin Foundation] This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  47. 47. Sample (ed25519 public key) did:key:z6MkpTHR8VNsBxYAAWHut2Geadd9jSwuBV8xRoAnwWsdvktH ABNF did-key = "did:key:" multibase( multicodec( public-key ) ) multibase = function(bytes) => [1-9A-Za-z] multicodec = function(codec, bytes) => codec[ed25519publickey -> 0xed, …] bytes public-key = [0x00-0xff] What's a Public Key-based DID Look Like? This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  48. 48. Benefits of Public Key DIDs ● Self-describing ● Cheap: no transaction costs ● Fast ● Scalable: as a function of the participants ● Secure ● No PI and privacy concerns ● Independent of any ledger: minimal political or technical baggage ● Graftable into other DID ecosystems This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  49. 49. What is a Layer 2 DID? 49 [Slides credit: Daniel Buchner, Microsoft] This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  50. 50. Layer 2 DID Network This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  51. 51. The Scale of Decentralized Identity: Human Identity There are 7.5 billion humans on Earth currently. At bare minimum, a decentralized identity system must be capable of supporting identities for all of them. Each person may have multiple Decentralized Identifiers, each requiring their own PKI lineage. Identity of All Things. Human identity is just the tip of the iceberg – there is an entire world containing hundreds of billions of devices, machines, apps, and other entities, both tangible and virtual. 51This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  52. 52. Key Realization Identifiers and PKI do not suffer from the same double spend problem money does, because DIDs do not need to be transferred between parties like assets. However, you must still prevent double issuance and ensure all parties on the DID network can derive a single deterministic PKI state for an identifier. How might these differences in requirements affect how we approach the architecture of a DID network? 52This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  53. 53. What is ION? ION is a public, permissionless, decentralized DID overlay network that runs on Bitcoin, and leverages a deterministic DPKI protocol, called Sidetree. 53This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  54. 54. The path to a robust network - a three stage journey: 54 Stage 1 Larger entities run full nodes to jumpstart the network Stage 2 Entities with product needs and early adopter hobbyists start running full nodes ad hoc Stage 3 The long tail of developers, users, and organizations run a mix of light and full nodes to suit their needs This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  55. 55. What are “alternative DIDs”? 55 [Slides credit: Manu Sporny, Digital Bazaar] This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  56. 56. Alternative DID Methods... Typically fall into at least one of these categories. ● Based on deployed tech ● Utilize existing large networks ● May not be truly "decentralized" ● Doesn't use a cryptocurrency ● Bridge the old world to the new, making the adjacent possible… possible. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  57. 57. ● did:web:example.com/jdoe ● Pros ○ It's a resource on the Web ○ Works today, zero changes to Web ○ Uses existing CA system ● Cons ○ No revision control ○ No audit trail ○ Uses existing CA system did:web A DID Method for the Web This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  58. 58. ● did:git:a7c...38a/b2f...9d1 ● Pros ○ Blockchain-like version control ○ Digitally signed transaction history ○ Highly decentralized ● Cons ○ Undetectable "forking" possible ○ No single point of truth ○ High potential for DoS did:git A DID Method for developers This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  59. 59. ● did:ipid:12D...y5w ● Pros ○ Cheap to create (self-hosted) ○ Possible to replicate ○ Network is fault-tolerant ● Cons ○ DIDs can disappear ○ Possibly expensive to maintain did:ipid A DID Method layered on top of a DHT-based clustered file system This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  60. 60. did:PROPRIETARY DID Methods where the namespace is owned by an organization. ● did:facebook:jdoe, did:gmail:jdoe, did:linkedin:jdoe ● Pros ○ Cheap to create and maintain ○ Clear responsibilities ○ Extremely reliable network ● Cons ○ Centralized network ○ Centralized governance ○ Not portable This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  61. 61. What is a “DID rubric”? 61 [Slides credit: Joe Andrieu, Legendary Requirements] This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  62. 62. From the DID WG Charter Provide a rubric of decentralized characteristics for DID Method specifications. This allows the DID Method specifications to self-certify, or independent third parties to evaluate, the DID Method specification's level of adherence to principles of decentralization. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  63. 63. Why a Rubric for Decentralization of DID Methods? ► “Decentralized” is a quagmire ► Requirements for DID Methods led to passionate, intense debate: ► The DID community came together with several subtly different meanings of decentralization. ► How can we evaluate DID Methods against the criteria driving this work? This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  64. 64. Intentions ► A tool for evaluating DID Methods ► Objective & non-judgmental ► Minimize bias. Avoid advocacy. Champion characterization. ► Evaluation is in the eye of the beholder ► Weighting / Selection of criteria based on use case under evaluation ► Evaluations / Responses up to evaluator ► No summary rating. No universal metric. This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  65. 65. Questions? This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org
  66. 66. The DID Report—September 2019 First Meeting of the New W3C DID Working Group in Japan Drummond Reed W3C DID specification co-author Chief Trust Officer Evernym This presentation is released under a Creative Commons license. (CC BY-SA 4.0). SSIMeetup.org Markus Sabadello W3C DID specification co-author Founder Danube Tech
  67. 67. Image credits Japanese flag, by Steve Conover 67

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