4. F2012 Christianity comes to the Anglo Saxons


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Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons by emissaries from Rome and by way of Irish Iona.

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  • Laurence (619) Mellitus (624) Justus (634)
  • Church of St Peter-on-the-Wall, Bradwell-on-SeaFrom Wikipedia, the free encyclopediaJump to: navigation, search St. Peter-on-the-Wall Chapel.The Chapel of St Peter-on-the-Wall, Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex is a Grade I listed building and among the oldest largely intact Christian church buildings in England still in regular use, dating from the 7th century.The Chapel is assumed to be that of "Ythanceaster" (Bede, HistoriaEcclesiastica 3.22), originally constructed as an Anglo-Celtic Church for the East Saxons in AD 654 by St Cedd, astride the ruins of the abandoned Roman fort of Othona. The current structure was most likely built around 660-662, incorporating the Roman bricks and stones. Cedd travelled south from Lindisfarne to spread Christianity at the behest of Sigeberht the Good, then King of the East Saxons, in 653 and returned the next year having been ordained as a Bishop in order to build this Chapel and probably others too. Following the death of St Cedd in October 664 from plague, the Chapel became part of the Diocese of London
  • Escomb Saxon Church is one of the oldest Anglo-Saxon churches in England, located in Escomb, approximately 2.5 km to the west of Bishop Auckland, County Durham.Founded in c.670-675, much of the stone came from the nearby Roman Fort at Binchester. On the south wall is a 7th or early 8th Century sundial, and on the north wall is a reused Roman stone with the markings "LEG VI" (Sixth Legion) set upside down.
  • Theodore recommended by Hadrian. Pope’s hesitancy was overcome on the condition that Theodore should be tonsured after the manner of western monks (Greek monks shaved their heads completely) and that Hadrian should accompany him to England.Conflict with Constantinople over monothelitism, Monothelitism teaches that Jesus Christ had two natures but only one will. This is contrary to the more contemporarily accepted Christology that Jesus Christ has two wills (human and divine) corresponding to his two natures (dyothelitism).
  • In the pre-Viking period virtually all churches,except subordinate churches such as oratories and chapels, were servedby communities of clergy, and these latter were each responsible, ineffect as ‘team ministries’, for the pastoral supervision of the laity insubstantial areas attached to their churches. In certain cases, suchchurches might be associated with royal vills and the areas which theyserved might even be identical with areas of royal administration, thussuggesting that they constituted a system of pastoral provision created inpart through royal action.’ In the post-Viking period, the territoriesattached to these churches (‘minsters’) became fragmented, particularlyas private estate churches were founded within them, as bishops themselvescreated new churches, and as large agrarian estates themselvesfragmented. Thus the system of parishes and parish churches familiar tous emerged, although the ‘minsters’ retained residual traces of theirearlier position and of their original territories.Argue againstThe impact of the Carolingian church reforms was felt in England, atleast in Wessex, from the reign of King Alfred (871-99) in particular, andabove all in the tenth century, albeit mediated to an extent through themonastic centres of northern Gaul. Beginning under Alfred, but particularlywith the late tenth-century churchmen such as Elfric, we see thesame preoccupation with education and preaching, with imposing Christianityin as full a form as possible on all levels of the laity.$” We see alsothe Carolingian-inspired emphasis on organizational reform: the relocationof diocesan centres (at least in areas under West Saxon control), thereform of monastic communities according to the Rule of St Benedictand of communities of canons according to .the Rule of St Chrodegang,as developed in Carolingian Gaul in the eighth century,”These well-known aspects of the late Saxon period create aprima faciecase against the suggestion of the ‘Minster Hypothesis’ that the structureof the late Saxon church at local level was largely produced by a processof disintegration: in other words that earlier large parishes mainly disintegratedas aristocratic proprietary or manorial churches were foundedwithin them and usurped their rights and revenue.
  • 4. F2012 Christianity comes to the Anglo Saxons

    1. 1. Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons
    2. 2. Celtic Christianity• Monastic –absence of urban centers• Abbot - bishops• Differences in calculation of Easter• Tonsure• No grave goods
    3. 3. Pagan Culture• Religion based on nature with lesser emphasis on gods and temples• Ship burials, horse burials, cremations-grave goods• Kent has closer ties with Merovingian (Christian) France
    4. 4. Christianity Comes to Kent• Survival of cults of saints but not churches• Æthelberht marries Bertha, a Frankish princess• Bishop Liudhard accompanies Bertha• Augustine mission of 597 AD
    5. 5. Conversion of the Anglo-Saxons - Kent
    6. 6. PopeGregory the Great
    7. 7. Canterbury
    8. 8. St. Martins
    9. 9. St. Augustine’s
    10. 10. St. Augustine’s, Bases of Archbishops’ tombs Laurence (619) Mellitus (624) Justus (634)
    11. 11. Expansion of Mission• Conversion of common people• Reinforcement• Questions• Relationship with British bishops
    12. 12. Anglo-Saxon Church CanterburyPhase I II III IV
    13. 13. St. Augustine’s Gospels
    14. 14. St. Augustine’sGospels
    15. 15. Augustine’s Oak• Attempt to bring together British and Roman clergy• Issues – Authority of Augustine – Roman practices – Joint mission to Saxons
    16. 16. The Pagan Reversion• 616 Æthelberht dies• Rædwald of East Anglia reverts• Sæberht’s sons in Essex revert• Eadbald, son of Æthelberht reverts but is reconverted
    17. 17. Rædwald• King of East Angles• Converted during reign of Æthelberht• Reverted after latter’s death• Buried at Sutton Hoo?
    18. 18. Northumbria
    19. 19. Deira Deira Aelle Herecic Edwin Acha (-604) (616-633) m. Æthelfrith Hild Odfrith EanflædAbbess of Whitby (-633)
    20. 20. Bernicia Ida Æthelfric Æthelfrith (592-616) Eanfrith Oswald Oswiu(633-634) (634-642) (642-670)
    21. 21. Edwin’s Conversion• 592 Æthelfrith of Bernicia takes Deira; Edwin in exile among Mercians• 616 Æthelfrith killed by Rædwald; Edwin returns• 625? Edwin marries Æthelburh, daughter of Æthelberht of Kent• Easter 627 Edwin baptized• 633 Killed by Briton, Cadwallon
    22. 22. Other Conversions• Northumbria – Oswald and Oswiu, Bernicia, converted while exiled to Ireland and Iona• East Anglia – Earpwald, son of Raedwald; converted by Edwin – 630 Sigeberht, as exile in Gaul• Wessex – 635 Cynegils by Birinus (a Frank)
    23. 23. Church of St Peter-on-the-Wall, Bradwell-on-Sea, Essex
    24. 24. Escomb Saxon Church, Durham, 675
    25. 25. Anglo-Saxon Whitby
    26. 26. Anglo-Saxon Whitby
    27. 27. Organization of the English Church post Whitby• Theodore of Tarsus (602–690), Archbishop of Canterbury (669-690) – Assisted by Hadrian, advisor to the Pope – Fill vacant positions – Breakup of large units into more manageable ones leads to conflict with Archbishop of York – Refined liturgy; acme of biblical scholarship – Taught Greek
    28. 28. Minster HypothesisPre-Viking• Minsters: Churches served by communities of clergy who administer to large areas (political?)Post-Viking• Minsters become mother churches• Fragmentation of these areas• Estate churches• Parishes and parish churches
    29. 29. Masterpieces of Insular Art• Book of Durrow• Lindisfarne Gospels• Book of Kells