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2s. Georgian Ireland Protestant Ascendancy


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Ireland from 1814 to 1850

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2s. Georgian Ireland Protestant Ascendancy

  1. 1. Protestant Ascendancy<br />Early Georgian Ireland<br />
  2. 2.
  3. 3. <ul><li>In Dublin's Fair CityWhere the girls are so prettyI first set my eyes on sweet Molly MaloneAs she wheel'd her wheel barrowThrough streets broad and narrowCrying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!
  4. 4. ChorusAlive, alive o!, alive, alive o!Crying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>She was a fishmongerBut sure 'twas no wonderFor so were her father and mother beforeAnd they each wheel'd their barrowThrough streets broad and narrowCrying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!
  5. 5. Chorus</li></li></ul><li><ul><li>She died of a feverAnd no one could save herAnd that was the end of sweet Molly MaloneBut her ghost wheels her barrowThrough streets broad and narrowCrying cockles and mussels alive, alive o!
  6. 6. Chorus</li></li></ul><li>Foreign Affairs<br />1688-1697 England, Holland, HRE, Spain vs. France<br />Fear of Irish collaboration<br />Collaboration with HRE inhibits William from supporting anti-Catholic measures<br />Treaty of Ryswick – Louis IV recognizes William<br />
  7. 7. Irish Parliament of 1692<br />Attempt to reject Treaty of Limerick<br />1691 English Parliament prevents Catholics from being elected<br />Penal Laws<br />
  8. 8. House of Commons<br />300 members<br />32 county constituencies<br />8 county boroughs (including Dublin and Cork)<br />Trinity College<br />Pot-walloping boroughs<br />Many pocket boroughs<br />
  9. 9. Irish House of Lords<br />Spiritual <br />Majority English - supported administration<br />Temporal <br /> Majority “Old Protestant” [from Tudor or early Stuart periods] – supported administration<br />“Old English” - More sympathetic to Catholic causes<br />Few Catholics<br />
  10. 10. Penal LawsProtestant Ascendancy<br />Acts<br />Against “papists”<br />Requiring an oath of “supremacy,” “abjuration” or against transubstantiation<br />Preventing “the further Growth of Popery”<br />
  11. 11. Penal Laws<br />Restrict occupations: lawyers, doctors, teachers, civil or military officeholders<br />Restrict education in Ireland or abroad<br />Restrict leases; land sales; inheritance<br />
  12. 12. 1697 Banish Bishops, etc.<br />Three leave voluntarily<br />One transported<br />Two acquitted<br />Two pass as parish priests<br />424 monastics transported<br />
  13. 13. Test Act - Marriages<br />Only Church of England marriages valid<br />Catholic parish registers often not kept<br />Mixed marriages<br />Daughters in mother’s faith<br />Sons in father’s faith<br />
  14. 14. Test Act - Marriages<br />Presbyterian marriages clandestine<br />1737 Bill of Indemnity’ exempts Presbyterian marriage contracts from prosecution <br />1782 Presbyterian ministers allowed to marry Presbyterians<br />1845 Marriages of Presbyterians and others legalized<br />
  15. 15. Land and Catholics<br />Leases less than 31 years<br />Rent not less than two thirds of the improved yearly value<br />No Catholics in Limerick, Galway or their suburbs except sailors, fishermen or day laborers<br />
  16. 16. Exceptions<br />Brownes of Westport<br />Brownes of Kenmare<br />
  17. 17. Quaker Influence<br />English Parliament exercised right to return bills to Dublin<br />Quaker concerns about forced tithes<br />Quaker concerns about marriage restrictions<br />Quaker concerns about oaths<br />
  18. 18. 1703Catholic Land<br />Reduced to ~14%<br />
  19. 19. Penal Laws – Consequences?<br />Absenteeism<br />Balance of payments<br />Failure to improve property<br />Conversion of tilled land to pasture<br />
  20. 20. Mass Rocks<br />
  21. 21. Hedge Schools<br />
  22. 22. Scotland & Presbyterian migration<br />1688-1697 30,000 from Scotland to Ulster<br />1698-9 20,000 “ “<br />1707 Scotland Act of Union<br />Forced on Scotland for economic reasons<br />Establishes Kirk (Presbyterian Church in Scotland)<br />Irish request for union ignored<br />
  23. 23. Presbyterians<br />Traditional County Armagh Presbyterian prayer“May the Lord protect his ain Kirk [own Church] from the Whore that sits on the Seven Hills and her bastard daughter, the Church of Ireland”<br />Regulation of marriage and inheritance<br />
  24. 24. William Molyneux<br />1698 The Case of Ireland's being Bound by Acts of Parliament in England, Stated  <br />
  25. 25. The Case for Ireland<br />England and Ireland were separate Kingdoms, i.e. Ireland is not a colony<br />The happiness of a constitution, depended on a proper balance between the king's and the people's rights. <br />“All men are by nature in a state of equity” and have the right of “being free from all subjection to positive laws till by their own consent they give up their freedom by entering into civil societies.”<br />
  26. 26. Jacobites<br />1715 Jacobite Rising in Scotland<br />Most Presbyterians support the government<br />1745 Bonnie Price Charlie<br />Lack of support from Catholic middle class<br />
  27. 27. Economic issues – 1720’s<br />Dependence on and cost of imported coal<br />Rising debt<br />Demands for “no new taxes”<br />Outflow of silver<br />Need to regulate baking industry<br />
  28. 28. Swift a Modest Proposal . . .<br />
  29. 29. Buy Irish<br />Promoted by Swift in 1729<br />1731 Dublin Society to foster textile industry<br />Wearing Irish linens<br />Non-importation boycotts<br />
  30. 30. The Proposal for the Uniform Use of Irish Manufacture<br />Burn every Thing that came from England . . . except their Coals<br />Printer tried nine times but grand juries refuse to indict<br />
  31. 31. Wood Half Penny<br />
  32. 32. 1729 Famine<br />Embargo on exports<br />Riots in Cork, Limerick, Clonmel and Waterford in early 1729<br />Mobs in Drogheda and Dublin prevent export of oats and potatoes<br />Put down by Army with support of Catholic Church <br />Prices lowered; public collections for poor<br />
  33. 33. Immigration through Delaware River Ports<br />
  34. 34. 1740-41 Famine<br />Pan European cooling<br />Inability to land coal<br />Frozen mills<br />Frozen potatoes<br />Spring drought<br />
  35. 35. Diet – Farm Family of 6<br />Bread from 40 bushels<br />Potatoes 52 bushels<br />6 qts. buttermilk or skim milk/day<br />Hundred of skim milk cheese<br />Hundred of butter<br />Beef from one carcass<br />
  36. 36. Prison Diet – 1840s<br />Bread diet—2 lbs. bread, 1 quart of pure milk.<br />Potato—9 lbs potatoes, 1 pint of new milk, 1 pint buttermilk.<br />Mixed diet—8oz. meal for stirabout, 4 lbs. potatoes, 1 pint of new milk and 1 pint of buttermilk<br />
  37. 37. Potatoes and oats<br />
  38. 38. Potatoes and Nutrition<br />
  39. 39. Potatoes and Nutrition (1 Kg raw)<br />330 % of Vitamin C (DV)<br />140 % of Iron<br />60-90 % of Mg, P, K<br />Thiamine, niacin<br />Milk – Ca, Vitamins A and D, B12<br />