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Entrepreneurial dimension creative industries


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The entrepreneurial dimension of cultural and creative industries. EU EACEA Research.

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Entrepreneurial dimension creative industries

  1. 1. edcci<br />the entrepreneurial dimension of the cultural and creative industries<br />Utrecht School of the Arts (HKU)<br />June 2011<br />Contact:<br />
  2. 2. the entrepreneurial dimension of the cultural and creative industries<br />creativeentrepreneurship<br />thematicoutcomes<br />recommendations<br />introduction<br />
  3. 3. introduction<br />
  4. 4. edcci: introduction<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>The edcci study was commissioned by the European Commission Culture & Education Agency and responds to the growing importance of the creative economy, more specifically of the role of the Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) as instruments to tackle Europe’s current and future challenges.
  5. 5. The aim of this study was to provide a better understanding of the operations and needs of companies in the CCIs, especially small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs).
  6. 6. The intention was not to provide a comprehensive overview but rather to describe some of the problems and provide recommendations. </li></li></ul><li>edcci: approach & methods<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Phased approach
  7. 7. Initial literature review
  8. 8. Pilot expert interviews (6)
  9. 9. Questionnaires for experts from ministries of culture and economics and from sectoral organisations (59)
  10. 10. Face to face interviews with experts (65)
  11. 11. Best practice examples (40)
  12. 12. Online survey for CCI enterprises (600)
  13. 13. Two validation workshops with experts (90)</li></li></ul><li>edcci: introduction<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Europe benefits from a rich and diverse cultural background, providing strength in a globalised economy
  14. 14. Innovative solutions are needed to face the challenges of tomorrow, in particular, new approaches to growth are needed to respond to the financial crisis
  15. 15. At the same time, innovation is now widely recognised as encompassing more than just technological and scientific innovation. Soft innovation and creative design processes are increasingly relevant in this context
  16. 16. Cultural and Creative Industries (CCIs) are active users of these new approaches, using ‘culture-based creativity’ as a basis for developing innovative approaches for other sectors of the economy</li></li></ul><li>creative entrepreneurship<br />
  17. 17. edcci: creative entrepreneurship<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Distinction must be made between entrepreneur and enterprise
  18. 18. A cultural and creative entrepreneur can be understood as someone who creates or innovates a cultural and creative product / service and who uses entrepreneurial principles to organise and manage his/her creative activity in a commercial manner
  19. 19. Achieving a balance between creativity and entrepreneurship is not straightforward
  20. 20. Cultural and creative entrepreneurship attempts to draw both worlds together: recognising the latent entrepreneurial spirit of an artist and the latent creative spirit of the entrepreneur</li></li></ul><li>edcci: creative entrepreneurship<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>CCIs evolve in a context: national regulations (such as tax, social security, innovation and cultural policies ...) have an impact on the entrepreneurial dimension, as well as the cultural and creative entrepreneur’s personal motivation
  21. 21. CCIs rely heavily on networks: supporting networks can offer greater interaction between sectors, develop knowledge exchange between CCIs and other sectors and contribute to unlocking the innovative potential of CCIs
  22. 22. How can we ensure that policies are designed to support creative entrepreneurship?</li></li></ul><li>main thematic outcomes<br />
  23. 23. edcci: main thematic outcomes<br />edcci<br />general<br />access to finance<br />access to market<br />IPR<br />entrepreneurship skills<br />access to innovation<br />clusters and collaboration<br />Three areas in bold are considered<br />
  24. 24. edcci: general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Urgent need to improve data on CCIs; need to define, quantify and raise awareness of the added value of CCIs e.g. acknowledging the contribution of CCIs to the new economy. The entrepreneurial activities of CCIs act as non-technological drivers of innovation
  25. 25. However, our age increasingly requires an understanding of hybrid forms: innovation is not linear, it comes from multiple sources where the line between the user and the producer is blurred
  26. 26. The digital shifthighly influences the modes of production, creation, distribution used by CCIs</li></li></ul><li>edcci: general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>The vast majority of enterprises in the cultural and creative industries consist of SMEs, with many sole traders or micro-SMEs employing only a handful of people.
  27. 27. Within this majority of 'micro-enterprises', almost 60% consist of very small businesses with only 1 to 3 employees
  28. 28. They are responsible for only a modest percentage of the total turnover of the CCIs (18 %). The number of large scale enterprises is marginal (approx 1%), but they are responsible for more than 40 % of the annual turnover </li></li></ul><li>edcci: general<br />edcci<br />
  29. 29. edcci: general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Missing middle-- Medium-sized enterprises seem to be almost absent: micro-SMEs do not have access to similar paths to growth as they do not have the same infrastructures and are therefore forced to adopt a highly flexible, risk-taking attitude and find ad-hoc solutions to specific problems. They are mostly project-based; may outsource; they have multiple labour status; and are involved in multiple projects
  30. 30. Some prioritise the cultural value of the creation over the economic value (creation oriented)
  31. 31. Others prioritise the economic exploitation over cultural value (growth oriented)</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Perhaps the greatest obstacle faced by entrepreneurs and enterprises in the CCIs is how to locate the funds to finance their endeavours
  32. 32. In the study’s online survey, access to finance was deemed by 33.8% of the respondents the most important business-related challenge when starting a company. This observation was confirmed by the sectoral experts who, when asked about the most important transversal issues faced in their own sectors, prioritised access to finance (37.9%)
  33. 33. The perceived lack of finance for the CCIs was further exacerbated by the effect of the recent financial crisis, from which 39% of the CCIs expected a decrease from 5 to 10% in their turnover, as opposed to 18% believing in a stable turnover (- or + 2.5%)</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br />Effect of recent crisis on turnover?<br />Source: (Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  34. 34. edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Financial institutions often fail to recognise the economic value of CC SMEs because it is often based on intangible assets
  35. 35. The creative entrepreneur traditionally combines tangible information and communication technology with intangible information products: cultural qualities and ‘media content’.
  36. 36. Intangible assets such as novelty, soft innovation, copyright and creativity are often not reflected in accounts
  37. 37. The main obstacles reported by SME CCIs is risk aversion from financial institutions and the difficulty in getting grants
  38. 38. Banks are increasingly less likely to support CCI businesses due to their perceived high-risk characteristics. </li></li></ul><li>edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Self-financing is the most important financing source
  39. 39. The online survey demonstrates that 56% of the CCIs (78% of which consisted of profit organisations) relied on self-finance as their main financial source, as opposed to 20% which were mainly supported through public grants</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br />Question: In the last financial year (2008), which was the most important financing source?<br />Source: (Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  40. 40. edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Short-term span of financial planning with 75% elaborating forecasts themselves
  41. 41. Most of the CCIs have a short term span of financial planning. The online questionnaire revealed that 22% of the CCIs had no financial and economic planning while only 4% had a financial forecast of up to 5 years.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br />Question: Does your organisation make any financial and economic planning (budget and updated business plan)?<br />Source: (Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  42. 42. edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>CCI investment often needs to be longer-term than venture capital investments
  43. 43. For the micro, small and even medium sized enterprise, it is exceptionally difficult to attract strategic investment
  44. 44. When asked about the most relevant way to access finance for CCI SMEs, tax exemptions for CCIs were selected as the most important initiatives by sectoral experts (43%), followed by a CCI SME friendly growth loan (25%)</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 1) access to finance<br />edcci<br />Question: Most relevant initiatives for SMEs ?<br />Source: (Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  45. 45. edcci: 2) access to markets<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>The markets for CC products and services are often characterised by unpredictable demand conditions.
  46. 46. The absence of middle-sized enterprises makes it difficult for CC SMEs to compete with larger organisation: the asymmetry in the market position between the two extremes is striking.
  47. 47. Working on new collaborative paths to growth may boost their access to market
  48. 48. Micro-SMEs‘ main barriers to enter the market are in great part due to the exclusive agreements with key distributors (37%) and access to knowledge on market opportunities.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 3) IPR<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>In terms of Intellectual Property rights, most of the CCIs (33%) did not use any specific instrument for protection
  49. 49. From our online survey, we saw that 52% of SMEs did not receive IPR advice before the start of their entrepreneurial activity, as opposed to 40% who did.
  50. 50. Those who did, received this mostly at the national level (38.5%) or from their sectoral organisation (20.5%) and 11% at the European level.
  51. 51. In the expert questionnaire, the importance of IPR regulations was seen as the second most important regulatory issues with 21% after tax regulation (29%)</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 3) IPR<br />edcci<br />Question: Select the three most important regulatory issues faced by SMEs in your sector<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2009, Sectoral expert questionnaire)<br />
  52. 52. edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br /><ul><li>There is a perceivedlack of entrepreneurial skills within all sectors of the CCIs
  53. 53. At the local level, the Chambers of Commerce often tackle aspects of educational support and provide courses for starting businesses and capacity building for young entrepreneurs.
  54. 54. During start-up, support needs to be veryflexible and easily accessible. Cultural and creative entrepreneurs have to become familiar with terms and regulations that may help them in their business. They have to feel comfortable with debt finance and with IPR management.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br />Question: Which was the most important business-related challenge when starting your company?<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey) <br />
  55. 55. edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br />Question: In which phases of the life cycle would training in technical and financial skills be most useful?<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey) <br />
  56. 56. edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br /><ul><li>With regards to the integration of entrepreneurship within the educational system, 69% of the respondents in the online questionnaire disagreed with the statement that entrepreneurship was sufficiently addressed in the educational system, while 26% agreed.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br />Question: Do you agree that entrepreneurship is sufficiently addressed in the educational system?<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  57. 57. edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Finding new ways to balance intermediary and complementary solutions that combine ‘learning by doing’ and ‘peer to peer’ coaching could be more relevant for CC entrepreneurial competencies
  58. 58. SMEs expressed a clear wish (84%) for the development of advice and support centres for the CCIs</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br />Question: How do/did you gain entrepreneurship skills? <br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  59. 59. edcci: 4) entrepreneurship skills <br />edcci<br />Question: Do you see a need for the development of advice and support centres specifically for the CCIs?<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  60. 60. edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>The Europe 2020 Strategy highlights the need to strengthen the role of knowledge and the Innovation Union recognises the role of creativity in the innovation process, and underlines that "the creativity and diversity of our people and the strength of European creative industries offer huge potential for new growth and jobs through innovation, especially for SMEs".
  61. 61. These priorities placed the spotlight on CCIs, acknowledging the role of the creative talent workforce and entrepreneurship as essential for tackling these challenges.
  62. 62. Innovation now also encompasses not only scientific innovation but also hidden innovation, such as innovative processes hidden from classical innovation measures; soft innovation; or design processes as drivers of user-centred innovation.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>In the study’s online questionnaire, it emerged that the most important reasons to innovate are usually improvement oriented (35%) or user-oriented (29%)</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br />Question: What is the aim of your organisation when innovating?<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  63. 63. edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>CCIs also face innovation constraints and challenges in understanding new emerging lifestyles and managing the role of the user/consumer</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br />Question: Please, select the three most important challenges in innovation that your sector faces ?<br />(Source: (Eurokleis 2009, sectoral expert questionnaire)<br />
  64. 64. edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>While several EC programmes have sought better to address the needs of SMEs and include SMEs in research programmes, the CC SMEs themselves are often unaware of their applied research needs.
  65. 65. Knowledge about research and innovation programmes comes mainly through the Internet and professional/personal networks</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br />Question: How do you acquire knowledge about research and innovation initiatives and programmes related to your business?<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  66. 66. edcci: 5) access to innovation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Innovation comes mainly from inside organisations and from users
  67. 67. Many CC enterprises deploy user-oriented strategies. There is a changing dynamic between audience and content creator allowing for personalisation and co-creation of services and products CC SMEs embody an active relationship with creative design: often encompasses one-to-one connection, real-time and active interaction with the user</li></li></ul><li>edcci: 6) clusters and collaboration<br />edcci<br /><ul><li> Networking opportunities were most relevant for supporting the growth of CCI SMEs
  68. 68. In the beginning of the entrepreneurial activity the CC entrepreneur will mostly rely on informal and personal networks
  69. 69. Later on, they will make more use of cluster initiatives
  70. 70. In terms of clusters, one striking result was that they remain largely unknown to the CCIs. Indeed, 20% do not know of these initiatives while a quarter of the online survey respondents work in a creative cluster initiative/incubator. 47% of the respondents saw a need to develop such collaborative business environment initiatives </li></li></ul><li>edcci: 6) clusters and collaboration<br />edcci<br />Question: Does your enterprise work within a collaborative business environment?<br />(Source: Eurokleis 2010, online survey)<br />
  71. 71. recommendations<br />
  72. 72. edcci: recommendations<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Cultural and creative entrepreneurs are centralto Europe’s creative potential for driving innovative processes into reality‘
  73. 73. ‘Culture-based creativity’ has the potential to have positive spill-over effects on the wider economy and society in general.
  74. 74. This creativity can act as a driver of non-technological innovation if the right enablers are put in place in order to develop a conducive environment for the entrepreneurial activity of the CCIs.
  75. 75. Recognising the entrepreneurial dimension of CCIs as a driver of non-technological innovation and recognising the value of their intangible assets are first steps in order to shape this environment.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Recommendations in six areas:
  76. 76. General
  77. 77. Accessing finance
  78. 78. Accessing markets
  79. 79. Bridging the entrepreneurial skills gap
  80. 80. Developing entrepreneurship for innovation
  81. 81. Supporting use of digitalisation</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>In order better to target the requirements of CCIs, more data and more granular statistics are needed for the cultural and creative industries, and especially for each individual sector.
  82. 82. As seen from countries that have advanced support mechanisms for CCIs and deliver strong innovation results, the co-ordination of several Ministries for the policy formulation of CCI support mechanisms can serve to target the efforts and enable better coherence. </li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Financial intermediaries remain hesitant to invest in CCIs due to the risks associated with them as well as the difficulty in assessing the return on investment. Understanding the value of intangible assets and encouraging investment in themis an essential part of locating finance for CCIs.
  83. 83. The need for stronger peer learning activities between banks at a European levelshould be encouraged so that awareness on the potential of CCIs can be better grasped and funded.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Stimulation policies are needed, on a regional, national and European levels, in order to fully address the specific characteristics of the CCIs.
  84. 84. For example, tax exemptions for CCI products or services could encourage the production and distribution of CCIs products and services and stimulate growth across many sectors.
  85. 85. Similarly, the mobility of artists could be encouraged by facilitating the regulatory procedures for cross border initiatives. Agreement on issues such as double taxation between countries can help cultural and creative entrepreneurs and promote their mobility.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Regions could encourage regional clusters and sectoral networks to be platforms of innovation, encouraging CC SMEs to be integrated within clusters. Regions could use existing Structural Funds to target CCIs funding.
  86. 86. The EU should encourage existing and future framework research programmes for Research and Technological Development such as (FP7, FP8) or the Competitiveness and Innovation Programme (CIP) as well as the Cohesion Policy to be more targeted towards CCIs inter alia by including non technological innovation projects and incorporating CCI SMEs (not only in the ICT sector).</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />general<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>CCIs have different needs at different times within a context of multiple levels of decision making.
  87. 87. Supporting CCIs requires a multi-layered approach where innovation support can be complemented with financial and market support to CCIs.
  88. 88. This requires to take into consideration the different stages of the entrepreneurial life-cycle and the associated needs of the CCIs, especially micro-SMEs.
  89. 89. As micro SMEs have few resources to examine multiple sources of information, they need to be able to have specific support when required. Support on demand should therefore be preferred to general approaches. </li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />access to finance<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>The large funding schemes for supporting innovation are too complex (too bureaucratic, too costly, time consuming) for CCIs. At the EU level, the facilitation and simplification of the funding schemes should be encouraged so as to allow CCI SMEs to be able better to apply for them.
  90. 90. At the EU level, the use of EIB and EIF funds, that also promote innovation, could be used to fund CCIs debt financing or venture capital for development of non technological innovation, and also back national or regional initiatives in the development of guarantees schemes.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />access to finance<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>In co-ordination with the National Member States, it is recommended that the EU consider the creation or strengthening of lower VAT Rate and other tax incentives for both online and offline labour intensive creative services and products.
  91. 91. National States are encouraged to consider tax shelter measures for other sectors and support the development of Venture Capital Funds (like public venture capital funds), the investment of Business Angels in CCIs and micro credits to fund CCIs.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />accessing the market<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>The EU should promote the opportunities for CCIs to access the market by using public procurement measures that hold untapped potential to support innovation. Public procurement requests could be targeted at innovative non-technological processes, products and services to which CCIs, and especially micro-SMES, could apply.
  92. 92. Accessing the market remains difficult for CCI SMEs, especially where a few large companies dominate the market. The EU should consider adapting competition policy to CCIs’ characteristics in order to avoid excessive market concentration.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />entrepreneurial skills gap<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Students’ skills and qualifications do not match the needs of the CCIs. In order to match the educational system with the demands of industry, programmes of apprenticeship for CCIs should be promoted at the national level. European Social Funds could be used to help strengthen employment in CCIs by, for example, channelling the funds into creative apprenticeships in order to ease the transition from education to employment by promoting ‘on the job’ learning.
  93. 93. Including or increasing ICT skills training in the curriculum of arts institutions should be strengthened to foster the innovative potential of CCIs and help them further exploit the opportunities offered by the digital shift.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />entrepreneurial skills gap<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Dedicate a percentage of structural funds to applied research to ensure a quick translation of acquired or 'new' knowledge into the economy. Linking CCI entities and knowledge institutions would also contribute to the professional skills-upgrading of SMEs in the region with regard to professionally oriented innovation, entrepreneurship, creativity and research competencies.
  94. 94. The use of matching creative entrepreneurs and business professionals can facilitate entrepreneurship and up-grading skills through mutual learning. This coaching system can enable a better integration of entrepreneurial skills within CCIs</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />entrepreneurship for innovation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>Consideration should be given to the widening of the definition of innovation in the up-coming review of innovation and research policy in order to encompass all forms of innovation, both from the public and private sector, including processes of soft and hidden innovation and recognise creative design processes or talent scouting as R&D.
  95. 95. The EU should improve SMEs’ access to copyright instruments and facilitate easier use of IP instruments for SMEs. Creative solutions that reward the rights-holders but ensure flexibility and easier applicability should be sought at the European level.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />entrepreneurship for innovation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>The use of alternative options such as innovation vouchers could be promoted by regional and national governments. Innovation vouchers should encourage other businesses to collaborate with cultural and creative entrepreneurs as well as fostering innovation within CCIs.</li></li></ul><li>edcci: recommendations<br />supporting use of digitisation<br />edcci<br /><ul><li>CCIs face new opportunities as well as challenges with the ‘digital shift’ and they need to be adequately supported to take advantage of them.
  96. 96. Unlocking special funds to promote the use of digital technologies in the CCIs such as undertaken through the MEDIA program for the audiovisual sector, should be promoted in other sectors.
  97. 97. Special funds should be allocated to CCIs, especially SMEs, to ensure greater media literacy and take-up of digital tools within their enterprises. Member States’ individual funding initiatives aimed at promoting the use of digital technologies should be promoted.</li></li></ul><li>edcci<br />the entrepreneurial dimension of the cultural and creative industries<br />Utrecht School of the Arts (HKU)<br />June 2011Contact:<br />