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2014 eu cultural policy, entrepreneurial activities cultural and creative industries

Overview of EU cultural policy, entrepreneurial dimension cultural and creative industries, urban renewal North-West Europe

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2014 eu cultural policy, entrepreneurial activities cultural and creative industries

  1. 1. 17-6-2014 1 CULTURAL AND CREATIVE INDUSTRIES THE EUROPEAN CONTEXT UNITED IN DIVERSITY HKU University of the Arts Rene KOOYMAN HKU June 2014
  2. 2. 17-6-2014 2 History of European Integration The Signature of the Treaty of Paris, April 18, 1951 The Signature of the Treaty of Rome, March 27, 1957 1945: End of World War II 1946: Churchill calls for “a kind of United States of Europe” 1950: Schuman Declaration 1951: Treaty of Paris: European Coal and Steel Community 1954: European Defense Community fails 1957: Treaty of Rome: European Economic Community and Euratom (EEC) 1963: France blocks entry of UK 1972: The UK, along with Ireland and the Denmark, joins the European Communities
  3. 3. 17-6-2014 3 Europe of coal and steel Founding Six:  France  Germany  Italy  Belgium  Netherlands  Luxembourg
  4. 4. 17-6-2014 4 1973-1993  1973 United Kingdom, Denmark and the Republic of Ireland granted membership  1981 Greece join  1986 Spain and Portugal allowed in  1992 MaastrichtTreaty Signed  1993 European Union formed out of the old EEC
  5. 5. 17-6-2014 5 First decade of the 21st century: the Euro and the biggest enlargement  1 January 2002: 12 countries introduce the euro  2004: enlargement to Central and Eastern European countries - 10 new Member States join: Cyprus, Estonia, Hungary, Latvia, Lithuania, Malta, Poland, the Czech Republic, Slovakia and Slovenia Europe has 25 Member States  2007: Bulgaria and Romania join Europe has 27 Member States  2013: Croatia joins Europe now has 28 Member States
  6. 6. 17-6-2014 6 The European Union: More then 500 million people – 28 countries Member states of the European Union Candidate countries Members: Austria,Belgium, Bulgaria, Croatia, Cyprus, the Czech Republic Denmark, Estonia, Finland, France, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Ireland, Italy, Latvia, Lithuania, Luxembourg, Malta, the Netherlands, Poland, Portugal, Romania, Slovakia, Slovenia,Spain, Sweden, the United Kingdom
  7. 7. 17-6-2014 7 EU Member States by Population  1 Germany 81,305,856  2 France 65,630,692  3 United Kingdom 63,047,162  4 Italy 61,261,254  5 Spain 47,042,984  6 Poland 38,415,284  7 Romania 21,848,504  8 Netherlands 16,730,632  9 Greece 10,767,827  10 Portugal 10,781,459  11 Belgium 10,438,353  12 Czech Republic 10,177,300  13 Hungary 9,958,453  14 Sweden 9,103,788  15 Austria 8,219,743  16 Bulgaria 7,037,935  17 Denmark 5,543,453  18 Slovakia 5,483,088  19 Finland 5,262,930  20 Ireland 4,722,028  21 Lithuania 3,525,761  22 Latvia 2,191,580  23 Slovenia 1,996,617  24 Estonia 1,274,709  25 Cyprus 1,138,071  26 Luxembourg 509,074  27 Malta 409,836 adapted from https://www.cia.gov/library/publications/the-world-factbook/fields/2119.html#ee
  8. 8. 17-6-2014 8│ 8 A fair system for all EU regions (eligibility simulation) 3 categories of regions < 75 % of EU averageGDP/capita* *index EU27=100 75-90 % > 90 %        Canarias Guyane Réunion Guadeloupe/ Martinique Madeira Açores Malta Less developed regions Transition regions More developed regions Regional GDP figures: 2006-07-08 © EuroGeographics Association for the administrative boundaries │ 8
  9. 9. 17-6-2014 99 The EU is run by five institutions 1. European Parliament - elected by the peoples of the Member States 2. Council of the Union - composed of the governments of the Member States 3. European Commission - driving force and executive body 4. Court of Justice - compliance with the law 5. Court of Auditors - sound and lawful management of the EU budget
  10. 10. 17-6-2014 10 Policies and activities  EU member countries have transferred some of their law-making authority to the EU, in certain areas such as agriculture and fisheries  In culture policy-making is shared between the EU and the member governments  principle of subsidiarity
  11. 11. 17-6-2014 11 History of cultural policy  The Council of Europe, which is distinct from the European Union (EU), first formalized cultural cooperation policy in Europe with its European Cultural Convention (since 1954 : signature is one of the conditions for becoming a participating state in the Bologna Process and its European Higher Education Area (EHEA). Now 47 Members  However, specific EU policy on cultural cooperation began between member states since its inclusion in the 1992 MaastrichtTreaty
  12. 12. 17-6-2014 12  Culture occupies a special place in politics  Cultural activities are not considered the same as commercial goods and services, excluded from competition laws, free traffic, etc.  They play an important role in conveying European identity and values  Cultural diversity is strengthened by the free flow of ideas and nurtured by constant exchanges and interaction among Europeans
  13. 13. 17-6-2014 13 EU Programs  MEDIA Programme  European Capital of Culture  European Cultural Route  European Cultural Month  Erasmus+ Programme  European Heritage Days  Modul-dance , Video Active  Protected areas of the European Union  Europeana.eu : digital access > six million objects  European Library
  14. 14. 17-6-2014 14 Economic layer: the visual matrix of cultural activities Main choices are justified by: i) focusing on creation ii) production of data Compared with the FCS2009 of UNESCO: coherency but more restricted boundaries (exclusion of software, telecoms, recreation, sports, natural heritage, supporting materials)
  15. 15. 17-6-2014 15 The Future It is possible thatTurkey will be next to join - as they have tried to become a member since 1987, but:  70 million inhabitants; second largest after DE  99.7 % muslim; against EU multi-culturalism efforts  23% under age of 15 / increasingly aging EU  Middle-East pride  EU Sceptics ??
  16. 16. The Entrepreneurial Dimension of Cultural and Creative Industries in Europe
  17. 17. Cultural and creative industries ‘Cultural industries’: goods or services that embody cultural expressions, irrespective commercial value: film, DVD, video, television and radio, video games, new media, music, books and press, performing arts, visual arts. ‘Creative industries’ : use culture as an input , whose outputs are mainly functional: architecture, advertising, gaming, design and fashion.’
  18. 18. Delineation of the Cultural & Creative sector (KEA 2005)
  19. 19. Contribution Cultural/Creative sector • UNCTAD: Creative Economy Report 2010 • EU: See EDCCI Page 102
  20. 20. The new SME definition Three criteria: • Staff headcount • Annual turnover or: • Balance sheet turnover • ????
  21. 21. Size of Enterprises By sector across CCIs eurokleis 2009 EDCCI: Page 64
  22. 22. CCIs : EU Top Regions LQ is an indicator of CCI employment relative to the total employment of the region, where LQ>1 indicates an over-representation of CCI employment Source: European Cluster Observatory See EDCCI Page 102
  23. 23. Staff headcount - turnover o Very small (< 2 milj EUR) o SMEs (2 – 10 m EUR) o Large enterprises: Cultural Industries BRD o 763.000 taxable employees Fesel/Söndermann BRD 2009 97% of headcount 27 % turnover 3 % headcount 32 % turnover < 1 % nr headcount 40 % turnover o 210.000 Free-lance workers not registered Creative industries: headcount / turnover
  24. 24. Labour Market Characteristics • Labour market of the CCIs is complex • Thrives on numerous small initiatives • Careerwise a high degree of uncertainty • Non-conventional forms of employment; part-time, temporary contracts, self-employment , free-lancers • Multiple job-holdings; combined other sources • New type of employer; the ‘entrepreneurial individual’ or ‘entrepreneurial cultural worker’ • Does not fit into typical patterns of full-time pro’s • Heterogeneity of human resources categories; higher professional training, vernacular backgrounds, craft industry, any other category
  25. 25. Product characteristics • Creative inputs and products are abundant • Hypercompetitive environment • Succes is uncertain: ‘nobody knows’ • Knowledge-based and labour-intensive input • Not ‘simply merchandise’, but express cultural uniqueness and identities • Experience goods; production and consumption ‘on the spot’ • Product life-cycles are often short
  26. 26. Entrepreneurship indicators OECD, Measuring entrepreneurship, 2010
  27. 27. Rene Kooyman 3 June 2014 The Urban Quest
  28. 28. What’s going on?  Urbanisation  From industrial production to a knowledge society  Growth falters; is absent  Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of strategic value
  29. 29. EU Policy  Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) of strategic value  ' Old School ' no longer valid: innovation = needed  The economic power of the cultural and creative industries
  30. 30. Size of Enterprises EDCCI: Page 64 2010 HKU Entrepreneurial Dimension of Cultural and Creative Industries
  31. 31. Talking about cities • Demographics: aging population • Mobility: multicultural societies • Changing consumer patterns • The networks: a connected society Abandoned Industrial area's Revitalisation
  32. 32. Spatial components: metropolis and decay Changing perspectives: Long-term /top-down Bottom-up cooperative initiatives  Jacobs  Bourdieu  Florida
  33. 33. The CURE Partners CURE-WEB.EU cre8te, Edinburgh Colchester Borough Council Grundstücksgesellsch Kettwig Stadt Hagen (Lead Partner) Stadt Dinslaken Stad Brugge Lille Métropole Dublin: Temple Bar (observer) Utrecht University of the Arts (academic partner)
  34. 34. Creative Urban Renewal (CURE)  Aims to facilitate triggered growth of the creative economy in decayed urban areas in medium-sized cities in Northwest-Europe  Very different situations: Tourism/heritage (Edinburgh, Brugge) Abandoned industrial sites: Essen Kettwig (scheidshce Hallen), coal-mining areas Dinslaken, former textile industry Elbershallen, social-economical problem areas (Hagen, Lille)
  35. 35. Do we need a theoretical framework?  Concepts are an abstraction of reality  We cannot communicate without using concepts about the reality  Creates a certain unity in objects described and definitions  Offers a self-audit facility to ensure cohesion and appropriate conceptualisation for conclusions.
  36. 36. Creative Zone Innovator (CZI)
  37. 37. Sub- values and Indi- cators
  38. 38. Scheidt’sche Hallen Kettwig  Former Spinning Mill  Closed in 1974  Public planning completed 2011  Housing area sold to an investor  Partial demolition, reconstruction and restauration  10.000 m2 for Creative Industries  Flow of Diversity / Business Modelling
  39. 39. Kreativ Quartier Lohberg Dinslaken  Coal mine closed in 2005  Total 40 ha with 11 heritage buildings  City Council and Investment Company develop a partner-based concept  Principles of sustainability and economic feasibility  Combine renewable energy and Creative Industries  “Idea meets Market”: Learning Lab, Creative Value Chain
  40. 40. Cultural Factory Elbershallen Hagen  Former Textile Industry redeveloped since 2000  Public private partnership: City of Hagen  4.5 ha : first businesses commercially driven; now diversified; daycare centre, bowling alley, supermarket; and Creative Industries (music school, dance studio, Theater an der Volme)  Diversity, Business Modelling
  41. 41. Creative Zone 22 Hagen  Underprivileged neighbourhood  Top-down initiative  Slowing down shrinking population  Multi-cultural advantages  Co-working space  Creatve Value Chain
  42. 42. Lille Metropole  Textile crisis 1970; regional unemployment, poverty  Trans-national initiative; concentrating on ‘the image’  Requalification of derelict areas into AV Cultural and Creative Incubator  4 dimensions:  LL, CVC, FOD, CBM
  43. 43.  Creative Value Chain: Screenworks Film Collective  Creative desks program: incubator (CBM),  Non-profit coworking and learning space (LL) for independent workers, freelancers, start-ups, and the local community  Collaboration with private sector and academia Creative Edinburgh CURE-WEB.EU
  44. 44. ICE ICE Store: Creative Outlet Store CURE-WEB.EU ICE Store: ICE Store is a new way of doing business. It is a not for profit social enterprise consisting of a retail store selling the work of independent artists and designers from Scotland. Everything in ICE Store is handmade giving special meaning to all of our products. ICE Store for Creatives: Picture this: a city centre location to showcase your work, a place where you will have an audience of thousands and the support to take your talents to the wider world. A dream? ICE Store makes this a reality! ICE Store for Customers: Don’t you hate it when you can’t get that unique dress or necklace that suits you and the occasion perfectly? Or when finding the perfect gift for a friend becomes an impossible task? ICE Store makes it easy!
  45. 45. Brugge: cultural heritage Empty shopping street not viable Now: • pop-up shop • courses • vernacular design
  46. 46. Brugge – „design met wortels“ Design with roots CURE-WEB.EU  Contemporary design meets old handcraft techniques  Run workshops on knitting, making jewels with wax, old fabrics
  47. 47. Colchester UK  Hidden Kiosk  This One Wall  First site
  48. 48. How is it done? 1. Identify your fundamentals: basic dimensions (learning lab, creative value chain, flow of diversity, business modeling 2. Define the Core Values 3. Identify and select Sub-values 4. Specify and select Indicators
  49. 49. The Toolkit  Take Time: Urban Area Development is not done on a short-term strategy  Persist: hold on to your perspective  Spread the word: communications is key-factor  Build alliances: define, discuss and re- define your projects  Learn when you move along......
  50. 50. Re-thinking uban policy • comprehend the economic benefits (market and non-market) of the arts and culture • recognise the fundamental importance of cultural value as a component of the urban value created by the cultural sector • foster a positive climate for private sector engagement with the arts • promote cultural policy as a core government function involving a wide range of departments including culture, heritage, education, urban / regional development, etc. An effective urban policy will:
  51. 51. rkooyman@rkooyman.com
  52. 52. That’s the way it’s done! Rene Kooyman http://cure-web.eu rene.kooyman@hku.nl

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