Motivate,Decide,Activate!Motivational and DecisionMaking Theories that affectthe school leaders
Motivational Hygiene Theory FrederickHerzberg Born in MA, attended City College of NY, then Army, then graduated from CCNY Taught at U of Pitt and Case WesternMotivator Factors Hygiene Factors•Achievement •Pay and Benefits•Recognition •Company Policy and•Work Itself Administration•Responsibility •Relationships with co-workers•Promotion •Supervision•Growth
Motivational Hygiene Theory Two Factor Theory Hygiene needs are cyclical in nature and come back to a starting point. This leads to the "What have you done for me lately?" syndrome. Hygiene needs have an escalating zero point and no final answer
Theory X and Theory Y Douglas McGregor PhD in psychology from Harvard In the book The Human Side of Enterprise, identified an approach of creating an environment within which employees are motivated via authoritative, direction and control or integration and self-control, which he called theory X and theory Y
Theory X and Theory Y Theory X: In this theory, which has been proven counter effective in most modern practice, management assumes employees are inherently lazy and will avoid work if they can and that they inherently dislike work. Requires a strong hierarchical structure with several checkpoints. Theory Y: In this theory, management assumes employees may be ambitious and self-motivated and exercise self-control. It is believed that employees enjoy their mental and physical work duties. According to them work is as natural as play. They can creatively problem solve on their own. Requires a manager willing to let others succeed on their own.
Administrative Model Herbert Simon, well respected in several areas of study; organization sociology, psychology, decision making theory, economist, political science and computer science Professor at Carnegie Melon University Administrative Behavior, 1947, based on his doctoral dissertation The centerpiece of this book is the behavioral and cognitive processes of making rational human choices, that is, decisions.
Administrative Model An operational administrative decision should be correct and efficient, and it must be practical to implement with a set of coordinated means.
Descriptive Theory Theory of choice Describes how the decision is made and what people will actually do in the decision-making process Similification of the choices is done to be as rational as possible Three models of this are common: Garbage can model Political model Incremental model
Garbage Can Model Michael D Cohen, Michigan James March, Stanford Johan P. Olsen, U. of Bergden Together they published the paper; A Garbage Can Model of Organizational Choice. The paper, frequently cited, describes a model which disconnects problems, solutions and decision makers from each other. novel approach compared to traditional decision theory Model separates the problem, the players and the solution
Incremental Model Wayne K Hoy, The Ohio State U John Tarter, University of Alabama Theory allows the leader to make decisions as small increments in order to avoid negative consequences “baby steps”
Mixed Scanning Model Amitai Etzioni, The George Washington Univ. Often called the “third” model Combines flexibility of incremental model to the rationality of satisficing model Forces leaders to continue to question how their decisions will continue to move the organization (schoolhouse) towards and not away from the mission
Normative Theory: Vroom-Yetton Model Victor Vroom, Yale Phillip Yetton Model distinguishes between individual decision making and group decision making Model suggests when to involve others in the decision making process 5 decision making procedures
5 decision making procedures 1. Totally autocratic Leaders make their own decisions 2. Autocratic with Assistance Leaders receive information from the followers 3. Consultative with individual(s) Leaders interact with followers and share some information, solicits ideas and listens to opinions of the followers 4. Consultative with Group Leaders interact with the followers as a group, shares some information, solicits ideas and listens to the opinions 5. Group Decision Leader interacts with the followers as a group, shares some information about the problem, solicits ideas, and listens to the opinions, and then seeks to reach a consensus on the decision.
Normative Theory: Vroom-Jago Model Redesigned with Arthur Jago Model is basically the same but adds two critical factors in the decision making process:1. If a decision needs to be made quickly, then selecting a particpation style may be counterproductive2. If followers have the skills and attributes necessary for participating in the decision making process, then, under certain conditions, they should be invited, particularly if an immediate decision is not necessary. The followers’ participation could enhance decision quality and acceptance.
Political Theory Decision making tool when organizational goals are replaced by personal influence and power is the overriding force The power and influence of individuals and/or groups become the overriding goals and not those of the organization. Conflict, bargaining and game-playing are often seen in this environment